*dan- “river, lake”

IENH 83 : *d[a|ë]n- “to run, flow” Proto-Nostratic *d[h](e|o)n- “to run, flow” Proto-IndoEuropean *d[e|i]n- “to run, flow” Proto-Kartvelian *dn- “to melt” Proto-Kartvelian Afro-Asiatic: *dun- “to leak (eg. bag, roof)” Proto Highland East Cushitic *dun-am- “to leak (eg. water)” Proto Highland East Cushitic SIG, IESSG, VISW *T.- Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic extended *T.-l- Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic t-l-l- Proto-Semitic t.alla “(dew) lightly moistened the ground” Arabic t.allun “dew, ligh rain” Arabic extended *T.-p- Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic > n-t.-p- with n-preformative Proto-Semitic na:t.a:P “drip” Hebrew nat.afa “drip” Arabic *nat.ufa intr. > Arabic nut.fatuN “drop, semen” Arabic nat.afa trans. “purified (by drops)” Ethiopian > *dh-w- (p < w) Proto-IndoEuropean theo: (fut. theúsomai) “run, flow” Greek dháva-te: “flows, runs” Sanskrit dhá:vati “runs, flows” Sanskrit *dhawwa- “dew” Germanic tou “dew” Old High German de:aw “dew” Old English *T.-n- Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic > *dh-n- Proto-IndoEuropean dhánva-ti “runs, flows, makes flows” Sanskrit dhánu-tar “running, (swiftly) flowing” Sanskrit *T.-r- Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic > *dh-r Proto-IndoEuropean dhá:ra: “stream, drop” Sanskrit dha:rajú “streaming, dripping” Sanskrit extended *dr-wp- Germanic tropfen “drip” German extended > *t.-r-d- Proto-Semitic t.o:re:d “flowing incessantly” Hebrew it.t.arada VII “(the water) flowed in a continous, uninterrupted course” Arabic EIEC: RIVER *deH2nu- “river” *Da:ne/owyos > Donwy river name Welsh Da:nuvius “Danube” Celtic (in Latin) da:nu- “river” Avestan don “river” Ossetic (whence the name of the river Don and element in Dniepr, Dniestr, Donets) da:nu “drops” or “gift” Sanskrit Another possibility is that we have (with different lengthened grade): *dho:nu- “river” represented by the Celtic and Iranian words and that this is a derivation of *dhen- “flow” otherwise seen in danuvatiy “flows” Old Persian dhánvati “moves fast, rushes” Sanskrit tsäm “flow” TokharianAB with other derivatives in fo:nt- “spring” Latin tseñe “stream” TokharianAB The latter proposals distribution of forms more strongly suggests PIE status. EIEC: RIVER GODESS There are two kinds of river godesses in Indo-European. The first is indicated by a linguistically cognate set of names derived from *deH2nu- “river” PIE while the second is exclusively confined to Indo-Iranian godesses. A *dah2nu- PIE is supported by Da:nu mother of Vrtra Sanskrit the arch-withholder of heavenly waters; Danu mother of the Tu:atha De: Danann Irish and Do:n Welsh With gender-switching the godess became Danaus Greek father of the Danaids who, after killing their husbands on their wedding nights, were condemned to eternally carrying water in a sieve; and great-great- grandfather of Danaë mother of the hero Perseus, who saved princess Andromeda from a giant female sea-monster. Cognates without personification include the rivers Don (Iranian >) Slavic *Da:nu apara “river to the rear” Iranian > Dniepr Slavic *Da:nu nasdya “river to the front” Iranian > Dniestr Slavic Tanais Scythian Danube Central Europe and smaller bodies of water Duno:jus “Large Stream” Lithuanian Dunavas “Small River, Stream” Latvian Although linguistically cognate, it is difficult to support a common mythologem or discern a set of common themes that would permit the reconstruction of a personalized *Deh2nu- PIE Rather, we may have merely a personalization of the concept “river” in a number of IE groups. [And I leave out the "second major type of IE river godess" here] IEW 1. *dhen- “run; flow” dhanáyati “runs, sets in motion” Sanskrit dani:dan “haste, run” New Persian dhánvati “runs, flows” Sanskrit danuvatiy “flows” Old Persian dhánutar- “flowing, running” Sanskrit (*ar-dhonw-a: >) ardannva “the one at the water(?)” Messapian field name Herdonia > Ardaneae place name Apulia probably fo:nt- “spring” Latin perhaps a mixture of *fontes to- stem Latin and (*dhn-ti- >) *fentis ti- sten Latin tsän “flow” TokharianAB 2. *dhen- “palm of the hand, even ground, flat board” *dhen- “level depression in the ground” dhánus- n. dhánvan m.n. “dry land, continent, beach, parched land, desert” Sanskrit dhánu-, dhanú- f. “sand bank, coast, island” Sanskrit thénar n. “palm of the hand, sole of the foot”, also “the surface of the sea”, and “depression in the altar for receiving the blood” Greek opisthothénar > opisthénar “back of the hand” Greek (*denara) tenar m. tenra f. tener “palm of the hand” Old High German danea “area” Medieval Latin tenni n. “level earth or plank floor for threshing, ground, open area, even surface” Old High German tenne m.f.n. do. Middle High German Tenne do. High German denne “area, pavimentum, tabulatum” Dutch in the sense “place trampled level as a threshing floor, place where the grass is flat because someone has been lying on it, depression arisen this way” might be seen: denn “trampled down place in field” Mecklenburg Low German denne “depression in landscape, forest valley” Middle Low German denne “forest valley” Middle Dutch dan “empty area surrounded by hedges, open area, land, landscape, narrow passage or hiding place for game, forest valley” Middle Dutch denn “lair, den” Old English den English denn(e) “flower bed, field” Old Friesian HSED 594: *da?-/*daw- “be wet” *nVdaw-/*naday- “be wet” Semitic ndw, ndy [-a-] “be wet” Arabic Prefix *nV-. Cf. *dVy- “rain (n.)” Semitic d&yyä “rain (n.)” Eja diyä “rain (n.)” Gogot *dVw- “soak” Berber &-du “soak” Ahaggar *da?- West Chadic d.o: “pour” Sura do: “pour” Angas d.a: “be wet” Kariya da?a: “be wet” Jimbin *du- “pour” Agaw du-ng “pour” Aungi *da?- “rain (v.)” Lowland East Cushitic da?- “rain (v.)” Somali Cf. also reduplication in *dad- “rainy season” Saho-Afar dada “rainy season” Saho Consonantal variation *-?- ~ *-w-. HSED 711: *din- “cloud, rain” *di:n- “long rain” Semitic di:n-at- “long rain” Arabic *din- “cloud” West Chadic ti:n “cloud” Montol HSED 747: *dur- “flow” *dir-/*dur- Semitic drr “drip” Hebrew drr [-u-, -i-] “flow abundantly” Arabic dr “prevent water from flowing down” Egyptian (medical) *duHwar- “pour” West Chadic d.u:ra “pour” Hausa d.er “pour” Tangale d.urëw “pour” Polchi Secondary laryngeal. Probably, *duHwar- < *Hwadur- Cf. nominal derivatives in *dVHar- “river” West Chadic doora “river” Gera d.ara “river” Bokkos d.eer, d.iyar “river” Dafo-Butura *nV-dwar “rainy season” Central Chadic ndor “rainy season” Mesme *darur- “rain-cloud” Saho-Afar darur “rain-cloud” Saho darur “rain-cloud” Afar HSED 729: *don- “be strong” *dVn- “be strong” Semitic dana:nu “be strong” Akkadian wdn- “be strong, be heavy” Egyptian w- is a vocalic sign (XVIII dynasty) *dwamu- “strong, strength” Central Chadic dëna “strong, strength” Chibak duno-ma “strong, strength” Wamdiu dina “strong, strength” Ngwahi dëna-ma “strong, strength” Margi dono “strong, strength” Mbara dono: “strong, strength” Logone dunoa “strong, strength” Buduma dunu “strong, strength” Gulfey dunu “strong, strength” Kuseri *dwanu- “strong” East Chadic dwana “strong” Sumray duno “strong” Sokoro NMNW: danoer (oe=u) “corpse fluid” Malay danan “lake, pool, still-standing water of some extent” Malay TP: dan- a rather interesting people who like to sail a lot Danish IEIE: *den-/*din- “flow” Kartvelian *dn.- “melt” Kartvelian den-/din- “flow” Georgian dn- “melt” Georgian d&n-, din- “disappear; lose, get lost” Mingrelian din-, (n)dun- “melt” Laz n- “melt” Svan *dhen- “run, flow” Proto-IndoEuropean KMNL: Kartvelian done “plain, level, bottom” Georgian AfroAsiatic Semitic dana'a “low, vulgar” Arabic 'adna:, dunya: f. “lower, deeper; world, earth” Arabic dana:ya “lowness” Arabic dnt “lowland” Ugaritic dn “to bend, go down” Epigraphic South Arabian PIE *dhen- “palm of hand, plain, area, lowlands” Proto-IndoEuropean Uralic tanner, tantere- “field, lowlands” Finnish tu:ndar “northern mountains” Kld Saami > tunturi id. Finnish Tungusian dunda “earth, taiga” Evenki dunde_, du:ndura id. Lamut TP Dandari a people on the Sea of Azov, the king of which, Olthaces (Plutarch, Appian) or Olcaba (Appian) Thor Heyerdahl has identified with Snorri's Odin Danir ?< *Dandri < Dandari Herxleben the seat of the central Thuringian kings, among them king Hermanifrid Tennstedt < Danistath , 775, north of Herxleben Döllstedt < Tullenstat, 779, south of Herxleben which might be the town of the Danes and Turingi, respectively Cybalist 3373, John Croft d-n-n-, denen a sea people Egyptian Cybalist Mark Odegard danava, dunava “pool, puddle” Latvian Cybalist 3388, Dennis Poulter dnnym a people Phoenician Cybalist 3422, Dennis Poulter /t?n3yw/ - tanayu “the Greeks” Egyptian Cybalist 5346, Piotr Gasiorowski Tanew a river in eastern Poland Cybalist 5857, Miguel Carrasquier Vidal edan (dial. eran) “to drink” Basque <- *e=dan-i (= vb.prefix + DAN +ptc.suffix) ezne (dial. ezene) “milk” Basque <- *zne < *dVné (= DENe ~ DAne) gaztai (dial. gaztãi, gazna) “cheese” Basque <- *gaz(i)-dane (= “salty/sour” + DANe) zenbera “soft cheese” <- *den(e)-bera (= DEN(e) + "soft") ardo (dial. arno, ardao, ardão) “wine” Basque <- *ar-dano (? + DANo) CAD: *danaw “lake, pond” Proto-Austronesian *d2a-Núm “fresh water” Proto-Austronesian Back