*m-n- “spirit”

PMA manus “man, human” Sanskrit, also manawa “humans, mankind, boy” While many may feel this word is related to the English 'man', there are actually much fewer correspondences in sound between Indo-European and the Indic languages with this word. While mostly confined to a few Germanic languages in IE, it is far more spread out in Austric. Also, while it is possible that some of these cases *may* be borrowing from Indian languages, it is obvious that many languages were well beyond the known range of Hindu-Buddhist influence. Besides in semantics and phonology the Austric link is closer. TP: Actually all the Germanic languages have the root man-(“man”), but it is true that in Indo-European, man- is confined to Indic and Germanic (and both language groups have coastlines). But consider this: Manup Austronesian legendary hero Austronesian Mánu Indic founder hero Sanskrit Manus-chithra Descendent of Manu Avestan Mananan MacLir (son of sea) Legendary navigator, gave his name to Isle of Man (FLIM) Celtic Mannus According to Tacitus, the father of the three brothers that were the founders of the three subdivisions of the Germanic peoples: Irmiones, Istvæones, Ingvæones. Germanic The father of Mannus is Twisto (= snake?) HKD: Manius John Doe, everyman Latin ET: man, mani “the dead” Etruscan Manes “the dead” Latin manin- “to offer to the Manes”? Etruscan men- “offer” Etruscan IENH 533: *m[u|o]n- “to protrude; to stand out; to jut out; to be first, foremost, in front of; (n.) topmost or most protuberant part, highest or farthest point” Proto-Nostratic > *m(e|o)n- “to protrude; to stand out; to jut out; (n.) topmost or most protuberant part, highest or farthest point” Proto-IndoEuropean mn, mny “mountain, stone, hill” Egyptian, AfroAsiatic mnw “monument” Egyptian, AfroAsiatic *mun- “point, end, extremity; before, in front, further; first” Proto-Dravidian IENH 534: *m[u|o]n-at'y- “to suckle; (n.) breast, udder” Proto-Nostratic > *m(e|o)nt'- “to suckle; (n.) suckling, young animal; breast, udder” Proto-IndoEuropean mnd “breast” Egyptian, AfroAsiatic moñci “breasts” Proto-Dravidian IENH 549: *m[u|o]n- “egg, testicle” Proto-Nostratic > *mon-d[h]- > *mõdo “testicle” Slavic, IndoEuropean *muna “egg, testicle” Proto-Uralic *muntay “egg, testicle” Proto-Dravidian IENH 541: *m[a|ë]ny- “to lust after, desire passionately, copulate, have sexual intercourse, beget” Proto-Nostratic > mian “desire” Irish, IndoEuropean mwyn “enjoyment, value; gentle, kind , dear” Welsh, IndoEuropean mwynhau “to enjoy” Welsh, IndoEuropean *m[a|ë]n- “to lust after, desire passionately, copulate, have sexual intercourse, beget” Proto-AfroAsiatic *man- “to be united with, love, copulate with, wed; (n.) copulation, union, marriage” Proto-Dravidian IENH 542: *m[a|ë]ny- “progenitor, begetter, man, male” (derived from IENH 541) Proto-Nostratic > *man(u)- “man, begetter, progenitor” Proto-IndoEuropean *man(n)- “man, person” Proto-HighlandEastCushitic *m[a|i]n-t- (t feminine suffix) “woman” Proto-EastCushitic *manytye “man, male” Proto-FinnoUgrian *mañc- “man, husband” Proto-Dravidian IENH 536: *m[a|ë]t[h]- “to set in motion, arouse, excite, impel; to be luxuriant or fruitful, to be fertile; to be energetic, vigorous, strong; (n.) man, male” Proto-Nostratic madhr “man, human being” Old Icelandic, IndoEuropean mat “boy” Ligurian (in Romansch) IndoEuropean *m[a|ë]t[h]- “to be energetic, vigorous, strong, fertile” Proto-AfroAsiatic *mët[h]- “man, male” Proto-AfroAsiatic *mat- “to be luxuriant or fruitful, to be fertile, to grow fat; to be in must(n.), strength, abundance, excess” Proto-Dravidian TP: *mat- / *man- / *mant- “man” ? Does the stem *mant- “man” exist? Are the above three stems identical? IENH splits the Old Norse (actually Old Icelandic) paradigm maðr/mann- into two roots. Consider also mand [pron. man? ] “man” Danish mandig [pron. mandi] “masculine, macho” Danish The traditional explanation of these forms is that the -d is a "false d". In Danish, there has been a development -ld- > lð > -ly- > -ll-, -nd- > nð > -ny- > -nn-, in auslaut and before -e (schwa). Also unvoiced stops p,t,k have developed into voiced continuants, written b,d,g, especially after long vowels. Therefore Danish orthography has no need for making distinctions between long and short vowels (German, long vowel: duplication or adding -h, short vowels: duplication of following consonant; English, long vowel: adding -e after the syllable, short vowel: duplication of following consonant), except in the case of -l and -n in auslaut. Therefore many such roots have been given an etymologically false "mute d" e.g. kalde “call”, rende “run”. The -d- of "mandig" is traditionally explained as influence from the written form. Some Danish dialects have "mañ" with a palatalized n, difficult to explain without a -d in auslaut. I suggest instead that the -d in Danish is original . In that case, the root *mant- exists and may be an n-infixed variation of *mat- (data from Old Norse, i.e. Old Icelandic, being West North Germanic, do not apply to Danish, which is East North Germanic). IENH 519: *m[a|ë]n- “to divide, to apportion” (> “to count, to reckon” > “to consider, to think” > “to recount” > “to speak, to say” Proto-Nostratic *m(e|o)n- “to reckon, consider, think” Proto-IndoEuropean *m[a|ë]n- “to divide, to apportion; to count, reckon, enumerate” Proto-AfroAsiatic *mana- (*mona-) “to consider, to conjecture, to recount, to say, to speak” Proto-Uralic *many- “to talk, to speak” Proto-Dravidian IENH 570: *?in-[i|e]m- “to say, speak, neme; (n.) name” Proto-Nostratic *Hn[e:|o:|o]mn.“name” Proto-IndoEuropean *nimä “name” Proto-Uralic inim “word” Sumerian inim-du11 “to speak” Sumerian inim-bal “to say, speak, tell; (n.) speech, utterance” Sumerian inim-e “to say a word, utter” Sumerian SIG, IESSG, VISW *A2-m-n- “be firm” Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *men- Proto-IndoEuropean méno: Greek reduplicated mi-mno: “stay, remain” Greek mónimos “permanent, durable, holding on” Greek man- “stay” Old Persian fra-man- “hold out” Old Persian *m-A2-n- Proto-indoEuropean-AfroAsiatic maneo “remind” Latin *'-m-n- Semitic 'amina perf. “was safe, whole” Arabic niph. “be firm, durable, permanent” Hebrew ethp. “stayed, remained” Syrian 'aminå: ethp. “constant” Syrian adv. “forever” Syrian 'òmæn “truth, faithfulness” Hebrew 'ami:nuN “trusted, confided in” Arabic SNE 7 *muni “stomach” South Cushitic: *muna- “heart” South Cushitic *man- “large intestine” South Cushitic *manso > Ma'a maso “belly” South Cushitic máni “large intestine” Dahalo Indo-European: monja “belly, intestine” Russian Samoyed: *mu´â “the inner parts” Samoyed Dravidian: moñci, monni “breasts” Tamil muñña, muññe “the breast” Tulu Tgm.: mongku “belly (of stag)” Evenki SNE *manHi “ghost of dead” Indo-European: *ma:ni- “anger, furious” mê:nis “anger” Greek mânes “anger” Doric Greek émma:nis “bearing grudge” Cretan Greek Ma:ne:s “the departed souls” Latin imma:nis “horrible, savage” Latin Baltic Finnic: mana, manala “empire of death” Finnish mannelatj “after-life” Lap. L mwonesh “deads of some illness” Finnish, Lap. Estonian Turkic: manir name of a demon Old Turkish Mongolian: Manûus “evil spirits, man-eating demons” Mongolian > Turkic: mangghus “parasite, mangus, vampire, monster” Soyot. mangys, mongus, maghys, moghus “insatiable” Yakut Tgm.: mangT “giant, devil; bear; ghost of ancestors, ghost of land; man-eater” Evenki mangæ, mangi “ghost; idol” Oroch mangi name of burxan Ulch. mang'an “evil ghost” Mandzhu mangun “devil, monster” Mandzhu cf. *manu- “think” Nostratic mana- “exorcise” Finnish manu- “exorcise” Estonian muna- “practice sorcery” Mordv. E. HSED 1722: *man-/*mayan- “man” *mVyVn- > *mi:n- “man” Berber mi:n Zenaga *man/*min “man” West Chadic mun (pl.) Karekare mëni Polchi mani Dwot mën Buli mani Bar mi:ni (pl.) Kir menni Bolewa ma:ni Geji mwan Sayanchi The variant *min- may go back to *mVyVn- *mayan- “man” Central Chadic meeni Logone *mun- “male” Lowland East Cushitic mun Somali Secondary *-u-, cf. Omotic *man- “people” Highland East Cushitic maana Sidamo maana Darasa maana Hadiya maana Kambatta mana Tambaro *mon- < *man- “people” Omotic monoo Yamma Note: *mayan morpho-phonological variant of *man with an inlaut sonant (*-y-) cf. mana'e “child” Dahalo HSED 1772: *min- “want” *mVnVy- “want” Semitic mny Arabic mny Soqotri mny Geez mny Tigray *min- “want” Central Chadic min Masa HSED 1796 : mune?- “to love” *mun- Semitic menû “love” Akkadian mnn [u] “be favourable” Arabic mny “desire” Soqotri mutni “desire” Jibbali *munya- “love, like” West Chadic muni Fyer mun Sha meno Pero *mun- “preferred” Central Chadic mun Lame minne “love” German HSED 1723: *man-/*min- “house” mn “room” Egyptian (Middle Kingdom) *mone: “dwelling, inn” Coptic mone: “dwelling, inn” Bohairian mone: “dwelling” Sahidic may be borrowed from Greek mone: *man-/*min- West Chadic man “house” Tangale mëna “place” Derra mina “house” Pero mun “place” Sha Secondary -u- in Sha *min- “door” Central Chadic min, mng “door” Musgum *man- “place” East Chadic mana “place” Sumray ma:n “place” Ndam man “place” Tumak *man-/*min- “house” Lowland East Cushitic miin “house” Somali mana, manaa “house” Oromo ming “house” Boni min “house” Arbore *man- “house” Werizoid mano “house” Gawwada *min- “house” Highland East Cushitic mine “house” Sidamo mine “house” Darasa mine “house” Hadiya mine “house” Kambata mini “house” Dahalo Alternation *a - *i HSED 1721: *man- “know, test” *mVnVw- Semitic manu: “count” Akkadian mny “count” Hebrew mnw[-u-] “test, try” Arabic Based on biliteral *mVn-. *man- “know” West Chadic man Montol man Ankwe ma:n Mupun mon Bolewa man Ngamo *man-/*mun- “understand, analyze” Central Chadic man, mun Lame Secondary *-u- *man- “mind” Lowland East Cushitic cf. mn.t “manner, way” Egyptian (Middle Kingdom) HSED 1795: *mun- “be, remain” mn.w “remain” Egyptian (pyramids) *mun- “remain” West Chadic mun “remain” Dafo-Butura *muni- > *min- “be” Central Chadic mine “be” Musgum OOL 14. *MANA--'to stay (in a place)” ---- remain, permanent *men “to remain” Proto-IndoEuropean > man “to linger, not budge from a place” Sanskrit manere “to remain” Latin mân- “stay, remain” Persian *mn “to remain, be firm” Proto-AfroAsiatic > amen Hebrew amina “be secure” Arabic mn, “to remain” Egyptian mun “to remain” Coptic min “be firm, strong” Omotic mana “home” Oromo miin “home” Somali mena “dwelling” Georgian *man “to remain in a place” Proto-Dravidian > mannu “to be permanent, remain long, stay” Tamil mannuka “to stand fast” Malayalam mannu “to last, be durable” Telugu mana “to live settled” Evenki Tungus 'i-ma(n) “to stay, be” Proto-Caucasian mann- “to be” Hurrian min “to place, set up, settle” Basque mana “to dwell; to sit, stay” Papuan mina “stay” Papuan man “remain” Tsimshian 'ima “sit” Zuni ma- “be” Quechua OOL 15. *MANO--'man” ---- man; *manu(-s) Proto-IndoEuropean > manuS “man, person” Sanskrit manus “man” Avestan manna Gothic mana “man” Rwanda me'en “person” Me'en mats “male” Didinga mots “person” Dinka *mn “male, man, person” Proto-AfroAsiatic Min (a phallic deity) Egyptian mun “male” Somali iman “person” Berber *mani “man, person” Chadic *mänce “man, person” Proto-Uralic > magyar (self-name) Hungarian mansi (self-name) Vogul mies “man” Finnish manja “man, person” Gondi mântar “people, men” Tamil man “king, husband” Tamil wo-mina “woman” Old Japanese (onna Modern Japanese) mene-ko “woman” Ainu munan, mando, mundu “man” Papuan mancho “man” Nahali hmong (self-name) Miao man~ myen (self-name) Yao man “father” Bella Coola man “husband” Squamish *men “husband” Proto-Tupi män “person” Cayapo OOL 16. *MENA--'to think (about)” ---- mind; mental; memory; mantra *men “think” Proto-IndoEuropean > manas “mind” Sanskrit mens “mind” Latin memini “remember” Latin monere ”remind, warn” Latin me:na ”to like” Sandawe mEn ”understand” Malinke *meni~ man “know” Proto-Bantu *man “think, understand, wish, desire, count” Proto-AfroAsiatic muná “wish” Arabic manah “to count” Hebrew maan “mind” Somali man “know” Chadic mon, min “wish” Chadic *manV~ monV “guess, speak” Proto-Uralic mon-d “say” Hungarian maan, muno “say, command” Samoyed manaa “warn, admonish, curse, bewitch” Finnish muna “bewitch” Mordvin manu “prayer, request” Tamil manavi “prayer, request” Telugu mani Turkish manä “folk song” Crimean Tatar mun “medulla” Basque munak (pl.) “brains” Basque minAs “story, tale” Burushaski ming “to name” Tibetan man “to be named” Burmese *mang “dream” Proto-Tibeto-Burman menw “prefer, like” Shawnee amu “love” Laguna mu'e “wish” Catawba -manen “wish” Spokane mena “think” Miwok mani “love” Mixtec muna “seek” Aymara muna “wish” Quechua AEDL 31 amand'o “man” Amandyo , Australian mandef “man” Kolijon , Australian many “man” Murrawarri, Australian mainy “man” Wiradyuri , Australian maing “man” Wiradyuri , Australian mean “man” EWakka , Australian *manti “people” Proto-Dravidian PMA mukha “face, mouth” Sanskrit. Also muham “mouth” Prakit mukh “face” Bengali muh “mouth” common in modern vernaculars NDAP 9 *muk- “face, mouth” Dravidian *maku/i “mouth” AfroAsiatic VMPSIE mua “the first, foremost” Tongan mûla “root, beginning” Sanskrit mukha “mouth, face; the first, foremost” Sanskrit mûla “origin, beginning, cause, the first” Malay mûka “mouthface, front part” Malay mula “beginning” Javanese mula-mula “the first” Javanese pa-mulai “begin” Buginese pa-mulan. “the first” Buginese mula “begin” Tagalog pasi-mula “begin; the first” Tagalog pasi-mona “beginning; begin” Tagalog mona “the first” Tagalog muc-ha “face” Tagalog mónos Greek AEDL 21: ma(r)na “mouth” Nulla, Dieri Yarrawurka, Ulaolinya-Wonkajera mana “mouth” Evelyn Creek munno “mouth” Kuinmunburra munno “mouth” NNarrinyeri (low Murray) mu(r)n “mouth” (Yittha dial.) munu “mouth” Kogai, Barcoo, Mamburra muna “mouth” Wakelburra mundo “mouth” Skuri, NYuin (coast) me:na “mouth” Yaroinga *mun_ “(in) front” Dravidian AEDL 22: mingo “nose” Kungerri-Birria mungar “nose” Najki mungeli “nose” Kui PMA mukha- “face” Philippines muka- “face” Malagasy maka- “face” Polynesia mata- “face” N. Guinea meka- “tongue” Amboyna mocha- “mouth” Kherwari, Santali mua- “mouth” Katorr mwe- “mouth” Darang main- “mouth” Son mu-lut- “mouth” Malay muru- “mouth” Central Papuan mangai- “mouth” Maori mana- “mouth” Vaturana, Florida muu- “mouth” Manggarai mut, mit- “mouth” Formosa mingir- “mouth” Awyi magota- “mouth” Kiwai mongot- “mouth” Kati manga- “mouth” Kapau EIEC *men- “project” mant “mouth, lip” Welsh pro:-mineo: “stand out, project” Latin mentum “chin” Latin me:ni- “face” Hittite fra-manyente “gain prominence” Avestan *mandh-, *mant- “chew” me:tal “belly” Old Irish mando: “chew” Latin me:l “bite” Old Norse mithl “bite” Old English mindil “bite” Old High German máthniai “jaws” Greek (Hesychius) ?*men- “mountain” *monyo- > mynydd “mountain” Welsh *mon-ti- mont- “mountain” Latin *mn-ti- > mati- “(mountain), height” Avestan *monis - *moneH2 “neck” muin “neck” Old Irish mwn “neck” Welsh mon “mane” Old Norse manu “mane” Old English mane English mana “mane” Old High German manaothri: “neck” Avestan mánya: “nape” Sanskrit ?*mono/i “neck ornament” minci “collar, necklet” Old Welsh maniákis “Celtic necklace” Gaulish (in Greek) moni:le “necklace, collar” Latvian men “necklace” Old Norse mena “necklace, collar” Old English menni “neck ornament” Old High German monisto “necklace” Old Church Slavonian zarënu-maini “(bird) with golden necklace” Avestan ba-ra-man-nu-ish “(horse) bearing a collar” Old Persian mani-gri:vá- “carrying a neck ornament” Sanskrit CAIEH 72: mu:la “mouth (of animals)” Old High German munth-s “mouth” Gothic *mulut “mouth” Proto-Hesperonesian mulot “mouth” mulutrá “lips” Mer. EIEC *mVnus “man” madh-r/mann-r “man” Old Norse mann “man” Old English man English mann “man” Old High German *monwon > manna “man” Gothic mánu- “man, person” Sanskrit IEW: cerus manus “creator bonus” Old Latin CAIEH 73 : anaq muani “man” Balinese mone “man” Sawu mwään “man” Trukese AEDL 31: amand'o “man” Amandyo mandef “man” Kolijon man´ “man” Murrawari main´, main, “man” Wirradyuri mean etc “man” EWakka *manti “people” Dravidian AEDL 32: meru, meri “man (aboriginal)” SNarringeri mar(a) “man (aboriginal)” SEBuandik murri, murdi “man (aboriginal)” Kogai murri “man (aboriginal)” Barcoo, Mamburra Wakelburra, Burdekin murrin, “man (aboriginal)” Yuin (island) murre-wangar “children” Wiradyuri murrowa “children” Yarrawurka *ma:r_- “young man, male” Yarrawurka AEDL 33: mika “man” Yuin (coast) mega “woman” Yuin (coast) moak “man” Walsh River *mak- “child” Dravidian mega, moga “male” Telugu maguva “woman” Telugu magvan “husband” Kolami SAPGOW 15: *manu “to see, think” Proto-Nostratic *nemnem “to consider” Proto-Austronesian *nham “to consider” Proto-MonKhmer *nVmHV “to see, think” Proto-SinoCaucasian *-mu(,n) “to see” Proto-Ge SAPGOW 16: *mänV “man, husband” Proto-Nostratic *mVn-xV “man, husband” Proto-SinoCaucasian *mVn “man, husband” Proto-MonKhmer *myen “man, husband” Proto-Ge NS 114: *majrV “young male” Proto-Nostratic *mirl\V “male, man” North Caucasian NS 115: *manV “stay, stand still” Proto-Nostratic *?i-ma(n)- “stay, be” North Caucasian *?i-ma- Proto-Lezghian *mann- Hurri-Urartean NS 116: *m/o/nV, *m/o/ngV “many, big” Proto-Nostratic *man, “many, big” Sino-Tibetan NS 117: *manu “think” Proto-Nostratic *nVmHV id. Sino-Caucasian *n´Vm “think” Sino-Tibetan *?a-n/ï/n, “think, mind” Proto-Yeniseian NS 121: *mänV “man, male” Proto-Nostratic *mVn-xV id. Sino-Caucasian *n&:m “man, person” Sino-Tibetan *pix- “man” Proto-Yeniseian *mVnxV “man, male” North Caucasian NS 125: *min´a “woman, female relative” Proto-Nostratic *nam “sister-in-law, daughter-in-law” Sino-Tibetan NS 130: *nojmV “name” Proto-Nostratic *nyomV “name; spell, tale” Altaic *main, “name” Sino-Tibetan PMA mane- “male” Solomon Is. mon, o-main, manesh- “man” Oceania ma-mana- “man” Kate muane, a-mana- “man” Solomon Is. men-ahwe- “man” Awa Mani-k-a- “the first people” Awa mane- “male” Are'are manusia, -manusa, manesh- “man, mankind” Asonesian, Sunda, Malay, Goram, Matabello, Sanguir, Ceram manu-t “man” Salon mnus- “man” Khmer mnih- “man” Talaing mai- “man” Sakai menik- “man” Semang mandra- “man” Savari i-mai- “man” Darang muana- “man” Duke of York myen, mun- “person” Chiengrai Yao, Haininh Yao, Taipan Yao man- “child” Telefol ma- “boy, male, man” Ambrym mantun- “man” Lanten-Yao myen- “man” Man mien- “man” Man-ta-pan mon-fa- “man” Man-lan-tien mano- “child” Fasu, Beami, mana, mauko, monol- “man” Torricelli mandu- “man” Buang manua- “man” Dobu, Duau mun- “child, offspring, person” Dumut mwanua- “man” Kakabai manu- “man” Motu, Suau manas “mind, intellligence, knowledge” Sanskrit EIEC *men- “think, consider” *memónH2e (perf.) “think, remember” memini “think, remember” Latin muna (pres. man) “think” Old Norse munan (pres. man) “think” Old English munan (pres. man) “think, believe” Gothic mémona “yearn” Greek i-manam “understands” Armenian mamne “thinks” Sanskrit *mnyétor “thinks” do-moinethar “believes” Old Irish miniù “remember” Lithuanian minjõ “think” Old Church Slavonian maínomai “rage, be mad” Greek mántis “prophet, diviner” New Greek mainyeite “thinks” Avestan mányate “thinks” Sanskrit *mnéH2ti mnêma “remembrance” Greek m(a)ná- “see, look upon” Luvian mémnemai “be mindful of, remember” Greek a:-mna:- “commit to memory and hand down” Sanskrit other formations moneo: “remind, warn” Latin TP: monstrum “portent, monster” Latin manan “remind, warn, conjure, use magic” Old High German EIEC: menù “consider” Lithuanian mine:t “mention” Latvian mineti “think, seem” Old Church Slavonian mniti “mean” Old Russian *mimne/o > mimma- “regard, favour” Luvian mánati “mentions” Sanskrit *ménmn “thought” menmae “spirit, sense” Old Irish ma:nman- “mind, perception” Sanskrit *ménes- “thought” ménos “thought” Greek manah- “thought” Avestan manas- “thought” Sanskrit *méntis (gen. mntéis) “thought” me:ns “thought” Latin ge-mynd “thought” Old English gi-munt “thought” Old High German mintìs “thought” Lithuanian pa-mêti “thought” Old Church Slavonian -maiti- “thought” Avestan mati- “thought” Sanskrit PMA mana- “mind” Lau mana biric- “mind” Kate mana-wa, mana-va- “mind” Maori and other Polynesian mana-ta- “mind” Lau mana'o- “knowledge, thought, opinion, mind” common Polynesian mana-tu- “to think” Tahiti mana-ta- “to advise, teach, learning, education” Melanesia man-ta-na- “wisdom, common sense” Are'are mana-mana- “to bring to mind, remember” Samoa manaua-nawa- “to think, ponder” Marquesas mana-wa- “top part of head of adults, anterior fontanelle of children (as entrance point of spirit)” common Polynesian/ Melanesian mantua- “to think” Fila mindondoa “to think” Woraviu, Sesake manatunatu “to think” Mele mentua- “to think” Aniwa, Futuna mantra “prayer, chant, mystic formula” Sanskrit mana- “address used for deities and at close of prayers and rituals, supernatural power, omen” Polynesian mana- “sign, wonder, miracle” Fiji ho'o-mana-mana- “to use magical incantations” Samoa mana-mana- “to impart power to idols, images” Hawai'i manatala- “mantra” Philippines mantera- “mantra” Malaysia, Indonesia manata, manatu- “mind, thought, to think, to advise, teach, wisdom, learning” Melanesia/Polynesia manawa- “to cause death by magic” Are'are manata-si - “to train, tame” Arosi manawangi- “to cast spell” Arosi manawa-si- “to impart supernatural power” Arosi mana-wa- “incantation” Maori manatu- “remembrance” Maori manatunga- “expression in song” Maori ma-mana- “spiritual power, to impart spiritual or magical power” Lau manata oli- “to repent” Lau manata luki- “to forgive” Lau manata mamana- “to believe” Lau manata toli- “to think earnestly” Lau mantua- “to think” Fila mindondoa- “to think” Woraviu, Sesake manatunatu- “to think” Mele mentua- “to think” Aniwa, Futuna manatunatu- “to think” Mele manata- “to intuit” Malaitan HSED 1841: *nam “man” *nam- “people” East Chadic nemi-nam “people” Tumak Old collective, cf nom-to: “woman” Kwang nam-de (pl.) “woman” Sibine *num- “man” Saho-Afar nuum, nuumuu “man” Afar prob. *u < *a before *-m- *nam-/*nim- “man” Lowland East Cushitic nin “man” Somali nama “man” Oromo nama “man” Konso nama “man” Busso nama “man” Gidole Regular Somali -n < *-m. Vocalism of Somali has no support in other forms. *nam- “man, son” Omotic anaamoo “man” Kaffa naamo “son” Mocha HSED 1831: *nagach-/*naguch- “ruler, man” *nVgush- “ruler” Semitic niga:sh- “ruler” Arabic nëgush “ruler” Geez Arabic may be a Geez loanword or a deverbative. cf. also ngshwn “king's title” South Arabian *ma-nVgash- “bridegroom” Central Chadic mangash “bridegroom” Gisiga prefix *ma- *?angash- Lowland East Cushitic ugaas “tribal chief” Somali angafu “eldest son” Oromo Note *-ng- > -g- in Somali *?angus- “first-born son” Omotic angussaa “first-born son” Ometo As in Lowland East Cushitic, initial *?Vn- corresponds to Chadic and Semitic *nV-. *-s- < Hamito-Semitic *-c^- is not quite regular. CELR III 20: *wan- “man” West Chadic wnny.w “people” Egyptian CELR III 26: *mwan- “slave” West Chadic mnh, id. Egyptian CELR III 29: *mwan “son-in-law” East Chadic mnw “son” Egyptian CELR IX 112: *mun- “stay” West Chadic *min- id. Central Chadic mn “be left” Egyptian CELR IX 113: *wunya- “stay” East Chadic ín id. Egyptian CELR IX 114: *z^amVn- “stay” West Chadic zmn id. Egyptian TP : How do you reconcile all these different meanings of *m-n-? Watch: UUASI: inh meat classifier Uw Olkola, Uw Oykangand oth “penis” Uw Olkola oth “penis”? Uw Oykangand ek(a) “head” Uw Olkola eg “head” Uw Oykangand onmom “egg, seed” Uw Olkola, Uw Oykangand inh onmon “egg” Uw Olkola, Uw Oykangand oth onmon “testicle” Uw Olkola odh onmon “testicle” Uw Oykangand ek onmon “head or brain”? Uw Olkola eg onmon “head or brain” Uw Oykangand TP : "ek onmon" “head egg, seed” or “head testicle” means “brain”. This might be a starting point for the development of *m-n- > “sexual power” > “intellectual power, magic”, *m-n- > “staying power” > “(burial?) mound” > “abode”. From "onmon" we might get both *n-m-n- > *m-n- and *n-m-n- > *n-m-. Uw Olkola and Uw Oykangand are spoken on the Cape York Peninsula, thus close to the sunken Sundaland. Back