*H-bh/p-g/H- “bind; pole; catch; to divide, apportion, feed, protect”

PMA pac “to bind” Sanskrit bhag/bhaga “to divide, allot” Sanskrit pa “to guard, protect, preserve” Sanskrit IENH 25: *b[a|&]y- “to apportion, divide into shares, distribute, allot” Proto-Nostratic > *b[h][e|o]y- “to give” Proto-IndoEuropean (found only in Anatolian) b[a|&]y- “to apportion, separate into equal parts, distribute into shares” Proto-AfroAasiatic ba:ya(n) “rich” Proto-Altaic ba “give as a gift or ration” Sumerian *payuG- “to bring food or supplies to” Proto-Eskimo payuk- “to bring a gift to” East Canadian Inuit payuk- “to give food, clothing to those remaining” West Canadian Inuit VISW, IESSG *Y.-P.-G.- Pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *Y.aP.áG.- ? transitive Pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *bh-g- Proto-IndoEuropean bhája-ti “apportions” Sanskrit bag- intrans. “to be apportioned to, + dat. to belong to, to be meant for” Avestan bhaktá- partcp. “defined portion” Sanskrit baXtá- partcp. “defined portion” Avestan baXt “destiny” New Persian bhága- “what the gods have apportioned to you, wealth, happiness” Sanskrit ne-, u:-bogu “pauper” Old Church Slavonian boga:tu “rich” Old Church Slavonian bhága- (nomen agentis) “apportioner”, name of Savitar and a son of the Saviti Sanskrit baga- “lord, God” Old Persian baGa- “lord, God” Avestan baG “God” Middle Persian ne-bogu “pauper” Old Bulgarian u-bogu “pauper” Old Bulgarian bogatu “gods” Old Bulgarian *Y.áP.iG.- ? intransitive Pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic Y.abika “(a garment) clung (to the body), (a smell or a thing) clung (to somebody), was stuck (in a place), he became attached (bi-hi, to him or it)” Arabic *Y.abákun Arabic = bhága- Sanskrit, bagha- Avestan + r Y.abkarun “abode of demons, a place which the Arabs assert to be the land the Jinn” Arabic (ginnun coll. “genies, demons, spiritual beings among whom are good or evil” Arabic) Y.abkari:yun “perfect (in every respect), good, excellent (applied to anything wondered at or admired), strong, a lord or chief of men, one who has none above him” Arabic Y.abkari:yu kawmin “a lord or chief of people” Arabic EIEC *bhag- “divide, distribute” (also “receive, enjoy”) phageîn “eat” (< *“enjoy, share”) Greek Bagaios epithet of Zeus Phrygian bogu “god” Old Church Slavonian bog “god” Russian (Slavic ?< Iranian) bag- “apportion” Avestan baga- “good fortune, share” Avestan baGa- “god” Avestan ba:ji- “tribute” Old Persian bhájati “divides, distributes, receives, enjoys” Sanskrit bhága- “lord, dispenser (epithet of gods)” Sanskrit päk “share, portion” TokharianA päke “share, portion” TokharianB (Tokharian ?< Iranian) UEL 10, 22: *bheh1- Proto-IndoEuropean *bheh1-(ye/o-) “heat, roast” Proto-IndoEuropean *be:-je/a- id. Proto-Germanic *be:-je/a- id. Proto-Germanic > ba:(j)en “heat, roast (bread)” Old High German bæ(j)en id. Middle High German bähen “heat (in wraps), (dial.) roast bread” High German participle, zero grade *bhh1-to- > *bh&-to- “heated” Proto-IndoEuropean *baþa- “bath” Proto-Germanic extended with -g-, o-grade phó:go: “roast, fry” Greek zero grade *baka- “bake” Proto-Germanic loaned into *pexi- Proto-Uralic p´ije- “be cooked” Mordvin (Ersa) p´ij&- id. Mordvin (Moks^a) pu- “cook, be cooked” Zyryan pa:j- etc “be cooked” Vogul fo´´- “be cooked” Hungarian *pi- “ferment, be cooked” Samoyed In Proto-Uralic times there weere not yet any fireproof pots. Uralic *pexi- probably referred to cooking pits covered with earth, in which the food fermented (cf. Germ. 'bähen') [TP: Or rather, they were luaus: in a hole dug into the ground a fire was set with large stones; after the firewood burns out, dump meat onto hot rocks, cover with earth - some hours later, nice steak. And the pit might be used for a bath afterwards, by pouring water onto the remains - hot rocks covered with ashes and animal fat, which is how you produce soap BTW.] and loaned into *pes^ä-/*püs^ä- Proto-FinnoUgric bâsse- “fry, roast” Saami pi:t- “cook, scald” Vogul päl-, pät- etc “deep fry, cook” Ostyak pi_z^ “fry, bake” Votyak pe,z^ “heat (by wraps), scald; stew, be cooked” Zyryan deriv. pe,z^as “heating by wraps, scalding” Zyryan and *ba:-je/a- id. Proto-Germanic loaned into *pa:-ista- > paista “fry, shine (sun)” Finnish AAA: *bha:gos “beech” Proto-IndoEuropean phagein “eat” Greek HB: fagu- > “beech” Latin bago, pago, fago “beech” Basque bago + ? > bakaila, makaila “beechnut” Basque CAD: *ban.i “cook over a fire” Proto-MalayoPolynesian SIG, VISW, IESSG: *H.-b- Pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic *ap- “bind” Proto-IndoEuropean apere “bind with a chain” Latin ape imp. “hinder, restrain” Latin ap-tus perf. part. “attached to > apt” Latin apta:re “attach, adapt” Latin with prefix co- (= Germanic ga-) co:pula “rope” Latin a:pi- “friend” Sanskrit a:ptrá-m “friendship” Sanskrit a:ptá- “familiar, suitable” Sanskrit = *H.-b- Egyptian with n-prefix n-H.-b- “rein on” Egyptian “reined-on bulls” Egyptian > nahB “yoke of bulls” Coptic extended with -k- *Habàk- Pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic *p-g- Proto-IndoEuropean *pegnos > pignus “pledge (security for debt)” Latin = *H.-b- Semitic extended with -k- H-b-k- Semitic H.abaka perf. “he bound, tied, weaved (garment)” Arabic H.abbaka “he made firm or fast (a knot)” Arabic H.abikun “bound, made fast or firm, vowen well” Arabic H&BaX “connected, yoked together” Syrian with originally suffixal l- Ha:Bal “give as security” Hebrew “accept as security” Modern Hebrew niph. “be given as security” Modern Hebrew HaBo:l “security given in a pledge” Hebrew HaBo:la: “security” Hebrew HaBi:la: “pledging with security” Hebrew Habala “he bound with a rope or cord > he entered a treaty” Arabic H.ablun “rope, cord, bond, covenant” Arabic ablu “measuring line” Assyrian Hæ`Bæl, HaBl “rope, cord, measuring rope, snare” Hebrew HaBlå: “rope” Syrian H.ibala:tun “snare” Arabic H.&Bo:l, H&Bo:la: “pledge (security for debt)” Syrian extended with -y- H-b-y- Semitic H.abi: “bondsman, guarantor” Ethiopian H.ebi:t “bail, security” Ethiopian 'aH.baya “offer security (to someone for someone” Ethiopian ta-H.abaya reflex. “offer oneself as security (for someone)” Ethiopian extended with -s- H-b-s- Semitic H-b-s^- “bind, tie, join, lock up” Hebrew aba:s^u “bind, twine” Assyrian abs^a:nu “rope, yoke” Assyrian H&Bas^ “took, held captive, blocked (water)” Syrian H&Bs^å “recluse, monk” Syrian H.abasa “he confined, kept in, imprisoned, hindered” Arabic abs^u “loop, snare” Assyrian abs^a:nu “rope” Assyrian H.absun “prison, jail” Arabic ma-H.basun id. Arabic H.ibsun “a dam to confine the water” Arabic H.abi:sun “anything bequeathed for the sake of God” Arabic H.ebu:s part. “incarcerated” Ethiopian H.abs “prison” Ethiopian extended with -r- Alternative form *H.-b-r- Pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic H-b-r- Semitic *X-b-r- Pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic H-b-r- Semitic Xabra, Xabara “be joined” Ethiopian Xebr “rope” Ethiopian 'aXbara “join, associate” Ethiopian Xebu:r part. “joined” Ethiopian H-b-r- “be connected, ban” Hebrew H-b-r- “be connected, ban” Aramaic Hæ`Bær “connection, ban” Hebrew Ha:Be:r “companion” Hebrew HaBrå “associate, companion, ally” Syrian aba:ru “bind, confine, ban” Assyrian ubburu “put under ban, curse” Assyrian ibru “friend” Assyrian ibru:tu “friendship” Assyrian ebi:ru “union” Assyrian aburru “enclosure” Assyrian aburris^ adv. “in safety” Assyrian na:bartu “cage” Assyrian '-b-r Assyrian uburru II 1 inf. “joined” Assyrian EIEC: *peH2[g|k]- “fasten securely” Proto-IndoEuropean pango: “drive in” Latin fa: “capture” Old Norse fo:n “capture” Old English *pa:keye/o fe:gan “join, bind, unite” Old English fa:han “capture” Old High German fahan “capture” Gothic pégnumi “plant, make solid” Greek pa:syati “binds” Sanskrit pa:x “peace (a binding together by treaty)” Latin pacisci “agree” pa:gus “district, province, country (as opposed to the city)” < *“boundary staked out on the ground” Latin WORDS: paca- “pacify, subdue” Latin palatum “palate” Latin TP: an area fenced in by teeth TP: fang English pang “jab (of pain)” English NEW: paaien “placate, appease” Dutch (of fish) “spawn” Dutch DELL: baculum n. “stick, staff” Latin bacc “curved staff” Irish bachall Irish bagl Britannic bacillum (-us) dim. “small staff” Latin baktron, bakte:ría “stick, staff” Greek imbe(:)cillus “weak” Latin HB: baccilla > Latin makilla “stick” Basque TP: *pagin > (Carrasquer Vidal, Vennemann) Pre-Pre-Basque EWBS: agin, hagin, haghin “molar, cutting edge” Basque agin- “promise, command” Basque TP: *paga > (Carrasquer Vidal, Vennemann) Pre-Pre-Basque DBF: aga, haga “staff, stick” Basque hagin “yew, tree” Basque TP: *pat-sV- > Pre-Pre-Basque EWBS: ats, hats, has, as- “trace, finger” Basque hats “paw, foot of an animal, footstep, imprint of any kind, trace, example to be imitated, joint, seam, race” Basque hats “lower edge of piece of clothing, false seam on women's coats” Basque has- “nourishment” Basque has- “seed” Basque has- “nail, claw, paw” Basque eman “be busy with sth.” Basque atseman, atsaman, ats^eman, ats^aman hatsaman, hats^eman “seize, grasp, catch, find” Basque APG 10: *pag-, *pa:g- “fasten” Proto-IndoEuropean pango: “insert, drive in” Latin pé:gnumi Greek *pegg- “peg” Nordwestblock pegge id. Middle English pegge id. Middle Dutch pegge id. North Frisian pássalos id. Greek *paxlos > pa:lus “pole” Latin paxillus dim. Latin pessulus “bolt” Latin APG: (pfand “security for pledge” German) Pagin > Peine town in North West Germany at the confluence of the Pisser and Fuhse rivers Nordwestblock Pein farm on the Pinnau river in Holstein Nordwestblock Pahin-, Pagindrecht > Pendrecht deserted village near Rotterdam Nordwestblock fakin “weir for catching fish” Old Norse CGOF: apala (acc.pl.) “pile as part of pile- planking (against water)” Old Frisian DELL: paca “causa:” adv. Umbrian pase “pa:ce” Umbrian pacer “propitious” Umbrian pacrer n.pl. Umbrian pacre n. “propitious” Marsic in Italy pacris “pa:ca:ti” Paelignian fac “area” Old Saxon pagus “district, canton” Latin paz “joint” Czech, Polish, Russian prupukid “ex antefacto:” Oscan note the -u- Personal names: Pa:cius Latin Paccius Latin Pakis Oscan Pa:culus Latin Pakul Oscan Pa:culius Latin Pakullis Oskan Pacuvius Latin Pacuies Marsic in Italy Pa:conius Latin Pa:culeius Latin AHDIE: *pag-, *pak- “to fasten” Proto-IndoEuropean *fo:gjan “to join, fit” Proto-Germanic fe:gan “to fit closely” Old English nasalised form *pa-n-g- Proto-IndoEuropean *fangiz “seizure” Proto-Germanic fang, feng “plunder, booty” Old English vangen “to catch” Dutch pangere “to fasten” Latin root form *pa:k- Proto-IndoEuropean pa:x “a binding together” > “peace” Latin paci:sci: “to agree” Latin suffixed form *pak-slo- > pa:lus “stake (fixed in the ground)” Latin probably pa:la “spade” Latin lenghtened grade form *pa:g- pa:gus “boundary staked out on the ground” > “district, village, country” Latin pa:gina “trellis to which a row of vines is fixed” > “column of writing, page” Latin pro:pa:ge:s “a fixing before” > “layer of vine, offspring” Latin pe:gnumai “to fasten, coagulate” Greek AE: pignus “pledge (security for debt)” Latin > Meyer (EWA) peng, -u id. Tosk Albanian pe~ng id. Geg Albanian DSDE: fad “vat; clothing item; bagage” Danish fat id. Norwegian fat id. Swedish fat id. Old Norse fat id. Old Saxon vazz id. Old High German Fass id. German fat > vat English *fata- Proto-Germanic *ped-, *pe:d-, *pod-, *po:d- > Proto-IndoEuropean *podo- Proto-IndoEuropean fæta “deal with” Old Norse *fatila- > fetill “shoulder band” Old Norse fezzil “link, chain” Old High German Fessel id. German perhaps palla- “grain container” Sanskrit vaten “catch; understand” Middle Low German fat(t)en id. Low German > loan fatte id. Danish fatte id. Norwegian fatta id. Swedish fatte sigh “occupy oneself with” Old Danish fazzo:n “catch; understand” Old High German fassen id. German fatian (wif) “take home a wife” > “marry” Old English fata (veg) “find one's way” Old Norse DEE: padlock English prob. coined by adding to pad, ped “pannier” English (Norfolk) pedlar, pedler, peddler English the old word was usually peddare, pedder A man who hawked about fish in baskets called peds, or occasionally pods. peddir “pedlar” Lowland Scots The orid. sense was prob. “bag” and the word is to be identified with pad, pod. pad “soft cushion” English “saddle” (Levins, 1570) “bundle” (Halliwell) “stuffed bag, cushion” pod “husk” English orig. “leather bottle, bag” pude “cushion” Swedish dial. pude id. Danish put “large buoy, inflated sheep-skin” Gaelic Duden: finden > deriv. vanden > “seek out, visit” Middle Low German fahnden “search”, esp. of searching for persons in investigative police work German WORDS: pando, pandi, passus “spread out” Latin passis manibus “with hands outstretched” Latin pand-us “spreading round in a wide curve arched” Latin IEIE: bah_a “defense, defender” Elamite pa:- id. Sanskrit pah_s^ “defend” Hittite G: -bèNg- “to chase game” Proto-Bantu M: -baga “cattle pen” Proto-Bantu -big- “fence in, enclose with hedge” Proto-Bantu -pad-(ad-) “spread everywhere” Proto-Bantu -pak- “adjoin, be close to, border on” Proto-Bantu -pak- “border on, adjoin” Proto-Bantu -pak-a “limit, separation” Proto-Bantu -pak-a “separation, limit” Proto-Bantu -pát- “seize” Proto-Bantu IENH 52 : *p[h][a|ë]H- “to eat” Proto-Nostratic > *p[h][e|a|o]Hh- > *p[h][a:|o:]- “to feed” Proto-IndoEuropean *p[h][a|ë]H- “to eat” Proto-AfroAsiatic VISW *p-A.- Pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic *pa:- Proto-IndoEuropean reduced *pa- Proto-IndoEuropean pa:bulum “fodder” Latin pa:nis “bread” Latin pa:sco “let eat” Latin fo:djan “feed” Gothic fø:ða “feed” Old Norse fe:dan “feed” Old English patéomai med. “eat” Greek ápastos “sober” Greek fatunga “feeding” Old High German fo:ðr “fodder” Old Norse fo:der “fodder” Old English fuotar “fodder” Old High German *p-A- Semitic extended *p-A-m- fa'ama “(the camel) filled its mouth with herbs, he drank (a draught of beverage) with his mouth (not with his hand), he satisfied his thirst (mina-l-ma:'i, with water)” Arabic 'af'ama II “put a morcel into (someone's) mouth, offer bread to a beggar” Ethiopian reflex. III “fill one's mouth with a morcel, swallow a morcel” Ethiopian IV “seek out, beg for a morcel” Ethiopian EIEC *peH2- (pres. *péH2ti / *peH2-s(k)eti “guard, protect, cause to graze” ai:nches “bread basket” Old Irish pawr “meadow” Welsh pa:sco: “feed, lead to pasture, nourish” Latin fo:ðr “fodder” Old Norse fo:dder, fo:ðor “fodder” Old English fuoter “fodder” Old High German pasõ “protect, guard” Old Church Slavonian pa:nía: “satiety” Doric Greek hawran “herd” Armenian pah(has)s- “protect” Hittite pa:iti “guards” Avestan pá:ti “guards” Sanskrit päs- “guard, protect, practice moral behaviour” TokharianA päsk- “guard, protect, practice moral behaviour” TokharianB cf. *póH2yu po:u “flock of sheep” Greek pa:yú “protector” Sanskrit poimén “guardian, herder” Greek piemuo “herder” Lithuanian *poHiweH2- “open meadow” pieva “meadow” Lithuanian póa: “grass, grassy place” Greek IEIE: unexpected b- bósko: “(I) herd, feed; graze” Greek boté:r “herdsman” Greek bósis “food, fodder” Greek boú-botos “cow pasture” Greek HSED 1927: *pah_- “field” ph_3.t “field” (n.) Egyptian (mew) Vocalic -3. *pah- “cleared open space, farm” West Chadic fage: id. Hausa APG: Powe placename near Osnabrück Nordwestblock HKNH: pa:- Proto-IndoEuropean pa:-ro- Proto-IndoEuropean pawr “pasture” substrate in Welsh pori “graze” substrate in Welsh IEIE: bah_a “defense, defender” Elamite CAD: *pa+cek “drive in (as post, nail or wedge)” Proto-Austronesian *pager “fence, enclosure” Proto-Hesperonesian(?) *páju? “stake; nail” Proto-MalayoPolynesian PKMa 3703: *penet “fish-trap, spear-trap” Proto-Philippine (Zorc) panti “fish trawling net” Tagalog *piket “to force, compel” Proto-Philippine (Zorc) *pana “bow and arrow” Proto-Austronesian PMA: pa'a- “to be fast, make fast, hold back, detain” Hawai'i bat- “bind fast” Indonesia PMA bahagi- “division, part, fraction, to divide (with prefix)” Philippines Indonesia, Malaysia poka- “to divide” Polynesia bota- “to divide” Efate, Proto-Oceanic fita- “to divide” Melanesia baang- “to divide” Thai vase, wase, waha, etc.- “to divide” Proto-Oceanic PMS ba “to give” Sumerian, also ba “rations, wages” PMA ba- “to give” Paz wa- “to give” Ruk pa- “to give” Thao bigay- “to give” Philipines foake- “to give” Maori, Tuamotus, Rarotonga patuau- “to give” Sesake pitua- “to give” Nguna, Woraviu ptu- “to give” Pango bayad- “payment, damages” Philippines PMA pa-pa- “to prohibit, forbid” Hawai'i pa- “fence, hedge, enclosed place” Tahiti pa'o- “to stop, check, forbid” Marquesas pa- “wall” Samoa ba- “fence, wall” Fiji pala, para- “fence, enclosure” common Oceanic barabara- “fence, enclosure of stakes” Papuan pila- “line, row” Tagalog Back