*sk-lk- “must; debt”

VISW, SI: *s-l- “(be) whole” pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *s-l- id. Proto-IndoEuropean solidus “complete, whole” Latin exteded grade *sò:l- so:lor, con-so:lor “solace, console, soothe, relieve” Latin *so:la: f. > so:la:-men “(source of) solace, comfort” Latin -tium “solace, comfort; relief in sorrow/misfortune” Latin e:-grade se:lra “better” Old English *so:liz > Proto-Germanic se:l adv. “better” Old English *se:l- Proto-Germanic se:l-s “gracious” sæ:ll “happy” Old Norse sa:lida “happines, bliss” Old High German sæ:lde id. Middle High German sæ:lð id. Old English sa:lig “happy, blissful” Old High German = *s-l- Semitic with originally suffixal m- salima intr. “was whole, unharmed, well, he was (became) secure or free” II “(God) saved, secured, freed (him)” Arabic s^elem “is complete, (the moon) is full, has stayed whole” Syrian s^ele:m “was completed” Jewish Aramaic s^a:le:m “complete(d), unharmed” Hebrew s^a:lam perf. “was s^a:le:m” Hebrew s^ala:mu inf. “be unharmed, safe, unimpaired” Assyrian sala:mun “safety, health, peace” Arabic sala:m id. Ethiopian s^alo:m id. Hebrew s^ela:m id. Biblical Aramaic s^ela:ma: id. Jewish Aramaic s^elåmå: id. Syrian s^almu “whole, unharmed” Assyrian s^almu:tu “well-being” Assyrian s^almå: “perfect” Syrian s^alma: “complete, perfect” Jewish Aramaic : *s.-l- Semitic s.-l-H.- Semitic s.aluH.a, s.alaH.a “(the man) was whole, (the thing) went right” Arabic s.ala:H.un “wholeness, goodness” Arabic s.ulH.un “peace” Arabic + t- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic + d- Proto-IndoEuropean *s-ld- Proto-IndoEuropean IndoEuropean ld > Latin ll sollus “whole and solid” Old Latin soll(-ers) “(quiye) skilled” Latin : + t.- Semitic s-l-t.- Semitic salat.a “be whole, unharmed, perfect” Ethiopian selu:t. part. “solid, perfect” Ethiopian sela:t.e: “wholeness, perfection” Ethiopian salut.a, salit.a “(a solid hoof) was (became) strong or hard” Arabic sali:t.un “strong or hard, solid (hoof)” Arabic s^-l-t.- > “be powrful” Assyrian, Aramaic sult.a:nun “strength, might, power” Arabic s^alt.u “shield” Assyrian s^æ`læt. “shield” > “quiver” Hebrew with suffix w- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic sárva- “whole, unharmed” Sanskrit haurva- id. Avestan haruva- id. Old Persian hólo-s id. Greek oú^lo-s id. Ionian salvus id. Latin oú^le “ointment” Greek salu-s nom., salu:t- “integrity, health, well-being” Latin sarvata:ti- “salus” Sanskrit haurvata:t- id. Avestan = with originally suffixal w- s^a:le:w “live calm and content” Hebrew salwatun “the state of mind of being free of worries, peace of mind” Arabic s^alwå: “calm” Syrian s^alwi:þa: id. Jewish Aramaic s^a:la: perf. “was safe, calm” Hebrew sala: “his mind was free of worries” Arabic + y- s^eli: “he was at rest” Syrian s^ela:, s^eli: “was without worry” Jewish Aramaic s^elyå: “quiet, rest, leisure” Syrian s^aliå: “quiet” Syrian s^alyuþå: “calm” n. Syrian s* alyu:þa: id. Jewish Aramaic EP: skal/skulum “owe(s), shall” Old High German skal/skulom id. Old Norse scal/sculun id. Old Saxon skel/skil id. Old Frisian sceal/sculon id. Old English Soll “debit” German schuld “at fault, to blame” German Schuld “guilt” German Schulden pl. “debts” German schulden “to owe” German skéleti “to owe, be guilty” Lithuanian skìlti “to get into debt” Lithuanian skolà “debt, guilt” Lithuanian skallisnan (acc.) “duty” Old Prussian skellânts “guilty” Old Prussian po-skulit “admonish” Old Prussian sal/suld “owe(d), shall/should” Northern English dial., incl Scottish al “shall” Swedish Gutnish *skalkaz m. “servant” Proto-Germanic skalks id. Gothic skalkr id. Old Norse skálkur “rogue” Modern Icelandic scalc “servant” Old High German Schalk “wag, rascal” German scalk “servant” Old Saxon skalk id. Old Frisian scealc id. Old English shalk id. English, poet. obs. *skalH-/skulH- Proto-Germanic (Beekes) *skolHV-/skulHV- > Proto-Vasconic *skolV-/*skulV- > zor (zorr-) “debt” Basque Soldurii brotherhood of men sworn to follow each other in life and death Aquitanian (Caesar Bell. Gall. III. 22) FKUINR 6: *kelke- “shall, must” Proto-FinnoUgrian kul- “be necessary” Votyak kol- id. Zyryene kell- “must, shall” Hungarian galga- “shall, must” Saami The Permian (Voty., Zyry.) phonological form is etymologically a bit irregular (the lobial vowel is too open for a Fi.-Ugr. e-stem (...) which is a further indication of foreign origin; as if the verb had wandered from west to east (but cf. Hungarian kell-. The substitution of the IndoEuropean sequence -lH- by FinnoUgric -lk- might be explained by the fact that FinnoUgric +-ls^- wasn't possible. SSIRG A3.5 *ghel-dh-, *skel- fra-gildan “repay” Gothic gild, gistr “tax” Gothic geld, gield “payment” Old English gieldan “pay” Old English yield English *geldjam > Proto-Germanic gildi “contribution” = “guild” Old Norse Geld “money” German scyld “guilt, obligation” Old English skuld id. Old Norse skuld id. Old High German Schuld id. German skulan “be under an obligation” Gothic sculan id. Old English scolan / solan id. Old High German sollen id. German shall/should id. English S-addition. CAD: *saláq “sin, error, mistake” Proto-Austronesian TP: I think the *-k- suffix of Proto-Germanic *skalkaz and Finno-Ugric *kelke- is the agentive suffix *-k- I've met in several other roots; it shows examples of the objective suffix *-d- also (Schuld, Soldurii). Back