*bh-A- “(make) appear from the beyond”

from IELS: fas The existence of two derivatives in "*-to-", Latin "fastus" and "festus", of diametrically opposite meaniing, is sufficient to demolish the connexion often proposed between "fas" and the group of "fanum", "feriae". It is perfectly evident that "fas" must be brought into connexion with the Latin "fari" (Greek "phemi", IE "*bha:-"). Irreproachable from a formal point of view, this etymology requires semantic justification: how can a connexion be established between “to speak” ("*bha:-") and divine law (fas)? It is shown [in the text following in IELS] that in fact the root "*bha:-" designates speech as something independent of the person uttering it, not in virtue of what it means but in virtue of its very existence. Thus what has been said, Latin "fatum", or what is being said "fama", Greek "phéme", Homer "démou phêmis", i.e. "vox populi", is charged, as impersonal speech, with a positive religuous value: "phéme" is itself a god ("theós ... tís") (Hesiod, Works 764). In Latin the conditions in which "fas" is used - "fas est" + infinitive “the "fas" exists that ... ” explain why (divine) speech provided the expression for (divine) law. In the pair Greek "thésphatos : athésphatos" “limited (by destiny)” : “not limited” the verbal adjective of "phemi", "-phatos" clearly reflects the specific value which has been recognized in the root "*bha-". TP: Benveniste does not take IE *bh-h2- “shine, appear” into consideration here. From this root, Møller claims, a causative *bh-h2- is formed, which is the root Benveniste discusses. Assume we have to do with a society which distinguishes between this, secular side and the other, spiritual side. Then we could posit a meaning for the non-causative *bh-h2- such as “appearing into this world from the other side, numinous”. That would account nicely for its present meanings “shining, resplendent” and the causative *bh-h2- would then mean “to make appear from the other side”, therefore “telling truth by holy speech”, since you are causing immutable holy truth to appear through you. PMA bha “to shine, light, sun” Sanskrit PMA bhas “to speak, talk, say” Sanskrit, also bhasa “language, speech, talk” van “sound, ask, beg” Sanskrit, also bhan “speak sound” IENH 20: *b[a|ë]h- “to shine” Proto-Nostratic > *b[h]eh- (*[b[h]ah-/*b[h]oh-]) (> *b[h]a:-/b[h]o:-) “to shine” Proto-IndoEuropean *b[a|ë]h- “to shine” Proto-AfroAsiatic IENH 21: *b[a|ë]h- “to say, to speak” Proto-Nostratic > *b[h]eh- ([*b[h]ah-]) (> *b[h]a:-) “to say, to speak” Proto-IndoEuropean *b[a|ë]h- “to say, to speak” Proto-AfroAsiatic SIG, IESSG, VISW *P.- “sound” Pre-IndoEuropean-Afroasiatic *bh-n- “sound” Proto-IndoEuropean bhána-ti Sanskrit *bh-l- “sound” Proto-IndoEuropean bellan “bark” Old High German bellan “bell, grunt” (of deer and boar) Old English belle “bell” Old English belle “bell” Middle High German extended *bh-l-s in *bhél-se-ti Proto-IndoEuropean bhás^ati “barks” Sanskrit *n-b- Proto-Afroasiatic (with n-preformative, identical with the PIE determinative n-, so that n-b- = PIE bh-n-?) fully reduplicated nabnaba said of buck in heat Arabic half reduplicated nabba said of buck in heat Arabic n-b-b- “murmurare, fremere > loqui” Ethiopian with numerous extensions n-b-H- “bark” West and South Semitic n-b-' “bark” Arabic n-b-g- “bark, utter a loud voice” Arabic n-b-r- “to utter a sound, speak in a high tone” Arabic from *P.- > Alternative form -Á:A.- *P.-Á- “shine, be evident” Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic Á: *bhé:-, reduced *bhâ- “shine, be evident” Proto-IndoEuropean bhá:ti “shines, appears, is luminant” Sanskrit extended with -l- bhá:la-m “splendour” Sanskrit be:lû “white” Old Church Slavonian bæ:l “pyre” Old English ba:l “pyre” Old Norse reduced *bhâ- phalós “bright, luminant, white” Greek phálios “bright, luminant, white” Greek *b-A- “be clear, evident” Proto-AfroAsiatic extended with -r- (= Proto-IndoEuropean comparative suffix) *b-A-r- be:'e:r pi. “make evident, clear, to explain” Hebrew ( : pe:'or) mebho:'a:r part. pu. “clear, obvious” New Hebrew extended with -l- Alternating forms -P.:p- *P.-Á-l- > Pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *bhe:-l- Proto-IndoEuropean fe:l-ic-, fe:lix nom. “fortunate” Latin *p-Á-l- Pre-IndoEuropean-Afroasiatic f-'-l II “effecit ut aliquis bene ominaretur ex re” ta-fa'ala V “he regarded it as a good omen” Arabic fa'lun “a good omen” Arabic whence causative *P.-A.- “sound, say, prophesy”, originally “make evident” Proto-IndoEuropean-Afroasiatic *bhá:- Proto-IndoEuropean phe:mí “speak, talk; say” Greek fa:ri “speak, talk; say” Latin fa:bula “story, tale, fable” Latin fa:ma “rumour; reputation; tradition; fame” Latin phé:me: “speech” Greek pro-phé:-te:s “interpreter of the gods, prophet” Greek o-grade *bhoA.- > *bho:- Proto-IndoEuropean *bho:na Proto-IndoEuropean pho:ne: “voice, sound” Greek bo:n “prayer, request” Old Norse be:n “prayer, request” Old English reduced *bhâ- Proto-IndoEuropean fa-teor “admit, confess” Latin pha-mén Greek -phatos Greek pha-sko Greek extended with -n- bhánati “speaks, shouts” Sanskrit bannan “ban” Old High German bannan “ban” Old Low German banna “ban” Old Norse fa:s Latin is perhaps PIE *bha:s with circumflex from *bhéAos. with n-preformative *n-b-'- Proto-AfroAsiatic nabu: “announce, prophesy” Assyrian nibba:' niph. “prophecy” Hebrew naba'a “he uttered a low voice or sound” Arabic II “announced, made known” Arabic IV “he announced, told (him, of it)” Arabic naba'un “messenger, message” Arabic na:Bi: “prophet” Hebrew neBu:'a: “prophecy” *p-A.- Pre-IndoEuropean-Afroasiatic with s-preformative *s-phe:- Proto-IndoEuropean spe:-ti “accomplish” Slavic spe:-s “hope” Latin with suffixal -r- spe:-ra:re “to hope” Latin *sphe:ro- Proto-IndoEuropean *spharé- Proto-IndoEuropean spha:rá- “extensive, wide” Sanskrit reduced sphirá- “abundant, fat” Sanskrit spa:- Avestan *pro-sparo-s > pro-sper “fortunate, favorable, lucky, prosperos” Latin sporU “sufficient” Old Church Slavonian spar “sparing; scanty” Old High German spær “sparing; scanty” Old English sparr “sparing; scanty” Old Norse sparo:n “spare, save” Old High German sparian “spare, save” Old English spara “spare, save” Old Norse *pâr- Proto-IndoEuropean parvus “small, little; unimportant” Latin parcus “sparing, frugal; scanty, slight” Latin parco “spare, be lenient; economize” Latin o-grade in spuon “leave, set off, succeed” Old High German spe:d “success” Old English *sphò:ti Proto-IndoEuropean spuot “success” Old High German extended with -y- *sphe:i- Proto-IndoEuropean sphá:ya-te: “increases, becomes fat” Sanskrit reduced *sphi:- Proto-IndoEuropean sphi:ta-, sphi:ti “success” Sanskrit EIEC *bheh2- “shine” ba:n “white” Old Irish bo:nian “ornament, polish” Old English ?bas “ornament, decoration” Russian ba:- “shine” Avestan ba:nu- “light, ray of light” Avestan bhá:ti “shines” Sanskrit bha:nú:- “light, appearance, ray of light” Sanskrit *bhh2-nye/o bej “make, do” (< “bring to light”) Albanian phaíno: “bring to light” Greek phaínomai “appear” Greek *bhéh2(e)s- “light” pho:s “light, daylight” Greek bhás- “light” Sanskrit bhá:sati “shines, is bright” Sanskrit cf. (*bhleh2- >) piha- “splendor, might” Luvian *bhéh2tis (gen. *bhh2téis) “light” phásis “star rise” Greek bhá:ti “splendor, light, perception” Sanskrit Widespread and old in IE EIEC *bheh2- (pres. *bhéh2ti) “speak” for “speak” Latin fa:tum “utterance, prophetic declaration, oracle” Latin *bhh2-nw-e/o- banna “prohibit, curse” Old Norse bannan “summon, proclaim” Old English ban English bo:gan “boast” Old English baju “relate, pronounce charms” Russian phe:mi “say” Greek bay “says” Armenian *bhh2ti- “word” phásis “word” Greek bay “word” Armenian *bheh2meh2- “saying” phéme “saying, speech” Greek fa:ma “talk, reputation, fame” Latin *bhoh3no/eh2- “sound, something said” pho:né: “voice, sound” Greek bo:n “prayer, request” Old Norse perhaps bha:s^ate “speaks, sells, tells” Old Indic -s^- for -s- is problematic with -k^ extension SSIRG 1.5 a pás´yati non-aor. “look” Vedic pa-spas´-e “see” Vedic pas^n-e “in view of” Avestan pashë “I saw” Albanian paz-iti “pay attention” Old Church Slavonic with s-preformative spasiia-, spasiieIti ipf. “look, see” Avestan spas´ root noun “spy” Vedic specio: “consider” Latin -spex “viewer” Latin specie:s “appearance” Latin speho:n “look, watch” Old High German spa:hi “clever” Old High German, Old Saxon *spaho: (prob. from a root-stressed derivative) Proto-Germanic > spá “prophecy” Old Norse by metathesis skeptomai Greek IEW *wekW- “speak” *wekWos- “word” *wokW-s “word” vákti “speaks” Sanskrit vak- “speak” Avestan vacas “speech, word” Sanskrit vacah “speech, word” Avestan (w)epos “word” Greek vac- “voice, speech, word” Sanskrit vo:c- “voice” Latin gochem “shout, call to me, invite” Armenian giwahanen “mention” Old High German wak “voice” Tokharian A AKc 42669: *bha:-1 “to shine”. Oldest form *bheH2-, colored to *bhaH2-, contracted to *bha:-. 1a. Suffixed o-grade form *bho:-sko > Palb. *beh in zbeh “to make pale, fade; literally to loose the light” (z-privative suffix, probably voiced variant dz- of *ts-); b. Variant form *bef in i beftë “sudden, unexpected; literally like lightning”, befas “suddenly” adverb, befasi “surprise” abstract noun. 2a. Suffixed and extended zero-grade form *bhH2-n-ya > Alb. bânj/bënj “to do; literally to bring to light” (cf. Gr. phainein “id.”); b. suffixed zero-grade form *bhH2-ti > bas “creator; literally the light, appearance (cf. Gr. phasis and one of Jesus' sentence "I am the light"). 3. Extended basic root *bha:t-eH2 > botë “world, white clay” Alb. (same formation we may notice in Sl. svijet “world” and svijetlo “light” as well as in lumina “world, light”) Romanian. 4. Prefixed participle form t-ban “herdsman's camp for dairy animals”, probably from *bhH2-no, that was later substantivized. 5. Deverbative of this substantivized partiple is ban-oj “to dwell”, ban-esë “apartment”, ban-or “inhabitant” etc. (Pokorny 1. bha:- 104.) *bha:-2 “to speak”. 1. Alb. z-boj, dë-boj “expel, banish, excommunicate”, probably from suffixed extended form *bhH3-n-yo of *bho:-, meaning preserved in Old Norse banna “to prohibit, curse”. 2. Probably suffixed zero-grade form *bhH2s-ko > bashkë “together”, bashkëshort “spouse, husband” second part of compound is probably Lat. sors, -tis “fate, destiny”, so literally means to have together same destiny”, bashk-i “municipality”, bashk-oj “to unite, band together, connect” etc. (cf. bandire “to muster, band together” Italian, from *ban-wan, *bannan Gmc). 3.I guess to that Alb. prefixed form m'u d-bue “to copulate”, especially the act of copulation between the bitch and dogs, synonymic with the verb m'u ndjek “to persecute” should be related to participle o-grade form *bho:-no (Pokorny 2. bha:- 105.) TP These two IE roots are usually not seen as related. But if they are both loans into IE, they might be. HSED 327 *buHar- “shine” *bVhar- “be clear, shine” Semitic bhr “be clear, shine” Hebrew shabhar “be clear, shine” Aramaic (Palestine) bh?r “be clear, shine” Aramaic (Mand) bhr [-a-] “be clear, shine” Arabic *buHVr- “shine” West Chadic b.ær “shine” Tangale b.u:r “shine” Boghom *buHar- “shine” Central Chadic bara “shine” Musgum b.ura “shine” Bachama HSED 364 *bVhVw- “shine” *bVhVw- “shine” Semitic bhw- [-u-] “shine” Arabic *bVHVw-/*bHVHy- Central Chadic b.iya “light” Dghwede buwo “lightning” Lame Pewe Vowels both in Dghwede and Lame Pewe are secondary for morphological and/or phonological reasons. HSED 769: *fa?Vl- “foretell” *pV?Vl- “foretell fortune” Semitic f?l- “foretell fortune” Arabic fwl “foretell fortune” Geez cf. pl? “make miracles” Hebrew *fa?Vl- “deceive” Highland East Cushitic fa?l- “deceive” Hadiya Related to HSED 774. HSED 774: *fal-/*fa?Vl- “magic word, omen” *fa?l- “omen” Semitic fol “omen” Shh.eri fo:l “omen” Mehri fo:l “omen” Harsusi fnn.wy “magic words” Egyptian (pyramids) Partial reduplication *fal- “omen” Agaw faal “omen” Bilin *fal- “omen” Saho-Afar faal “omen” Saho *fal- “omen” Lowland East Cushitic faal “omen” Somali Related to HSED 769. HSED 800: *fi´- “speak, shout” *pV`Vy- “cry, shout” Semitic p`y “cry, shout” Hebrew Based on *pV`-. *fi- “speak” West Chadic fi “speak” Sha *fVy- “call” Central Chadic fe “call” Buduma From *fVHVy- or *fVHi-. *fiw- “cry” Agaw few- “cry” Kwara fuu- “cry” Demben Continuation of *fiHw-? G: -bàk- “become lit” Proto-Bantu -béd- “call out” id. -béd- “announce” id. -bék- “announce a death” id. VMPSIE mahana “day” Maori, Tahiti ma-fanne “warm” Madagascar ma-fánna “heat” Tongan fana “warmth” Madagascar pânas “warmth” Malay panas “warmth” Javanese banas “warmth” Tagalog bha:- “light, shine” Sanskrit bha:nu “sun” Sanskrit bha:na “light, shine” Sanskrit phaino: “bring to light” Greek pho:s “light” Greek fenes-tra “window” Latin boisgim “I flash” Old Irish PMA fae- “light” Fasu paa- “light” Kewa afa- “light” Foe pwaaha- “light” Arosi fowe- “sun” Gilolo bawa “moon” Banja powi- “day” Sunda pewa- “dawn” Sunda pawa- “sky, dawn, daylight” Hawai'i banas- “warm, hot weather” Tagalog panas- “warm” Indonesia fana- “warm, ardent” Marquesas faa, fana- “to warm” Tonga PMA: bahasa- “language” Indon., Malay basa- “to read” Phil. basahin- “to read” Phil. basa- “language” Kawi vosa- “to speak, say, word, language” Fiji waha- “mouth, voice” Maori waha- “saying, word, mouth, voice, language” common Polynesian vasa- “to speak” Sesake vasana- “speech” visiena- “speech” Api bosa- “to speak” Florida, Ysabel bacah- “language” Proto-Philippine phaasaa- “language” Thai -bisi- “to say” Visina, Mapremo, Nikaura bisi- “to sing” Gane basa “to speak” Efate basa- “word” Magindanaw, Maranao, Iranun wana- “oration, counsel” Tahiti wana- “singing, song” Marquesas wanana- “prophecy” Hawai'i wana “curse” Tonga VMPSIE: vaktra “mouth” Sanskrit wáha “mouth” Maori wawáhi “disputing, quarreling” Maori béhe, boa “tell, say” Tongan vica “speak, speaking, word, speech, language” Tagalog AG: MOUTH 2 *paq, *baq PAustric *paq, *baq, *boq 'mouth' PAA *baqbaq 'mouth, opening, speak, say' PMP(ACD) *paq Mon-Khmer piaq 'mouth, opening, end of river' Pacoh *paqi > *pac or *pak Mon-Khmer pak 'mouth' Mah Meri mpak id. Semai mpak /mpa?/ id. Sengoi *pa[q]u or *po[q] Mon-Khmer *kmb^aw 'beak, bill, snout, muzzle' Proto-Mon kapo''/kapõu/ 'cheek' Sengoi *mpaq or *baq Mon-Khmer bah 'mouth of river' Bahnar (S, B) bah 'downriver, south' Bahnar (PB) (gah) bo'bah 'toward the mouth of the river, south' Bahnar (PB) *tambaq Mon-Khmer temba' 'mouth of river' Mah Meri chê-ba' id. Semai *boq Mon-Khmer 'bo 'cheek' Bahnar (PB) bouq 'mouth' Brou *tamboqi > *tamboc or *tambok Mon-Khmer to'bok 'cheek' Jeh tabók 'cheek' Katu bóc ahóc 'lower part of throat' Pacoh *tamboq Mon-Khmer tamôq 'cheek' Chrau 'mo id. Rengao Cf. AT *papaq, *pabaq 'mouth, opening, speak' Previously compared with PMP (B193) *baqbaq 'mouth' Also cf Proto-Chamic *babah, *mabah 'mouth' Back