*p(/kw)-d- “flat (land); foot”

IENH 18: *b[a|&]d- “to split, cleave, separate, divide” Proto-Nostratic *b[h][e|o]d[h]- “to prick, pierce, dig” Proto-IndoEuropean *b[a|&]d- “to split, cleave, separate” Proto-AfroAsiatic *pat.- “to break (intr.), break out, smash, split” Proto-Dravidian bad-du “to separate, divide, part” Sumerian pað& “opening or entrance” Proto-Eskimo IENH 38: *p[h][a|&]t[h]- “to open; be open, wide, spacious” Proto-Nostratic *p[h][e|o]t[h]- “to open, be open” Proto-IndoEuropean *p[h][a|&]t[h]- “to open; be open, wide, spacious” Proto-AfroAsiatic IENH 44: *p[h][a|&]t'- “to hasten, move quickly; foot” Proto-Nostratic > *p[h][e|o]t'- “foot” Proto-IndoEuropean *p[h][a|&]t'- “to hasten, move quickly; foot” Proto-AfroAsiatic *padak “foot, end” Proto-Altaic IENH 65: *p[h][a|&]c'- “to part, separate from, split or break open, split of break apart” Proto-Nostratic Kartvelian pac^- “to open” Mingrelian *p[h][a|&]c'- “to split apart, separate, cleave” Proto-AfroAsiatic *päc^ä- “to part, separate from. break open or apart” Proto-Uralic ISG: *p-t-H- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *p-ta- Proto-IndoEuropean (ana-)petánummi “opens, spreads out” Greek pétalos Greek patulus “wide open; wide-spreading” Latin : *p-da- Proto-IndoEuropean pando “spread out” Latin : *ptá:- Proto-IndoEuropean *ptná:-mi id. pitne:mi Greek = p-t-H “open” Semitic petu: inf id. Assyrian fataHa perf. “opened” Arabic pa:þaH id. Hebrew p&þaH id. Syrian fatHa id. Ethiopian p-t-H “to open” Egyptian ABD: pt. “foot, paw of an animal”, pl. “knees, two-legged, four-legged” Egyptian pt. “footman, servant” Egyptian pt.u “foot soldiers, infantry” Egyptian AHDIE: lengthened o-grade *po:d- “foot” Proto-IndoEuropean *fo:t- id. Proto-Germanic fo:t id. Old English suffixed form *ped-ero- Proto-IndoEuropean *fetero: Proto-Germanic fetor, feter “leg iron, fetter” Old English suffixed form *ped-el- Proto-Germanic vizzelach “fetlock” Old High German fitlock, fetlock id. Middle English basic form *ped- Proto-IndoEuropean pe:s (stem ped-) “foot” Latin form *ped-yo- Proto-IndoEuropean expedi:re “free from a snare” Latin impedi:re “put in fetters, hobble, shackle” Latin suffixed form *ped-ika:- Proto-IndoEuropean pedica “fetter, snare” Latin o-grade form *pod- Proto-IndoEuropean pous (stem pod-) “foot” Greek pod “under” Russian sufixerd form *ped-ya- Proto-IndoEuropean peza “foot” Greek suffixed form *ped-o- Proto-IndoEuropean pedon “ground, soil” Greek padam “footstep, foot” Sanskrit pa:t > “foot” Sanskrit paisa: id. Hindi pa:i: “leg, foot” Middle Persian lengthened-grade form *pe:do- Proto-IndoEuropean pe:don “rudder, steering oar” Greek pe:dan “to leap” Greek suffixed form ped-i:- Proto-IndoEuropean pedilon “sandal” Greek *ped- “to stumble, fall” Proto-IndoEuropean *fete:n Proto-Germanic fetian, feccean “to bring back, fetch” Old English *ped- Latin suffixed (comparative) form *ped-yos > pe:jor “worse” (< “stumbling”) Latin suffixed (superlative) form *ped-samo > pessimus “worst” Latin suffixed form *ped-ko- > pecca:re “to stumble, sin” Latin TP: I think the semantic connection with “stumble” is wrong. It should be “low” or “under”, cf. the prepositon . EWBS: pede: abl. “(at the) foot” Latin pé “foot, foundation, base” Galician, Portuguese pé de “beside” Galician ao pé da lettra “literally” Portuguese be- pref. “(going) inside or below” Basque pe “underside, ground floor, the ground” Basque -be, -bi, -pe, -pia suff. “under” Basque -pean, -pian (inessive of pe) “under” (after indef. nouns or poss. gen.) Basque pera adlative “going under, towards” Basque petik “from below, hidden, going below and through” Basque peka adv. “below, uner the ground, hidden” Basque peko “lower, subordinate, lower in rank” Basque G: -pàdí “foot of animal” Proto-Bantu -bánd- “to flatten” Proto-Bantu -bátam- “to become flat” Proto-Bantu M: -bidá “pit, grave” Proto-Bantu -pad “foot” Proto-Bantu -band- “flatten” Proto-Bantu -bat-am- “be flat” Proto-Bantu CAD 04.370 “foot” botis “foot” Molbog bati'?is id. Kagayanen pat id. Batak Toba batis id. Balinese Biti? id. Uma va?i id. Manggarai pala-va?i id. Ngada Ba?i id. Sika wata id. Nengone va?e id. Tongan vae id. Samoan vae id. Mele-Fila ?a:vae id. Tahitian va?e id. Rapanui CAD 04.370 “flat” pantay, pa:tag “flat” Tagalog pantay id. Molbog pantay id. Kagayanen pantay + a-, patag + a- id. (of flat land) Ba:ngingi Sama pat.apat. id. (of a surface) Ponapean CAD 01.230 “plain, field” kapata:gan “plain, field” Tagalog pa:tag id. Aklanon ka-patag-an “a flat place” Kagayanen ka-pantay-an “plain, field” Ba:ngingi Sama ka-patag-an “plain” Ba:ngingi Sama padan, “grassy land for grazing”, “grass covered square in centre of township for mettings, festivals etc” Malay padan, “plain, field” Aceh panton “level place near mountains” Aceh papada “plain, field” Uma kabatau id. Kilvila pezara “flat level ground” Ba:ngingi Sama VMPSIE: pad- “walk” Sanskrit pâdas “foot” Sanskrit pádas “sole of foot” Lithuanian podos^va “sole of foot” Russian fôtus “foot” Gothic pé “foot” Madagascar vae “foot” Tongan paa “foot” Tagalog avae “foot” Tahiti wawae “leg” Hawaii wáe wáe “foot” Maori ACH: *pajay “rice plant” Proto-Austronesian SPNFL: *pag`ey “rice plant” Proto-Austronesian SAMP: *paj&i “rice plant” Proto-Austronesian PPNR: *págey “rice plant” Proto-Austronesian HKNH: *ped- “Boden, Niederung” Proto-IndoEuropean pedíon “plain” Greek *peþ- Proto-Germanic Pithe place name Nordwestblock fit “low-lying land by water” Old Norse ed “place” Old Irish FT: fit, fitj, fittja “low-lying land by water” Sw. dialects Fittja Stockholm suburb in Fitium do. 1331 APG 13: *peþil-, *peðil- “low moorland” pedel id. Middle Dutch pedel-land id. Middle Dutch peel “peat” Dutch de Peel (< Pedel) low moorland in southern Netherlands plus various English and North German place and water names DSDE: *pi-d- Proto-IndoEuropean *fitjo: Proto-Germanic fith “low meadow” Old Danish fit id. Norwegian dialect fed “low stretch of land at the sea” Danish pìsa “morass” Latvian pi:sos “low, wet meadow” Greek pi:dax “spring, source” Greek DSDE: *pedya: Proto-IndoEuropean *fetjo:- Proto-Germanic fed “bundle of yarn” Danish fid “hemline of knitted material” Middle Danish fit f. id. Norwegian dial. fit m. “edge of a hide” Norwegian dial. fit f. “edge of a cape, hide of webbed feet, foot(sole)” Old Norse fiti “bundle of flax or hemp” Old Swedish *fetjo:n Proto-Germanic fittja “bundle of thread or yarn” Swedish dial. fizza id. Old High German Fitze id. German fitt “section (of poem)” Old English *pedja Proto-IndoEuropean péza “foot, what is utmost or downmost; edge, hem of dress; fishnet” Greek pádya- “foot-” Sanskrit EBSG: *bot- Old European *fot- Paleo-Italic = ? *bod- Old European Fotensium adj. gen.pl. Latin inscr., 4th cent. Füssen in Bavaria Bothmer in Germany Bothfeld id. Bothel id. Böttingham id. Bode id. Bodensee in Bavaria Bodenwöhr id. Pottenstein id. Botingtune > Boddington in England Boteham, Buteham > Bodenham id. Bodeham > Bodenham id. Bodiam id. Bodicote id. Bodmin id. Bodney id. Fodindone, Fedintone > 1086 Fodindon > 1227 Foddington Somerset, England Fytun > 1242 Fyton > 1274 Feetham North Riding of Yorkshire, England Fotstuna > 1158 Foteston > 1242, 1274 Foston Leicestershire, England Foztun > a. 1086 Fotstun > 1212 Foston Lincolnshire, England Fodstone > a. 1086 Foston on the Wolds East Riding of Yorkshire Fotestun > a 1231 Foston North Riding of Yorkshire Batavis > 5th cent., copy 10th/11th cent. Bazzauua > 754, copy 9th cent. Pazauuua > 764-788, copy 9th cent. Batavia > Betuwe in Holland DVEF: botana “canal” Basque (Gipuzkoan, Andoain, Zizurkil) potin “puddle” Basque (Bizkaian, Arratia) bots^e “precipice, chasm” Basque (Low Navarrese, [Satatzu] Salazarese, Roncalese, Uztarroz) bots^u “precipice, abyss” Basque (Zuberoan) UKI: Bodincus river Po Ligurian fodio: “dig” Latin fossa “ditch” Latin with ablaut bedo- “canal, ditch” Gallic Bedesis river name Venetic Flussbett “river bed” German etc LIG: Bodincus river Po Celtic(?), Old European(?) Padus river Po Liguro-Sicanian FIUMI: patu “river, canal” Akkadian BBPN: Pitbladdo, Pitsligo Pittendreich, Pitlochry Pittenweem settlement names in Pictland PL: "The word was earlier pett; it meant a parcel of land or farmland ...; and it is a PCeltic word, related to peth “thing” Welsh pez “piece” Breton *petia > Gaulish pièce “piece” French and more distantly to cuid “portion” Gaelic The Gaulish word, borrowed into Vulgar Latin in France, occurs in legal documents in the phrase petia terrae “a parcel of land” exactly in the sense of our pett." Collinder: Finnish pätkä stump, oblong piece; pätki- cut into pieces, cut into stumps | Saami bæs'ke a kind of pass across a mountain; hill, mountain on a land-tongue in a lake; bæskedâ-, S Jämtland bieckede- cut hair or wood off; Kola biecke- id. | Mordvin pec^ke- cut; slaughter | Mari pec^ke- trim off, cut off, chop off || Yurak pida- cut, shave (e.g. beard, hair; hair on a reindeer, for identification), piida- trim (e.g., shorten the hair on a reindeer hide, using a knife) | Enets H firi`a-, B fidi`a- to mark, brand, trim, shape; firi`, fidi` spot, stain, identifying mark. HSED 809: *fit “land” *pitt- “area, region” Semitic pittu- id. Akkadian *fit- “earth” Central Chadic futi, fate, feti id. Musgum RPA: *gW(î|â)d- “land” Proto-Afrasian *gûd- “land, country” Cushitic *gW(i|u)d- “place” Chadic *gad- “earth” Omotic SBCHP: gwadn > Middle Welsh gwadn, gwaddn (m/f) “sole of the foot, shoe, foundation” Welsh truit “foot” Old Cornish goden truit (gloss) “planta” Old Cornish guodon /gwodn/ (gloss)“plantariium .i. planta” Old Breton *woda:tV- > Proto-British gwadawt > Middle Welsh gwaddod (m) “sediment, deposit, dregs” Welsh guthot > Old Cornish godhes id. Middle Cornish gutdot id. Old Breton The etymology is not clear. [TP: loanword] EWBS: ibi, hibi, ibiri “brook, ford” Basque bide “road” Basque -de suffix which forms nouns indicating state or loacality Basque ibi + bide > ibide “ford” Basque TP: I think ibi + de > ibide > bide is more likely, Therefore, “a place where there is a ford” > “road”, cf. pont- “bridge” Latin putI “road” Russian DBF: -pide combining form of 'bide' Basque bida- id. Basque bidaia “journey” Zuberoa Basque biaia id. Lapurti Basque piaia id. Lapurti, Low Navarra Basque bidaso “river” Basque [ TP: *ped- > some donor language] itze "sea" Basque [ TP: + *-su > some donor language] itsaso "sea" Basque [cf. ibai "river" Basque ibaiso "river" Basque ] ibi, hibi “brook, ford” Basque ibide “ford” Basque ubi, ubide "ford" Basque HB: Bidasoa river on the French-Spanish border Biduze another river in the Basque country [Did 'bide' come from **pide or perhaps **pite?] APG: *Pedese > Pedeze > Päse name of town north of Peine Pedze, Pedese, Peedse > Peise id. in Drente, The Netherlands *Petese > Petse, Petesse > Pätsen local pronounciation Petzen name of town near Bückeburg Petze id. south of Hildesheim perhaps Pötzen id. near Hameln Pedasa name of town Asia Minor Pedasos id. Asia Minor Pidossus name of island Asia Minor Pa:du:sa name of channel from the Po to Ravenna BBPN: Bédakon ancient name of Seebruck (Upper 2nd century, Bavaria, at the place where the 11th century copy Altz river leaves Lake Chiemsee), in antiquity a road station Bedaio id. 3rd century, 7/8th century copy Bitburg city in the western part of the Eifel mountains, Rhineland-Palatia Bedense castrum a. 715 Bideburh 893 Bidburgh 1030 Beda Celto-Latin, 3rd century a Celtic road settlement expanded by the Romans, at the military road Metz-Trier-Cologne, in the 3rd century a Roman fort Betzdorf city on the Sieg river, Rhineland- Palatia, originally at a ford through a brook at the medieval trunk-road from Siegen via Hachenburg to the Rhine Betstorff a. 1382 Peiting, Upper Bavaria a glance at the map shows that Peiting is important because of its geographical position at the intersection of several roads, with a crossing over the Lech river from where one road continues to Kempten (Cambodunum) Pittengouua c. 1063 Bitingouue 1096-1145 Bidingen village in Bavarian Swabia, situated on the intersection of two roads one of which is the only one to cross an adjacent hill-range Bidigin a. 1145-80 Bidign, Bidingen, Pidingen 13th century Bedford, Bedfordshire approximately ten roads meet here; it is far and wide the only place where one can cross the Great Ouse Bedanford a. 880, 818 Bydanford c. 1000 Bedeford Domesday book, 1086 Bideford, Devonshire on an important intersection, is the first place up the Torridge where roads can cross the river Bedeford, Bediforda Domesday book Bediford a. 1202 Budiford 1232 Bedhampton, Hampshire near Bedhampton the Roman road from Winchester to Chichester meets the coastal road from Southampton to Chichester Betametona Domesday book Bethametona a. 1167 Bedhampton 1249 DSDE: *bhedh- “dig in(to) the ground” Proto-IndoEuropean *bhodyo- “dug-out hollow in the ground used for sleeping” Proto-IndoEuropean *baðja- Proto-Germanic patja “bolster, cover” Finnish beðr “bolster” Old Norse badi “bed” Gothic bed(di) id. Old Saxon betti id. Old High German bedd id. Old English Bett “bed” German beðr “bolster” Old Norse bedo- “canal, grave” Gaulish bedd “grave” Welsh fodere “cut, dig” Latin fossa “grave, ditch” Latin bedù, bèsti “cut, bore, dig” Lithuanian bodo,, bosti “cut” Old Church Slavonian pat-, pa:t- “plough” Tokharian A beda- “cut” Hittite [And don't forget: “river bed”] [with Grassmann?] beit “grazing, pasture” Old Norse bed “pasture” Danish, Middle Danish beit “fodder” < “something to bite” Norwegian i bet “on pasture” Swedish bed “grazing of the rest” > “work time between two rests for a team of horses” Danish dial. beitan “bite” Proto-Germanic *baitjan caus. Proto-Germanic beita “let bite; hunt with hawk or hound; let graze” Old Norse beizen “let bite” Old High German, German bætan “rein, hunt” Old English [At fords, river banks are typically low, which means they are places with abundant vegetation] *po:d- “foot” Proto-IndoRuropean *fo:t- id. Proto-Germanic *pauta- “paw” Proto-Germanic po:te id. Middle Low German from Celtic[?], whence also pauta id. Provencal poue id. French TP: And don't forget: “river bed” Back