Austric words in IndoEuropean and AfroAsiatic?

The Austric files as a .zip file The Austric files as a .txt file updated: 30 Jul 09 TP: Stephen Oppenheimer in his book "Eden in the East" proposes that the sudden rise in sea level appr. 6000 BCE flooded Sundaland, the area which is now the sea around Indonesia, and forced people living there to leave, in the process travelling to many places, including the Mediterranean, where they became "civilizing heroes". It is interesting that the initial spread and dispersal of AfroAsiatic and of Old European (of which Etruscan is a member?) is generally set at about the same time. At the same time, Proto- IndoEuropean reached Central Asia from the Fertile Crescent. If this is true, did these exiles from Sundaland (presumably speaking an Austronesian or at least Austric language) leave linguistic traces in the IndoEuropean and AfroAsatic languages? It would seem they did. Paul Manansala has published a list on the internet with comparisons between Sanskrit (and its descendants) and Austric languages: PMA and between Sumerian and Austric languages: PMS. I think (but I am not sure) that Manansala proposes that the Indic/Austric cognates he has listed belong to a substrate of Indic (or is Indic?). The problem is that the Indic half of the cognate pairs have well-established cognates of their own in the other Indo-European language groups. Therefore the existence of the cognate pairs that Paul Manansala has found does not disprove Indo-European influence in India (which he doesn't claim, anyway), rather it would tend to reinforce an out-of-India hypothesis for Indo-European. Some of the cognate pairs have cognates themselves in other language groups (Afro-Asiatic, Kartvelian, Sumerian). Which means, I think, if the Austronesian cognates are outside the Indic influence area, that there have been earlier (and extensive! judging from the number of cognates) contacts between Proto-Austric (or perhaps Proto-Austronesian with Austro-Asiatic as sister languages) and the block of languages now being proposed as descendants of Nostratic. In principle the contacts could of course be both ways, but a post-diluvian dispersal of a boat people from east to west would be intriguing. We are left with two options for action 1) Assume that it is all a part of the Proto-World language. Add Austric to the stock of candidate languages as a descendant of Nostratic. 2) Assume a heavy borrowing of cultural items in the areas of astronomy, boats, kingship, measuring, mythology, basic geometrical structures couched in zoomorphic terms (this is supposed to mean that when they talk of snakes and trees, they also mean lines, waves and circles), psychology, magic, shamanism, etc from East to West. Go chase Proto-Austronesian (the Austro-Asiatics are landlubbers) cognates in every language group that has a coastline (well, the speakers of which live in an area that has etc, you know what I mean). I go for 2). If you don't, check for Scandinavian bronze age rock carvings on the net and be convinced.
This has some consequences for my modus operandi.

  1. For each of Paul Manansala's cognates, I have tried to find
    1. IndoEuropean cognates (from EIEC, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture)
    2. AfroAsiatic cognates (from HSED, Hamito-Semitic Etymologgical Dictionary)
    3. Nostratic cognates (from IENH, Indo-European and the Nostratic Hypothesis)
    and I have hoped each time (especially with Nostratic) that the cognates I found would belong to a language spoken in an area with a coastline (not too many Proto-Altaic roots, thank you very much). I seem to have been lucky. Most of the roots I found have belonged to places not incompatible with a theory of sea-borne transmission.
  2. I have supplemented with discussions of root stems and related derivatives from the works of Møller and Cuny. Although they are very aged, I have nowhere found a similarly detailed exposition of the subject. Present-day authors seem to be content with working with single words (not fair, but sort of true). Especially around the complexes *H-n-(g) "bend, snake, fear, kill, sew, straight line", etc and *H-r-(g) "king, erect, set straight, extend" etc they have been invaluable.
  3. Dumezil is good for setting things straight, when the sense of words makes no sense.
  4. And some Etruscan cognates thrown in for good measure.

Of grammar

Charles Fillmore (in CFC) has proposed that in all languages the various NP's (noun phrases) in a sentence each take on one of a fixed number of roles relative to the verb. He called those roles deep cases (as opposed to what he termed surface cases of e.g Indo-European languages like German, Russian and Latin).

The number of deep cases varied as the theory evolved. Here is a typical list (I cite from memory, accuracy WRT names is not guaranteed):

  • Actor
  • Object
  • Beneficiary
  • Instrument
  • These are the "non-spatial" cases. The "spatial" (or "spatio- temporal") may include:

    (place where action occurred)

    In standard Proto-IndoEuropean, such as it is reconstructed, a sentence consists of a verb and one or several noun phrases. The roles (deep cases) of the noun phrases are indicated by adding suffixes to the component words (articles, adjective, nouns) of the noun phrase in question. In Proto-Austronesian (according to PA) a sentence consists of a verb and just one noun phrase. The role of that noun phrase is indicated by an affix (pre-, in-, suf-) not of the noun phrase but of the verb. Here they are:

      Actor                mood  :  *-um-   (infix )
      Object               mood  :  *-ën    (suffix)
      Beneficiary-Locative mood  :  *-an    (suffix)
      Instrumental         mood  :  *Si-    (prefix)
      There is also a 
      Perfective           mood  :  -in-    (infix)
      to which one might compare:
    For actor mood and perfective mood
    The Proto-IndoEuropean present tense -n- infix (CAIEH 76).
    For object and beneficiary-locative mood
    The Germanic and Slavic past participle in -n- (CAIEH 77) (corresponding to Sanskrit -ána). If the language has no copula (e.g. Russian), a passive sentence will correspond to a Proto-Austronesian one. Perhaps the Latin absolute ablative construction is an archaic sentence type that belongs here too. Compare also the Etruscan suffix *-na (shuthi "grave", shuthina "grave goods" written on funeral gifts). Alternative: the Germanic infinitive suffix (-an, later variously -en, -e, nothing), Sanskrit ´-ana.
    For instrumental mood
    The AfroAsiatic languages makes causative verbs by mens of an s-preformative (prefix). Herman Møller has suggested that the Proto-IndoEuropean "s mobile" is a cognate and therefore originally also was a causative preformative. It is tempting to compare it to the Proto-Austronesian instrumental mood prefix *Si- (cf. English "melt" vs. "smelt" (make melt?), and "reach" vs. "stretch" (make reach?), cf. German "recken" and "strecken", Germanic inserts -t- into sr-, as in "stream" from *(s)rw-m-, “flow”). Beside the s-preformative for Proto-IndoEuropean and Proto- AfroAsiatic, Møller also postulates the existence of a w-preformative of no distinct semantics.
    It is possible to identify suffixes in the words: *-gh/k-, *-dh/t-.

    Of phonetics

    Since I assume an Austronesian origin for the cognate "clusters" I am free to assume whatever alternations that are common there, so r/n/l/d will be permissible alternates, and I have permitted n-infixing into tri-consonantal roots C-C-C < > C-NC-C. This is partly accepted in Indo-European already as present (ie. imperfective) stem infixes in verbs. Dyen notes a similar function in Proto-Austronesian: verb with n-infix, noun without. Also (NEOVF), in Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic Bedawi has an imperfective -n- prefix (two-consonant stems) and infix (three-consonant stems), eg. verb -ktum- “to come”, 1st sing. perfective a-ktim, imperfective a-ka-n-tim. Further I will not attempt to keep laryngeals apart. This means a lot of freedom and a good deal less credibility, but then, this is only a first approximation. It should be noted that in Semitic, the choice between r/n/l is considered "a matter of style" (I read somewhere) and that it is generally assumed that some substrate languages of the Mediterranean had d/l/n/r vacillation. Consider also old Indo European problems like (Hittite) laman vs. (many other Indo-European languages) n-m-, Latin lingva vs. Germanic etc dengwa, and the archaic neuter -r/-n and -l/-n paradigms. Thus it is possible to claim a common origin for the *H-n(-g)- "snake" and *H-r(-g)- "ruler" roots. In general, I think this d/l/n/r vacillation has been ignored.

    Of notation

    I have made some horrible substitutions for various phonetic symbols. & schwa ly palatal l ñ, ny palatal n î, û Slavic short i and u, soft and hard sign ã, õ, Slavic nasal vowels gh, kh, dh, th bh, ph Aspirated stops h1, H2, H3 I got rid of Ha in EIEC by calling it H2, because it's easier to write. Sorry. Y Some funny-looking Y-like letter categorized as "emphatic spirantic lenis" in VISW. Corresponds approx. to H3. Unfortunately I know next to nothing about AfroAsiatic. # Some other laryngeal plus various others that I made up on the spur of the moment. Also (...) optional [..|..|.. ] alternatives (..|..|.. ) alternatives or nothing } *A-d-m- “cover, fill, build, create” *A-n- “wind, breath, god, spirit”; “man” *A-r- “earth” *H-bh/p-g/H- “bind; pole; catch; to divide, apportion” *H.-g^- “sharp” *H-gh- “day” *H-l-g- “stick, glue” *H-l-gwh- “light” *H-kw- “eye, see” *H-n-g- “crooked, snake, destroy” *H-r- “noble” *H-r-g- “maintain” *H-r-k- “sun, silver, gold, fire” *H-s- “fire” *H-p- “fire” *H-w-s- “dwell, wear” *Y-p- “water” *Y-p-r/l- “(break on through to) the other side” *air- “go” *bh-A- “(make) appear from the beyond” *bh-rs- “copper, iron” *bh-r/l- “bright, castle, bank, high, and many other strange things etc (or numinous light above island?)” *bhudh- “to fathom, awaken, understand” *chag- “leave” *dan- “river, lake” *dh-r- “bear, hold” *d-l-k- “see” *d-w- “die” *d-y-w- “divine, light” *g-m- “to eat, chew, tooth” *g-n- “get, create” *gw-r- “heavy, great” *kan- “reed, tube; pitcher” *kat- “speak, story” *kay- “body, tree, wood” *ken- “know” *k-k- “chicken” *k-l- “call, sound” *k-m- “love” *k-m-t- “shine, moon” *k-r- “bark, skin; turn, cicle, enclosure” *k-r-(n-) turtles, frogs, crabs; horn *k-r-s- “dark, black” *k-w- “magic” *k-w-l- “hollow, ditch” *kur- “dog” *kw-r- “work” *l-k- “body” *l-w- “flow, wash, shine” *l-w-k- The hole to the other side *mats- “fish” *m-d- Tree (pole) at middle of the world, middle of the world, order of the world, measure *m-gh- “great” *m-l- “sweetness, honey” *m-n- “spirit” *mula- “root, source, base” *m-y- “urinate; cloud” *n-bh- “cloud, shower” *n-s- “island” *p(/kw)-d- “flat (land); foot” *p-kw- “to cook” *p-k- “belly, flank, wing” *p-l- “full, several” *p-l-d- “lead” *p-l-k- “dirt, foul” *p-n- “hand, five” *p-t- “lord, mistress” *p-r- “love” *p-r-k- “pig” *pu- “clean” *pul- “hair” *q-l- “move, time” *r-H-m- “dark, black” *r-g- “blood, red” *r-t- “night” *s-d- “true” *s-g- “hang on to, limb” *s-gh- “power, strength” *s-k- “sea” *sk-lk- “must; debt” *s-l- “salt, water” *s-l-k- “silver” *s-m- “together, one” *s-m- “sea, salt” *sor- “woman” *s-r- “flow, stream”; “arrow, spear” *s-w- “one's own, relative, friend” *s-w-g- “sick” *s-w-l- “shine, sun” *tar- “go across” *t-k- “fear, evil” *t-l- “thorn” *t-n- “stretch” *t-n- “to sound” *toy- “water” *t-p- “heat, burn, fire” *t-r- “star” *t-r-n- “go down” *t-w- “to forge, strike” *t-w-k- “descendants” *w-H- “lack; empty, waste” *w-d- “water” *w-dh- “lead; wife” *w-gh- “boat, carry, road”, (Vehicle of the Sun?) *wit- “branch, tree, trunk” *w-l- “choose” *w-l/r- “to turn, wrap, (thus:) cover” *w-r- “water” *w-s- “water” *yug- “to join, unite, mix” *dm-pd- “domain and its master” Forces of creation, maintenance and destruction Numbers! *H-s-, *t-r- Stars! Polynesia!? Preformatives d-preformative s-preformative

    Morphology, inflection

    CAIEH 76 Verb-forming nasal infix before second consonant of root tuboh “body” Melanesian tumboh “grow” Melanesian yukta-h “joined” Sanskrit yuñj-mah “we join” Sanskrit The n-infix of the present may become the basis of another noun which may replace the original one. tumboh “growth” Melanesian jùngas “yoke” Lithuanian or an n-infix-less verb may be formed from the original noun. tuboq “grow” Tagalog tubu “grow” Toba tuwoh “grow” Javanese and if both happens, you may have a doublet root, with or without semantic distinction. tubuq Proto-Austronesian tumbuq Proto-Austronesian CAIEH 77 Suffix (verb)-en meaning “something which gets (verb)ed” -ka:qin “eat” Tagalog ka:n-in “boiled rice” Tagalog makan “eat” Mal. makan-an “food” Mal. ka-i “eat” Futuna kan-o “meat” Futuna bit- “bite” Gothic bit-an-s “bitten” Gothic nes- “carry” Old Church Slavonic nes-en-û “carried” Old Church Slavonic CAIEH 78 Austronesian durative reduplication. nagpu:tol “did cut” Tagalog nagpu:pu:tol “is, was cutting” Tagalog perhaps mööt “sit” Trukese mömmööt “be sitting” Trukese títhe:mi “I put” Greek IENH quotes E. Benveniste's "Origins of the Formulation of Nouns in IndoEuropean" (1935) as the origin of the ideas that lead IENH to these observations on the root structure of Proto-IndoEuropean: 1 There were no initial vowels in the earliest form of Pre-IndoEuropean. Therefore, every root began with a consonant. 2 Originally, there were no initial consonant clusters either. Consequently, every root began with one and only one consonant. 3 Two basic syllable types existed (A) *CV and (B) *CVC where C = any non-syllabic and V = any vowel. Permissible root forms coincided exactly with these two syllable types. 4 A verbal stem could either be identical with a root or it could consist of a root plus a single derivational suffix added as a suffix to the root: *CVC-VC-. Any consonant could serve as a suffix. 5 Nominal stems, on the other hand, could be extended by additional suffixes. Similarly for Afro-Asiatic 1 There were no initial vowels in the earliest form of Proto-AfroAsiatic. Therefore every root began with a consonant. 2 Originally, there were no initial consonant clusters, either. Consequently, every root began with one and only one consonant. 3 Two basic syllable types existed (A) *CV and (B) *CVC where C = any non-syllable and V = any vowel. Permissible root forms coincided with these two syllable types. 4 A verb stem could either be identical with a root or it could consist of a root plus a single derivational morpheme added as a suffix to the root: *CVC-VC-. Any consonant could serve as a suffix. 5 Primary (that is, non-derivational) noun stems displayed similar patterning, though, unlike verbs stems, they were originally characterized by stable vocalism. PA quotes Dempwolff for the folowing limitations on the Proto-Austronesian word-bases: 1 CVC 2 CVCVC, of which some are CVNPVC, where N is a nasal and P is a stop, homorganic with each other ie -mp-, -mb-, -nt-, -nd-, -n(g)g-, -n(g)k-. CVNPVC and CVPVC may be or not be semantically equivalent, in which first case they are written CV(N)PVC. 3 CVCCVC, where CVC = CVC, ie two identical syllables. abbr. CVC2 4 CVCVCVC, trisyllabic roots, of which some are CVNPVCVC, CVCVNPVC, CV-CVC2 5 CVCVCVCVC, very few Affixes: Prefixes: Many have the form cv-, therefore the result becomes one of the above, eg. cv- + CVC > cvCVC, cv- + CVCVC > cvCVCVC Infixes: All infixes have the form -vc-, and are inserted after the first C. eg. -vc- + CVC > CvcVC, -vc- + CVCVC > CvcVCVC Suffixes: Many are in the form -vc, eg. -vc + CVC > CVCvc, -vc + CVCVC > CVCVCvc This looks very similar to the structure of Proto- IndoEuropean + nasal infix as explained above by Dyen. VISW claims the following of the forms of Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic 1 Pronominal single consonant stems C- 2 Two-consonant stems C-C- 3 Reduplication of two-consonant stems C-CC-C ((C-C)2 ?), eg. gw-l “roll, turn” > gw-lgw-l, Hebrew gilga:l “wheel, circle” and as simplification "simple reduplication", a consonant is dropped. IndoEuropean drops the second consonant kw-kw-l- , kweklo-s “wheel” Afro-Asiatic drops the third consonant gw-l-l “roll”, Amharic gw-l-l 4 Addition as suffix of the consonant in anlaut eg. gw-r “swallow” > gw-r-gw, Old High German querca “throat”. Called "half reduplication", elsewhere "broken reduplication". 5 Two-consonant roots might be extended by a one-consonant suffix, a "determinative". In some cases the meaning of the determintive can be seen from its later history in Indo-European, eg. -d and -n from -t and -n in Indo-European, where the form participles. Since most of the determinatives are no longer productive in Indo-European, they must be pre- Indo-European. In Afro-Asiatic the determinative is tightly bound to the root, since native Sprachgefühl demands three- consonant roots 6 Two-consonant roots may become three-consonant by a one- consonant infix. A nasal infix, which is rare in AfroAsiatic eg. Ethiopian kanfar “lip” from *k-p-, has become very much used in Indo-European. Further, in Afro-Asiatic two-consonant roots may also be extended by a one-consonant prefix. These prefixes may also be found as infixes with no or small semantic change. plus 8 more paragraphs. As can be seen, the limitations of VISW correspond pretty well with those of IENH and PA. In general, I think it sad to see how Møller in generally is written off as a "philologist" or "semiticist" who undertook an "abortive attempt" to find a common origin for Indo-European and Afro-Asiatic, by people who obviously haven't read his work. As for the e - o ablaut gradation IVSQA maintains that this should reinterpreted as a ë - a gradation. So did RVCFRN. CAIEH : (Conclusion by the author, I. Dyen) I must confess that I am impressed with the extent to which I have been successful in gathering matchings between the reconstructions of the two families. Granting that thus far I have not wavered in my stedfast belief in the likelihood that an Austronesian-IndoEuropean relationship can not be demonstrated, should I waver now? TP : I do. It should be noted that the article was written not to prove such a relationship, but, rather, given the impossibility thereof since no connections between the corresponding cultures before appr. AD 1000 is (was) known, to test the validity of the comparative method (by providing a counter-example, in Popper's sense). Dyen (personal communication), however, doesn't see it this way. PMA

    Phonetic Correspondence

    “ng” The consonant cluster “ng” has been noted, by Chaterjee and others, in word like "Ganga", which is related to words meaning simply “river”, in many Austro-Asiatic languages. Other words like sanga “having limbs”, Sanskrit seem to indicate that intervocalic "ng" may be connected with words associated with appendages, limbs, extensions, offshoots and the like. The Austronesian words darnga, tarnga, kalinga, etc. all meaning “ear”, certainly seem to be related to Sanskrit karna “ear”, the latter having lost the “ng” consonant cluster. This has also occurred in Austronesian languages were we find kalna, kalina, talina, etc. Other possible examples of this trait are: TP : This *-ng- “appendage” infix wouldn't happen to that horrible serpent *-n-g- again? Or am I getting paranoid? At least I would claim "anguli" “finger” and "anga" “limb” for it. And how about Indo-European *dnghuH2- “tongue”? IEW : ang-, esp. to designate joints of limbs cf. lithus “joint” Gothic *lei- “bend” Gothic ángam “joint” Sanskrit angúli-h, angúri-h “finger, toe”, Sanskrit (from which anguli:yam “finger ring” Sanskrit) anguisthi-h “big toe, thumb” = angushta “toe” Avestan ankinn, anginn “corner” Armenian añjali-h “both hands rounded held together” Armenian PMA linga “phallus” langala- “plow” vanga- “tree” punga “heap, mound” sunga “sheath of a bud” anguli “finger” matanga “elephant (from trunk)” anga “limb” langula “tail” vangsa- “bamboo and other cane” PMA

    Initial retroflex consonants

    There can be little doubt that the common occurrence of retroflex consonants in the various languages of India are due to common influence upon each other. Many of the retroflex consonants in Indic and the Austric languages of India are almost certainly of Dravidian origin as they are abundantly attested to in those languages but not found outside India. On the other hand, the initial retroflex consonants of Indic, cannot be found, or at least are very rare in the Dravidian languages. Initial retroflex consonants are quite common in Austric languages, both Austro-Asiatic and Austronesian. Initial retroflex consonants do not occur in IE languages in Iran or Afghanistan or further to the north and west. Retroflex consonants themselves can be found as far east as Formosa, Papua, Micronesia and the Santa Cruz Islands. TP: Re: the retroflex consonants in Swedish and Norwegian which are sometimes cited as an example of "spontaneous" "retroflexisation" (without super- or substrate influence); the "thick" or cacuminal l occurs in the dialects of those areas where bronze age rock carvings are found with motifs that might be interpreted as connected with South East Asia (tree of life, birds, ceremonial axes, boats). The retroflex r (which causes the immediately following consonants (n, d, l, s) to become retroflex too) is limited to Sweden and Norway, in Sweden historically to north of Scania into which area it is now spreading, according to (indignant or jubilant) letters to the editor in the local papers.


    PMA There exist an interesting similarity between the Vedic concept of the sun as the “eye of Varuna”, and the Hindu one of the orb as Lokachakshu, or “eye of the world”, and also as one of the eyes of Siva; and the very common Austronesian term “eye of the day”. In Thailand, we see the phrase as 'sa ven' “eye of the day”, Li, 'da-ben' “sun”, Jer., 'tau wan', Dioi, Sek. In Indonesia, and Malaysia there is 'mata wari' and 'mata hari' respectively for “sun = eye of the day”. In Malagasy there is maso andro “sun = eye of the day”. In Amboyna and Ceram, we have a slight variation with riamata “shining eye = sun”. The words 'mata-alo' of Celebes and 'mata-alon' of Baju probably have the same meaning. In Makatea, we have 'mata-ra', “eye of the day = sun”, from a word for “day”, that is the same as the word for sun in other New Hebrides languages. Moving into Oceania, there is 'mata ni siga' of Fiji and San Cristoval ahve the same meaning of “shining eye”, for the sun. In Espirito Santo and Duke of York we have simply 'maso' “eye = sun”, and 'make' “eye = sun”, respectively. In Api, 'mat ni ele' “sun”, is quite the same as the 'mata-alo' and 'mata-alon' mentioned above. At Leper's Island, 'matan aho', related the newly-risen sun to the eye. In the New Hebrides, the Western Eromangan has 'nipmi-nen' “eye of the day”. Probably connected to this are the Sanskrit 'dina' “day”, and 'dina-kara' “sun”. In Malay, there is the phrase 'dina hari' “day break”, while in Motu, Mekeo, Kuni and Doura we have 'dina' “day”. In Arosi, Sau, Saa, Kwaio and Ulawa there is 'dani', 'dangi', 'danigi', 'dinga', etc., all meaning “day”. In Motu and Proto-Central Papuan 'dina' means “sun”, while in Indonesia 'tinag' means “torch”. We can find many other examples of common terms and phrases. For exmaple, in India it is common to denote beautiful eyes by the term 'mina-kshi' “fish-eye”. The eyes of the fish are also considered beautiful among Austronesians, and thus we have examples like 'kole maka onaona' “sweet-eyed kole (a fish) = beautiful person”, due to the fact that the eye of the kole was considered beautiful. TP : Conclusion It is obvious (to me, at least) from Stephen Oppenheimer's book "Eden in the East", that there was some kind of contact from Sundaland (the land around the present Indonesia that disappeared following the rise in water level at the end of the last ice age) to India, Mesopotamia and Europe (specifically Scandinavia). According to a recent (May, 2000) article in Genetics some pig races in Europe (i.e. Yorkshire and Swedish Countryside) contains Asiatic gene material. Note the appearance of "hog" in the above list of Austric-IndoEuropean cognates. You may have noticed some enormous clusters in the cognate material. *A-d-m “master, lord” | “build, something built” | “domesticate” (driving out chaos) *H-r-(g-) “king” | “reach, stretch” | “build with wood, pile up, mount onto” *H-n-(g-) “snake” > “constriction, suffocation, murder”, “fear” | “snake” > “bend, wave”, “sew” *m-n- “(noble) man” | “sexual desire, magical power” | “spiritual body” | “something protruding, stick, churning” *t-n- “physical extension, physical body (as opposed to spiritual, magical body)” Words for swimming, travelling, boats. The opposites heavy/light, appearing as if originating as predicates of cargo on some floating transportation. As for the four first clusters, here is what I think "they" thought about it. They knew about the Kundalini serpent, deep in the mind. They saw the terrible conflagration in the depths of the oceans at the Flood (whichever) (volcanic activity?, meteoric impact?) as that same serpent rising and causing havoc in the physical world. The *H-r-g- is not a surveyor, as Dumezil would have it. He is the captain of a ship, also responsible for its construction (in wood), and knowing about geometry because he sets the course by the stars. With respect to the clusters stemming from *H-r-g- and *H-n-g-, they may express the two opposite concepts of the straight vs. the crooked. The chaotic vs. the orderly. Or there may be a three-way opposition *A-d-m-, *H-r-g-, *H-n-g-; creation, orderder, destruction. The following is taken from memory, and I might be wrong: One of the pioneers in the mathematical field of topology was the German mathematician and linguist Grassmann. I believe that what basis vectors do to a topological space in German is "aus-dehnen", a cognate of *t-n- "extend, stretch". Coincidence (or bad memory on my part)? In comparative linguistics, he is known for "Grassmann's law" in Sanskrit, so he must have had done some reading in that language. Torsten Pedersen's Bibliography Paul Manansala's Bibliography PMA *h1ekt “net” de-ku-tu-wo-ko = dektu-worgo- “net-makers” Mycenian Greek díktuon “hunting/fishing net” Greek (-i- from dikein “throw”) e:kt- “net” Hittite aggati- “catch-net” Luvian áksu- “net” Sanskrit The Greek forms represent neuter nouns with (prefixed?) *d- as in the word for “tear”

    get this gear!