*s-w- “one's own, relative, friend”

PMA sawa-ni “wife” Lahuda, Multani, T'ali, D'anni syanini “wife” W. Pahari swasni “wife” E. Pahari swain “wife” Gar'wali sakha “friend” Sanskrit, also siva “friendly, auspicious, happy” Sanskrit IENH 169: *sy[a|&]w- “to give birth, be born” Proto-Nostratic > *s[e|o]w(H)- “to give birth” Proto-IndoEuropean *s^w- “to give birth, be born” Proto-Kartvelian *ce:(y)- “son, child, lad, youth” Proto-Dravidian SIG, IESSG, VISW: Two roots: 1 *s-p- “abstain” pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *s-w- “abstain” Proto-IndoEuropean + t- > pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *sápat- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic + d- Proto-IndoEuopean *s-wd- intr. Proto-IndoEuropean eúdo: Greek = *s-b- “abstain” pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic + f- > pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic + p- Proto-IndoEuopean *sw-p- Proto-IndoEuropean swefan “sleep” Old English sofa id. Old Norse svápnas “sleep” n. Sanskrit svefn id. Old Norse swefn id. Old English somnus id. Latin húpnos id. Greek svefja “becalm, quiet, pacify” Old Norse o-grade so:pi:re “put to sleep” Latin sæ:fa “kill” Old Norse + laryngeal *sw-pâ- Proto-IndoEuropean svápiti “falls asleep” Sanskrit = + X- Semitic sabaXa “he was free from work, he slept deeply” Arabic sabXun “the being unoccupied, free from work, the being in a state of rest, or in a state of sleep” Arabic tasbi:Xun id. and “the sleeping every hour, he sleeping soundly” Arabic + laryngeal(H.- ?) Proto-IndoEuropean *sapáH.- (: Semitic *s-b-H.- ?) > *swa:- Proto-IndoEuropean + kW- or ghW- Proto-IndoEuropean geswo:gen ptc “swooned” Old English swo:ghenen, swo:unen “to swoon” Middle English geswo:gung, -swo:wung “swooning” Old English swo:uning id. Middle English + y- Proto-IndoEuropean *s-wy- intr. Proto-IndoEuropean perhaps savjá- “link” Sanskrit havja- id. Avestan *sw-y- tr. Proto-IndoEuropean + m-suffix svi:mi “dizziness, unconsciousness, swoon” Old Norse swi:ma id. Old English swi:me id. Middle Low German zwijm id. Dutch swi:men “become unconscious” Middle Low German zwi:men > zwijmen id. Dutch swi:mel “dizziness, vertigo” Middle High German swi:mel id. Middle Low German zwijmel id. Dutch beswi:melunge “extasis” Middle High German swimra “feel dizzy” Old Norse swi:men, sweimen “soar” Middle High German sweim “soaring” n. Middle high German + n-suffix swi:nan “dwindle, waste away, lessen, be reduced, abate” Old high German swi:nen id. Middle High German swi:nen “faint” Middle high German derived or /m/ > /n/ before dental? swintilo:n “feel vertigo” Old High German swindeln id. Middle High German svina “abstain; abate” Old Norse and several derivatives of *sw-y- “abstain” + k- or gh- Proto-IndoEuropean swi:ge:n “be silent” Old High German sweigen “becalm, quiet, pacify” Old High German sweigen id. Middle High German + bh- Proto-IndoEuropean sveiban “abstain, cease” Gothic swifast w. gen. “abstain, shrink from” Old Norse swifte “calm, quieted” Middle High German giswifto:n “becalm, quiet” Old High German swiften id. Middle High German swebe:n “swim, soar = be carried (by the water or air) without own effort” Old High German sweben id. Middle High German sweibo:n “soar” Old High German sweiben id. Middle High German + g- svai~kti “become dizzy” Lithuanian svaigìmas “dizziness” Lithuanian svai~ginti “make dizzy” Lithuanian swi:can “abstain, cease” Old English swi:can “become weary, negligent” > “become untrue, a traitor” Old Saxon swi:hhan id. Old High German + Y.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *sapáY.- pre-IndoEuropean.AfroAsiatic *swo:- Proto-IndoEuropean so:a “kill” Old Norse so:inn ptc Old Norse + n- *swo:na:- “abstain from hostlity, praise peace” Proto-IndoEuropean swo:ne, so:ne “atonement” Middle Low German zwoens “atonement, peace” Middle Dutch suona id. Old High German giso:nian “atone, reconcile, recompense” Old Saxon suonen id. Old High German with r-suffix svaran, svo:r “swear” Gothic sverja, s(v)o:r id. Old Norse swerren, swuor id. Old High German : *s-P.-Y.- > Proto-Semitic s^-b-3- Hebrew ni-s^ba3 niph “swear (someone peace)” Hebrew hiph “let swear, swear to someone” Hebrew ithpe “swear” Jewish Aramaic aph “swear to someone” Jewish Aramaic a^eBu3a: “oath (of allegiance)” Hebrew s^eBu3Ta: id. Jewish Aramaic : *s-P.- Proto-Semitic s-b- Semitic + t- > Semitic s-b-t- Semitic s-p-t- in s^apattum = u:m nu:X libbi “Tag der Beruhigung des Herzens” Assyrian with /p/ = Proto-IndoEuropean /w/ : Semitic /b/, or /p/ written for /b/ s^a:BaT “stop (working), rest” Hebrew sabtun “stillness, rest” Arabic s^æ`BæT “stopping, abstaining” Hebrew s^abba:T “day of rest, sabbath” Hebrew sabata “he was (became) quiet, still, ceased from works, rested, took rest” Arabic suba:tun “heavy sleep like a swoon, lethargic slumber” Arabic musbiyun he died” Arabic masbu:tun “in a swoon > dead” Arabic 'asbata IV “he was (became) motionless” Arabic caus. “(a medicine) produced suba:t, it torpefied or benumbed” Arabic If E. Mahler in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 62, p. 33- is right in the assumption that Semitic s-b-t- originally meant intr. “be finished”, tr. “finish, complete”, then s-p-t- : s-P.-t- (> Semitic s-b-t) acquired the sense “abstain, rest” already in pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic. + H.- Semitic sabaH.a “he swam (also “the stars”), was empty, he was at rest, he slept” Arabic ta-sbaH.u “glide along = pass along (in the firmament)” Arabic sabH.un “the being still, quiet, motionless, the state of sleeping” Arabic + h- (partly = *sw-y- Proto-IndoEuropean) sabahun “senile dementia, dotage” Arabic suba:hun “apoplectic fit” Arabic subiha “was demented because of senility” Arabic + H.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *s-p-H.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *s-wa:- “beget” Proto-IndoEuropean savi-tá: “male originator” Sanskrit savi-trí: “female originator” Sanskrit reduced *suH- > *su:- su:- “originator, creator” Sanskrit su:s “pig” Latin hus “pig” Greek sy:r “sow” Old Norse su: “sow” Old English su: “sow” Old Low German su: “sow” Old High German hu: “pig” Avestan su-kará- “boar, swine” Sanskrit su:nú- “son” Sanskrit su:nùs “son” Lithuanian synU “son” Old Church Slavonian sú:-te: “begets” Sanskrit with n-infix *sunéH > *suná: Proto-IndoEuropean huna:-mi “beget” Avestan whence, perhaps, analogically with short -u- hunu- “son” Avestan *sunu- “son” Germanic Alternating forms *s-p- “pour, shed” Semitic extended with -k- safaka “poured out, shed” Arabic s^aPaX- “poured out, shed” Hebrew s^apa:ku “pour out” Assyrian is^pak pret. Assyrian extended with -z^- s^-p-y- “abound” West Semitic s^a:Paz^ “flowed abundantly” Modern Hebrew s^&Paz^ “flowed abundantly” Syrian s^&Paz^ “flowed abundantly” Jewish Aramaic s^&Pz^å “effusion” Syrian : s-b-z^- “abound” Arabic extended with -H- s-p-H- “pour, shed semen” pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic safaHa “he poured out or forth (water), shed (blood, tears)” Arabic sa:faHa-ha: III “he shed semen with her” Arabic sifa:Hun “the commiting fornication with another” Arabic mu-sa:fiHun “a fornicator” Arabic s^iPHa: “slave woman (especially of the wife whom she can give to her husband as a concunine” Hebrew mi-s^pa:Ha: “tribe, clan, nation, people” Hebrew : *s-P.- > *s-b- Semitic extended with -l- sabalun “rain, shower” Arabic 2 *s-X^-r- pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic with w-preformative and metathesis *sw-k^-r- Proto-IndoEuropean socer “father-in-law” Latin hekurós Greek s^vas^ura Sanskrit swehur Old High German swaihra Gothic hekurá: f. Greek s^vas^rú: f. Sanskrit socrus f. Latin swigar Old High German swaihro: Gothic *s.-h-r- Semitic s.ihrun “father or brother or other kinsman of a man's wife, relationship consisting in being a father or brother or other kinsman of a man's wife” Arabic s.ihratun “mother-in-law” Arabic Germanic e: > West, North Germanic a: = Arabic a: swa:ger “brother-in-law” Middle High German swa:ger “brother-in-law” Low German sværa “mother-in-law” Old Norse s.a:hara III “he became that kind of relation called s.ihr” Arabic *z-w- pre-IndoEuropean *s-w- “move” Proto-IndoEuropean *z-w-y- pre-IndoEuropean *s-w-y- Proto-IndoEuropean *séwy- > sávi (high tone) Sanskrit savi-tár- “impeller, driver” Sanskrit sávi-man- “impulse, drive” Sanskrit *suy- > su:- (toneless) Sanskrit su:tá “moved, impelled, driven” Sanskrit z-w-y- “impel, drive” Semitic za:ya (perf.) “impel, drive” (camel) Arabic zåy (perf.) “moved, was moved” > “trembled all over” Syrian (aph.) “moved, confused, frightened” Syrian whence zawyå: “motion, confusion” especially “eartquake” Syrian za:y (inf. zu:ay) “yield, be agitated, tremble” Jewish Aramaic (pa.) “make tremble, frighten” Jewish Aramaic z-w-y- “tremble” > “show fear” Hebrew za:y “trembled” Hebrew zewa:ya: “worry, fear” Hebrew “earthquake, storm” Modern Hebrew zo:ya:, zo:yaTa: f. “earthquake, storm” Jewish Aramaic KMNL 18: Kartvelian *siz^e- “son-in-law” si'e- id. Georgian si/n/z^a-, sinda- id. Mingrelian siz^a- id., “bridegroom” Las c^iz^e- “son-in-law” Svan AfroAsiatic East Cushitic *s/s^Vz- “in-law” sóddog “father-in-law” Somali sóddóh “mother-in-law” Somali seyyóh., soyyóh. “mother-in-law” Rendille seyyóh. “father-in-law” Rendille sìddâh “mother-in-law, father-in-law” pBoni [sic] sodd-a “...in-law” Oromo soqo “son-in-law” Gollango soddá; sóh “in-law” Arbore suoz “in-law” Dasenech West Chadic *c^a/sy/a “in-law” NBauc^i The old metathesis from *syac^a-? Egyptian sd_.tj “child, ward” Uralic *c´ec^ä “uncle” IEW *se-, *s(e)we- originally “aside, separate” Proto-IndoEuropean then reflexive pronoun “oneself” Proto-IndoEuropean possessive adjective *s(e)wo- “one's own” Proto-IndoEuropean *sewe-, *swe- Suio:nes “Swedes” Latin swe:s “own; property” Gothic sva:ss “dear, loved” Old Icelandic swa:selinc “father-in-law, son-in-law, brother-in-law” Middle Dutch *s(w)e-bh(o)-, *swo-bho- “of a separate kind” sa-bhá “community, community house” Sanskrit sibja “family, all of one's own people” Gothic sjafni “love” Old Icelandic Semnones (< *Sebnan-ez) Sabi:ni: Sabelli (< *safnolo-) Samni:tes Sue:bi names of peoples Latin svoboda freedom (the state of the family) Old Church Slavonian *suedh- svadhá- “particularity, habit, mores, homestead” Sanskrit ethos Greek *sekw- “follow” *sokwios “companion” dubious because of -kh- : sákha “companion, friend” Sanskrit socius “companion” Latin *swe-k- <-> *sekw- ? (cf. the IE forms for six) UEL 12: *suH-e/o- “set in motion, propel” Proto-IndoEuropean suváti “sets in motion, propels, agitates, animates”; “grants” (mostly of the god Savitar, Rig Veda Sanskrit hunaiti “propels smt. to sby., tries to get smt. for sby.” Avestan apa-h_vanvainti “they divert” Avestan *suH-to- > Proto-IndoEuropean su:ta Sanskrit pra-su:ta “set in motion, propelled, sent” Sanskrit nr.-su:ta “driven by men” Sanskrit mainyu-s^u:ta- “driven by spirit” Avestan with active sense su:tá-h. “charioteer, stable master” (“driver”) Sanskrit s^uwa:i “push, shove” Hittite *sewH-/*suH- Proto-IndoEuropean Savitár a god Sanskrit eáo: “let, permit” (< “let go”) Greek loaned into *suxi_ Proto-Uralic > *su:Ge > *su:ke sukkâ- “row” Saami s^ua-, s^ue- “row, paddle” Cheremis si_n “row” Syryan tow- “row” Vogul t&w “row” Ostyak *tu- “row” Samoyed su:G-ta- > Baltic Finnic souta (inf. soutaa) “row, move back and forth” Finnish sõuda- “row, soar, move, be agitated” Estonian sõudik “rower, helmsman” sõudma (sõuan, sõuda) “row” South East Estonian suw'de “transport by rowing” Saami > *so: > suo- (inf. suoda) “grant sby. smt.” (especially of God and other higher powers) Finnish soovima “grant, wish for sby. else” Estonian sõudma (sõuan, sõuda) “grant, wish for sby. else” South East Estonian UEL 16: *sewH-/*suH- Proto-IndoEuropean sú:-te (med.) “gives birth to, begets, produces” Sanskrit (pra-)su:yate (pass.) “be born, come into being” Sanskrit sú:- “producer, begetter; birth” Sanskrit su:tí “birth, coming into being” Sanskrit huna:mi “give birth” Avestan haota- “gender” Avestan *suH-nu- > su:nú- “son” Sanskrit su:nùs “son” Lithuanian synU “son” Old Church Slavonic loaned into *suke-/*suki- Early Proto-Finno-Ugric suke-utu- (sukeutua < suke-) “become, come into being” Finnish (-utu- reflexive-medial) suke-a-, suke-ne- (inf. sueta < suke-) (dial., old) id. and “create, get” Finnish suke- (inf. sukea) “create, get” Finnish suge- (inf. sugeda, 1st sg. pres. soen, sugen) “happen, become, grow, procreate” Estonian su'gg&^ “become, come into being, appear, happen” Livonian *suke- Baltic Finnic suku “gender; descendance, birth; (older) brood” Finnish sugu “manner, gender; fruit, child, increase” Estonian sokkâ “gender” Saami DSDE *swe-m- “move” Proto-IndoEuropean [cf. Estonian sõudma and soovima] *swem- Præ-Germanic *swim(m)- > Proto-Germanic suemme irr. “swim” Old Danish sømme reg. “swim” Old Danish etc *swum- [TP: should be *sum-] > Proto-Germanic symja “swim” Norwegian dial. *swem-d-ne- > to-senn- “persecute” Old Irish *sum-Da pre-Germanic *sun-da Popto-Germanic sund “sound, strait” Danish, Old Danish, Swedish, Old Norse sunt “lake, sea” Middle Low German sund “lake, sea” Old English Probably identical with sund “swimming” Norwegian, Old Norse, Old English thus something which can be swum over IELS *su- “give birth” Proto-IndoEuropean *su:nu- “son” Proto-IndoEuropean sunu- “son” Sanskrit hunu- “son” Avestan sunus “son” Lithuanian synU “son” Slavic huiús “son” Greek soyä “son” TokharianA sä “son” TokharianB *swesor “sister” Proto-IndoEuropean svasar “sister” Sanskrit xvanhar “sister” Avestan kcoyr “sister” Armenian soror “sister” Latin swistar “sister” Gothic sestra “sister” Old Slavic s^ar “sister” Tokharian eor “daughter, cousin, relative” Greek where *-sor “woman” Proto-IndoEuropean *swekuros “father of husband” Proto-IndoEuropean s´vás´ura “father of husband” Sanskrit xvásura “father of husband” Avestan skesr-ayr “father of husband” Armenian socer “father of husband” Latin hekurós “father of husband” Greek swáihra “father of husband” Gothic svekrU “father of husband” Old Slavic and, slightly altered sesuras “father of husband” Lithuanian chwegrwn “father of husband” Welsh *swekru:s “mother of husband” Proto-IndoEuropean s'vas´ru: “mother of husband” Sanskrit skesur “mother of husband” Armenian socrus “mother of husband” Latin hekurá “mother of husband” Greek svaihro “mother of husband” Gothic svekry “mother of husband” Old Slavic *swos (< *swe-) reflexive possessive pronoun, “personal belonging” Proto-IndoEuropean svoj id. Russian swes id. Gothic sva id. Sanskrit ... Slavic, Baltic and in particular Germanic ... in this group the terms derived from *swe refer to kinship by alliance and not to consanguineous kinship. svat “suitor; related by marriage (eg. as between husband's father and wife's father” Russian svojak (< svoj) “brother-in-law” Russian svest' (f.) “wife's sister” Russian sváinis “wife's brother; sister's husband” Lithuanian svainé “wife's sister; brother's wife” Lithuanian swîo, geswîo “brother-in-law, sister's husband” Old High German If we have in these derivatives survivals of an ancient lexical state of affairs, we can see how interesting they are for the interpretation of those fundamental words common to all Indo-European languages, which seem to be composed with *swe, that is 'sister' (*swesor-) and 'parents-in-law' (*swekru:-, etc). It would mean that these terms connect those so designated with the other exogamic 'moiety'. In fact, the sister belongs there potentially, and the mother-in-law does so in fact. Theoreticians, who might be prompted by the present study to reconsider the analysis of kinship in Indo-European societies, will be better able to assess the significance which is to be attached to this observation. *swed- Proto-IndoEuropean ídios “private, which belongs to somebody” Greek whediestas (pl.) id. Dorian soda:lis “companion, colleague” Latin *swet- Proto-IndoEuropean éte:s “kinsman” Greek hetaîros “companion” (in some activity, eg. battle) Greek *swedh- Proto-IndoEuropean eío:tha “be accustomed to” Greek éthos “habit” Greek su:-s “pig” Latin su: facere “to sacrifice by means of an animal” (old abl.) Latin hû:-s “pig” Greek su:kara “pig” Sanskrit hu:- “pig” Avestan xu:k (< *hu:kka) “pig” Iranian Thus Indo-Iranian had a form with a suffix -k which, over the domain of Indic and Avestan, referred only to the wild species. The reason is that neither in India nor in Persia were pigs bred in ancient times. There is no mention of pig breeding in our texts. The situation which has been reconstituted by this connexion reproduces the proper sense of Indo-European *swe, which implies both distinctiveness from all else, the isolation of the 'self', the effort to separate oneself from everything which is not *swe, and also, within the exclusive circle thus marked off, the close relationship with those who form part of it. From this comes this double heritage, both idió:tes the isolated member of society, and also the soda:lis, the member of a closed fraternity. This duality survived, as is revealed by the etymology, in the two forms se in Latin, which have become independent; the reflexive se, indicating 'self', and the separative se-, sed "but", marking distinction and opposition. Nostratica-L 32: sval “to live” Etruscan sawl “health, prosperity” Hurrian NEOVF 2: *s^ew'V “to want, agree, allow” Nostratic *seuH-/*suH- “to let, encourage” IndoEuropean suváti, sávati “urges, encourages” Sanskrit eáo: “I permit, leave” Greek *suH-mo- (noun) > vir-su:men “to miss[, neglect]” Old High German versäumen id. High German *s^w' “to ask” AfroAsiatic *s^w' Semitic s^w' “to ask for help” Old Hebrew *s^Vw- Cushitic s^i:w- “to ask, demand” Bilin s^iw- id. Kemant säw- id. Kwara s^äw- id. Dembea c,aw- id. Khamir *s^w- “to let, leave” Kartvelian s^v- id. Georgian s^k(w)- id. Chan, Megrel s^gvan “to let go, dispatch” Svan *seb or *s´eb “to like” (< “to want”) Turkic säb- “to like” Old Turkic säv- “to like” Old Uighur *s´öbV- “to ask” Tungusian s^uburme “I ask” Manchu *s^ewV- “to allow, agree” Uralic hevillä, hevin “easily, with pleasure” Finnish dial. *ci:v- “to agree, to give (to the socially disadvantaged)” Dravidian i:(v-) id. Tamil i:vu “pressure, present, distrubution” Tamil i: “to allow” Kannada iccu, ivv- “to permit, allow” Telugu si:- “to give” Kolami si:ana “to give, allow” Gondi si:va-, ji:va- “to give, permit” Kui According to origin, grammatical affixes that can be traced back to the root *s^ew'V have two meanings: desiderative and causative. Both meanings can be considered to be a derivative of the meaning for the analytical construction 'X + *s^ew'V' "to want X, agree to X" *-s- : IndoEuropean desiderative s´us´rus.ate “wants to hear” Sanskrit *weid-s-o: > vi:sso: > vi:so: “I want to see” Archaic Latin > future deíkso: “I shall show” Greek leipso: “I shall release” Greek dixo “I shall tell” Old Latin faxo “I shall do” Old Latin capso “I shall take” Old Latin fust “will be” (3rd sg.) Oscan duos “he will give” Lithuanian *-syo- IndoEuropean desiderative > future bu:-s.ia-nt “he who will be” Sanskrit bys^a,s^c^e-ye “future, coming” Old Church Slavonic bú:siu “I shall be” Lithuanian *-su/*-sü, *-su:/*-sü: voluntative (the speaker's desire to perform an action) Mongolian *ora-su “let me enter!” Mongolian *ögsü “let me give!” Mongolian -su, sü kele-sü “I will say” Middle Mongolian -su:n (with secondary -n) Moghul -su-gay, -sü-gey Written Mongolian *-sun/*-sün 3rd pers. optative Turkic -zun, -zün Old Turkic -sun, -sün Old Uighur -sun Modern Uighur -sun, -sün, -sïn, -sin Azerbeidjani *su irregular 3rd and 2nd sg. imperative in some archaic verbs Tungus bi-su “let it be, be!” Manchu bi-su “be!” Nanaj o-su “let it be, be!, come to be!” Manchu o-su “come to be!, become!” Nanaj gay-su “take!” Manchu ga-su “buy!” Nanaj bay-su “ask!” Manchu di-su “come!” Nanaj -sâi > se me_k-se “I want you to eat, I want to eat, he may eat” Korean *-s^V- causative prefix and suffix AfroAsiatic *s_V- Semitic s^V Akkadian s^ Ugaritic s Minaean sV-, -hV- Aramaic hV- Old Hebrew 'V- Arabic s.- Egyptian *sV-, *-sV Cushitic a-so:-dir “I make someone kill someone” Beja te-so:dir-a “you make someone kill someone”Beja a-s-gidifé “I make someone kill someone” Saho possibly causative Yukaghir -su, -se Tundra -s^ Kolyma -s- causative Japanese TP Si- 'instrumental mood' prefix Austronesian NS 169: *sVx.V/*?sx.V “blood” Proto-Nostratic *sagV “blood; health” Proto-Altaic *sVHwV “soul, breath” Sino-Caucasian *sua: “breathe, live” Sino-Tibetan *du?(x.) “smoke” Proto-Yeniseian *si_?_wV “soul, breath” North Caucasian NS 171: *s^/E/wV “bear, produce” Proto-Nostratic *s^(V)wV “bear; son, offspring” Sino-Caucasian *su: “grandchild, descendant” Sino-Tibetan *ïs^wV “bear; son, daughter” North Caucasian KI sua, bersua dengan, tersua “meet with; find, come across”, “turn out, work out” Indonesian mempersuakan “bring into contact with, introduce to” Indonesian suai (sesuai), bersuai “fit, fitting, suitable, appropriate, corresponding” Indonesian suami “husband” Indonesian CELR III 27: *wun- “son” West Chadic *xwan- “sister” Central Chadic h.wn “son” Egyptian IEIE *s^w- “boar, pig” Kartvelian e-s^v-i “tusk” Georgian o-sk-u “pigsty” Mingrelian *su(:)- “pig” Proto-IndoEuropean xWy- “pig” Ossetic xWydon “pigsty” Ossetic xWygæs “swineherd” Ossetic *zisxl.- “blood” Kartvelian sisxl- id. Georgian zisxir- id. Mingrelian dicxir- id. Laz zisx id. Svan *esH-r.- id. Proto-IndoEuropean Reduplication with voicing of *s-, typical of Kartvelian *s^w- “give birth, be born” Kartvelian s^w- id. Georgian s^v-il-i “son” Georgian *p'ir-m-s^we- > p'ir-ms^o- “first-born” Old Georgian cf pu:rva-sú:- id. Sanskrit skw- “lay egg” (of bird) Mingrelian skua “son” Mingrelian sg- “give birth, be born” Svan &msge “son” Svan *seu- “give birth, be born” Proto-IndoEuropean sú:h. m., f. “parent”, “sire, stud”, “dam” Sanskrit + t- suth “birth; fruit, fetus” Old Irish sú:tu- “pregnancy” Sanskrit + y- huiús, gen. huiéos “son” Greek soy “son” Toch. B } sawa “wife” SE Papuan, Proto-Austronesian sawe “wife” Ngaju-Dayak a-sawa “wife” Philippines sa “wife” Sui suong “wife” Axamb saoi “wife” Letemboi a-soan “wife” Maskelynes asu-k “wife” Lironesa aso-ku “wife” Faulili, Maat hoang “wife” Vowa asa-k “wife” Nume sawani “husband” Wandammen swa- “husband” Biak-Numfor sau-ki “woman” Kosirava Maisin, Uyaku Maisin PMA sawa “wife” SE Papuan, Proto-Austronesian sawe “wife” Ngaju-Dayak a-sawa “wife” Philippines sa “wife” Sui suong “wife” Axamb saoi “wife” Letemboi a-soan “wife” Maskelynes asu-k “wife” Lironesa aso-ku “wife” Faulili, Maat hoang “wife” Vowa asa-k “wife” Nume sawani “husband” Wandammen swa- “husband” Biak-Numfor sau-ki “woman” Kosirava Maisin, Uyaku Maisin PMA soa- “friend, friendly” common Polynesia, hiwa?- “beloved, esteemed, choice black color, pet black pig” Hawai'i hoa- “friend” Hawai'i sahabat, sobat- “friend” Malay, Indonesia, saing- “friend” Malay sinta- “loved one” Tagalog sakay, sangkay- “friend” Proto-Philippine (Zorc & Charles) hata, hagu, hai- “friend” Arosi si'ohana, hoe-na- “friend” Are'are sa- “friend” Fiji sata- “friend” Lau TP: A pig in this context is interesting, cf IE *su-, *su-in-. PMA purus^a “man (vir), soul, spirit” Sanskrit This word is rather mysterious and it may be that it lost its original root sense. TP : persu “god of the underworld” Etruscan persona “mask used in plays” Latin < Etruscan VMPSIE: poso “heart” Tagalog foo, foh, fô “heart” Madagascar máfu “heart” Tongan PMA: A similar word is found in Ilocano: parsua “man, humans (as created)” Ilocano from root sua “to create” There is also: Mamar-sua “Creator” Ilocano Related terms in Austronesian probably derived from the same “sua” root are sua-hasoli “man” Iarkei suah “person” Iarkei hua “progeny, product, to bear fruit” Maori hua “to give birth, product, produce” Hawai'i fua “to give birth, product” Samoa sua-haha-ku “child” SE Papuan sisuh “child” Sanskrit sisu, susu “child” Prakit sisua Mate susua Api cingmai Lehalurup suahaha-ku SE Papuan susngei Lehali susu-pwau Arosi susu “youngest child” Saa, Ulawa, Are'are ha'a-susu “to bear child” Arosi susu-buri “youngest child” Lau sua-hasoli “man” Iarkei suah “person” Iarkei AG: SIBLING. *(n)tsi PAustric *ci(q), *ñ'ci 'sibling' PAA *Suaji 'younger sibling' AN (ACD) MK: (1) *ci(q): kynsi 'spouse's sibling' Khasi kam.ci /k?mci?/ 'sister' Mon (Old) kum.ci /k?mci?/ id. Mon (Old) ici /i?ci/ 'parent's younger sister' Mon (Spoken) ache 'great-grand child' Pacoh *kmcii? 'younger sibling, sister' Proto-Mon (2) *ci > *ñci > *ji(q): ji-duat /ci:tù?t/ 'great-grand-parent' Khmer ji /ci:/ 'polite title used by old people to a young man, especially if he has been a novice' Khmer ji-tun 'grandmother' Khmer ji-ta /cI:ta/ 'grandfather' Khmer je? 'neveu [nephew]' Khmu' si/soe/ 'parent's younger sister' Mon (Spoken) si gni /s?ni/ 'spouse's younger sibling' Mon (Spoken) di ro.ch 'mother's younger sister' Muong (Khen) di 'mother's younger sister' Vietnamese chi. 'elder sister' Vietnamese Munda: (1) *ci > *ñci > *ji: aji?, 'elder sister' Juang (P38) ?ji 'elder sister' Santali (P38) aji 'elder brother's wife' Kharia (P38) aji 'sister-in-law' Kurku (P38) aji 'grand mother' Mundari (P38) (2) *ñ’ci: a:yin 'younger sister' Sora (P38) a:yi? 'younger sister' Sora (P38) Comment: Cf AT *(s[o]w)a(ñ)ji 'sibling (younger)' previously compared with AN (Ben75) *sua(ñ)ji 'younger sibling' Also note WMP (ACD) *enzi, *enzi-q 'term of address to girls', where *z appears to reflect *nts > *ñc > *z in parallel development to AA *ts > *ñc > *j The *Su element of PAN *Suaji may correspond to the unpublished PAA *caw 'grandchild', suggesting that the antecedent of *Suaji was *saw/a/n/tsi, the slashes denoting morpheme boundaries Last updated: 10/2/01 Published: A1:159,162 as *(i,a)(n)ci(q) TP: Both Møller and Manansala sees this as two roots. Møller has *s-p-H- and *s-X-r-. But in the latter he lets IndoEuropean introduce a -w- ("w-preformative and metathesis"), after which it might as well have been derived from his *s-p-H- (or rather, both might be derived from a *s-p- with extensions). The semantics of Manansala's roots follow those of Møller, ie. he has a “wife” and an “in-law, associate”, *s-w- and *s-k-, respectively, I reconstruct, but then I know nothing of phoneme developments in Austronesian. What intrigued me, was the occurence of a “pet black pig” in the among the descendants of the *s-k- root. In IndoEuropean, the root for “sow, pig” *su:-, *su-in- belongs with the *s-w- root. The three first of Manansala's examples seemed out of place (soa- “friend”, hiwa?- “beloved, pet black pig”, hoa- “friend”) in having no discernible velar, so I might have decided to allocate them to *s-w-, but given my ignorance of Austronesian historical sound laws I can't rule out that they once had a -k- and thus belong with *s-k-. To solve this problem I have gone along with Pokorny (IEW)'s proposal, that there is a metathesis(?) *s-kW- <-> s-w-k-. This obviates the need for Møller's "w-preformative and metathesis". Back