*Y.-p- “water”

PMA: ap- “water” Sanskrit EIEC *H2e:p, *H2ep- “living water, river” Proto-IndoEuropean ape “river” Old Prussian ùpe “river” Latvian a:fs^ (gen. apo:) “water” Avestan áp- (nom. pl. ápas, acc. pl. apás) “water” Sanskrit ap- “river” TokharianAB VMPSIE: ap- “water” Sanskrit a:pas “water” Sanskrit a:b “water” Persian abo abo “rain” Tagalog áwa “river” Maori side form AHDIE: *akWa:- “water” Western IE with suffix *agwjo: > *aujo: “thing on the water” Proto-Germanic ig, ieg “island” Old English igland, iegland “island” Old Enlish aqua “water” Latin cf with suffix -d cuid “portion” Gaelic *gW(î|â)d- “land” Proto-Afrasian IENH 23: *b(i|e)- “in addition to, with, together with” Proto-Nostratic *(-)b[h](i|y|o)- “in, with, among” Proto-IndoEuropean *b(a|&) “in, with, within, among” Proto-AfroAsiatic bi “in addition to, with, together with” Sumerian -bi, bi-da, -bi-(da) “and” Sumerian IENH 392: *h^[a|&]p(h)- “to go, move along, flow” Proto-Nostratic *h^h[e|a]p(h)- “water, stream” Proto-IndoEuropean AfroAsiatic h^pi “to go, travel, march, sail (of a boat), fly away (of birds), flow (of water)” Egyptian hpi “flowing” Egyptian SIG, IESSG, VISW, (WORDS): Alternative forms *Y.-B.- > pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic *ob- Proto-IndoEuropean reduced *âb- Proto-IndoEuropean *abni-s > amni-s “river (real/personified), stream; current; (running) water; the river Ocean” Latin Abona Britannic abann “river” Old Irish -apa in river names Old Low German -affa in river names Old High German : *Y.-b- > pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic *op- “water, drink” Proto-IndoEuropean extended grade *o:p- > Proto-IndoEuropean *o:pes > á:pas f. pl. apa:m gen. pl. Sanskrit ápavant “abundant in water” Sanskrit a:p- f. a:fs^ nom. “water” Old Persian a:fant “abundant in water” Old Persian reduced in inlaut -Y.p- in prati:pá- “(moving) against the stream” Sanskrit half redupl. Alternative forms *Y.-b-Y.- > *Y.abáY.- *po:- “drink” Proto-IndoEuropean pépo:ka Greek pôma Greek po:tus “drink” n. Latin : *Y.aB.áY.- *bo:- “drink” Proto-IndoEuropean pi-ba:-mi Sanskrit bibo “drink” Latin extended with -y- *po:y- Proto-IndoEuropean reduced *pi:- Proto-IndoEuropean pa:yana “drenching” Sanskrit -pa:yin- “drinking” Sanskrit pi:ti “a drink” Old Church Slavonic pí:no: Greek piti “drink” Old Church Slavonic *Y.-b- Semitic aba:ya “a waterfowl” ? Assyrian also known as ummi me: “water mother” Assyrian single redupl. *Y.-b-b- Semitic Y.abba “he drank (water) without taking breath and without interrupting the swallowing” Arabic Y.ububun “waters pouring forth copiously” Arabic Y.uba:bun “the main body and the height and abundance of the waves (of a torrent or flow of water)” Arabic ta-Y.bu:bun “a river that runs in a vehement manner or abounding in water” Arabic abu:ba, -a:ni pl. “flood, the Flood” Assyrian with originally suffical -l- ma:Y.bal “wave, flood” Ethiopian denominative 'a-ma:Y.bala “to flood, overwhelm by flood” Ethiopian extended with -r-; relativity suffix (?) (= -r of PIE *p&-t-er “father”, *bhra-ter “brother”), see *Y.-b-r-, pre-IndoEuropean *Y.ánap- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *omb- “swell” Proto-IndoEuropean ambu “water” Sanskrit amp “cloud” Armenian ómbhros “rain, downpour” Greek : *Y.-n-p- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *ombh- “swell” Proto-IndoEuropean ómphax “unripe grape” Greek = Y.-n-b- Semitic unnubu II 1 inf. “grow abundantly, bear fruit” Assyrian inbu “fruit” Assyrian Y.inabun “grapes (while fresh), the grape vine” Arabic Y.inabatun “a single grape” Arabic 3e:naB “grape” Hebrew 3enb&þå: id. Syrian 3inBa: m. 3enaBta: f. id. Jewish Aramaic single redupl. Y.unbabun, Y.unbubun “abundance of water” Arabic : Y.-n-p- Semitic Y.unfuwa:nun “the juice that flows from grapes without their being pressed, the force or strength (of wine)” Arabic *Y.-b- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *op- Proto-IndoEuropean opó-s “juice of plants, esp. of the fig tree, resin” Greek ópo-bálsamon “resin of the balsam plant” Greek ópo-kárpason “juice of the kárpason plant” Greek ópo-kinnamo:mon etc Greek ópo-pánaks Greek opóeis “juicy, succulent” Greek = Y.-b- Semitic single redupl Y.-b-b- Semitic Y.abi:batun “the exudation of a gum, a beverage obtained from the exudations of the Y.urfut. (a species of mimosa)” Semitic + y- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *op-y- Proto-IndoEuropean opi:mus “fat, well-fed” Latin *p-y- 1) “fat” 2) “juicy, resinous” Proto-IndoEuropean *Y.abáy- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *poyd- > Proto-IndoEuropean feitr “fat” Old Norse veiz id. Middle High German + laryngeal, reduced *pi:- Proto-IndoEuropean + w- pí:vas n. “fat” n. Sanskrit pí:van- fem. “fat” adj. Sanskrit pió:n Greek pi:melé: “fat (of sacrificial animals), cream” Greek pi:tu-da:ru type of pine, lit. “resin tree” Sanskrit pi:nus “pine, fir” Latin + k- reduced pik- “tar” Proto-IndoEuropean pix id. Latin píssa id. Greek pìkis id. Lithuanian pIklU id. Old Bulgarian = *Y.-b- Semitic + y- “be fat” Semitic outside of Arabic merged with 3-b-y- “be tight” 3a:Ba: “was fat” Hebrew niph “become fat” Modern Hebrew 3aBi: “fatness” Hebrew 3eBi: “was fat” Syrian pa “made fat” Syrian 3aByå: “fat” Syrian 3aBya: id. Jewish Aramaic 3abya “grow, become bigger” Ethiopian = + k^- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic + y- Proto-IndoEuropean + h- Proto-Semitic + r- (relativity > IndoEuropean comparative-suffix) Y.abharun “having a good body” Arabic = píeira Greek pí:vari: Sanskrit + l- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *op-l- Proto-IndoEuropean afol “power, strength” Old English afl id. Old Norse avalo:n “work” Old High German afla “carry out, prepare, procure, obtain” Old Norse opulentus “wealthy, sumptuous” Latin : Y.-b-l- Semitic '-b-l- “be in strutting fullness” Assyrian ablu:tum “strutting fullness” Assyrian Y.abula, Y.abila “was fat” Arabic Y.abluN “fat” Arabic l- > r- after labial ebu:ru “crop” Assyrian ebu:r (ma:ti) “fruit of the land” Assyrian 3aBu:r (ha:' à:ræs.)“crop (of the land” Hebrew 3aBu:r “grain” Modern Hebrew 3aBu:ra: id. Jewish Aramaic *Y.-b- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *op- “operari” Proto-IndoEuropean *ópos (e-grade, o < Y.e) Proto-IndoEuropean opus “work” Latin ápas “work, action, sacred action” Sanskrit uoben “do, carry out, take care of” Old High German üeben id. Middle High German uobo “farmer, cultivator” Old High German uop “agriculture” Middle High German *op- “be abundant” Proto-IndoEuropean ope:s pl. “resources, wealth” Latin in-opia n. “lack, need”, “poverty, destitution”, “dearth, want, scarcity” Latin in-opia adj. “weak, poor, needy, helpless”, “lacking, destitute (of), meager” Latin co-opia > copia “plenty, abundance, supply”, “troops, supply”, “forces”, “resources”, “wealth” Latin Ops Goddess of fertility Latin cops, copis “well/abundantly equipped/supplied”, “rich, swelling (of chest with pride)” Latin with nasal infix (*Y.-b-n- > *opn > omp ?) ómpne:, pl. -ai “fruit of the land” Greek + n- *opn-, *p-n- Proto-IndoEuropean efnan “commence, carry out” Old English efna id. Old Norse ápnas “property, possession” Sanskrit pénomai “work” v. Greek pónos “work” n. Greek + d- > pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAaiatic + t- Proto-IndoEuropean *opot-, *opet- Proto-IndoEuropean eafoþ “strength” Old English opitulor “bring aid/relief to” Latin *optus partcp. “created” > optumus Latin optare “choose, select”, “wish, wish for, desire” Latin optio “option, free choice”, “power/act of choosing”, “right of hero to pick reward” Latin = *Y.-b- Semitic + d- (Proto-IndoEuropean t-) 3a:Bað “work, serve” Hebrew niph. “be worked on, built on, worshipped” Hebrew hiph. “make work” Hebrew pi. “process (esp. tan)” Modern Hebrew niph. hithp. “be carried out” Modern Hebrew 3eBað “did, carried out, completed” Modern Hebrew 3aBað “made, crated” Jewish Aramaic 3eBið id. Syrian 3aBi:ða: “action” Modern Hebrew 3eBiðþå: “deed, crime, outrage” Syrian 3aBi:ðþa: “work, affair, service” Jewish Aramaic Y.abada “he served, worshipped” Arabic Y.àbd- “slave, servant, worshipper” Common Semitic Y.abdun id. Arabic abdu “slave, servant” Assyrian 3bd (= Y.abd) “slave” Phoenician 3æ`Bæð id. Hebrew 3abdå: id. Syrian 3abda: id. Jewish Aramaic 3aBo:ða: “work, service, field work, acriculture” Hebrew 3eBå:ðå: “work, creation” Syrian Y.abadatun “strength” Arabic + t.- 3-b-t.- “plan to carry out” Ethiopian + A- (cf. Proto-IndoEuropean *o:pa f., Old High German uoba?) Y.aba'a “he prepared and made, set in order” Arabic : (old alternation b : m) *Y.-m- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic extended with suffixal -l- *Y.-m-l- “work hard” pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *m-l- Proto-IndoEuropean *mò:l- Proto-IndoEuropean molestus “annoying, troublesome” Latin mõ:lo-s “labor, toil” Greek *mò:li- Proto-IndoEuropean mo:les “trouble” Latin mo:lior “labor” Latin = *Y.-m-l- Proto-AfroAsiatic Y.-m-l- “work” Arabic and West Semitic Y.-m-l- “toil” Hebrew whence Y.amalun “work, labor” Arabic Y.amlå: “labor” Syrian Y.a:ma:l “toil, laborious work” Hebrew Y.&milå: “tired” Syrian + g- mogos “toil” Greek mogéo: “toil” v. Greek with s-preformative smags “heavy” Latvian smagus “difficult to carry or pull” Lithuanian + g^h- mokhlós “handle” Greek + Y.- (half reduplication?) *Y.-m-Y.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *Y.ámaY.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *ómY.- > Proto-IndoEuropean ami:- Sanskrit ámi:va: “hardship, trouble” Sanskrit ámi:-ti “troubles” v. Sanskrit *Y.amáY.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *mó:- Proto-IndoEuropean muoen “toil” Old High German af-mauiths, part. “tired” Gothic muot “toil” Old High German mo:dhi “tired” Old Saxon muodi “tired” Old High German + d- : D.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic + t- : d- Proto-IndoEuropean *Y.ámad- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *(o)mt- Proto-IndoEuropean a-moton “incessantly” Greek : *Y.amáD.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *om-d- Proto-IndoEuropean emazzig, emizzig “keen, incessant” Old High German emizzic id. Middle High German diminutive with i-infix *omoid- Proto-IndoEuropean ameiza “ant” Old High German = *Y.-m- Semitic + l- Y.amila intr. “he worked, (the camel) was swift, agile, (the lightning) was continual” Arabic Y.amilun “carrying out the work, (man) suitable for carrying out the task, brisk, active, quick (she-camel), continual” Arabic Y.amalun “work, action” Arabic + d- Y.-m-d- Semitic Y.amada “he intended or purposed (-hu it, the affair), did (it) purposely, made (it) his object” Arabic Y.amida intr. “he kept or clave (bi-hi to it)” Arabic Y.amdan “given tasks” Arabic + g- Y.amaga “he hastened, was quick (in his pace or course)” Arabic +s´- Y.amisa intr. “was heavy, oppressive” Arabic 3a:mas tr. “raise, carry, load” Hebrew AKc 42467: 1) *H2ep- “water, river” > amë “water, river”, pl. emna, Alb. from suffixed form *H2ep-no-; amull “backwater” probably from further suffixed form *H2ep-no-lo; shtamë/shtambë “potbellied clay water” < *StH-ap-no; mashtr-apë “tankcard” < *ambhi-ag's-tro – H2ep. To my [AK's] view it is closely related to *H1op- “back, again, backward”, which thematic form *H1op-o have yielded hap “open” Alb., prapë “again”, prapa “backward” (cf. amnis “id.” Lat. < *ab-nis). *H3ep- “to work” > ama “give it to me” < *op-ma identical with jep-ma “id.”. AR: ambu- n. “water” Sanskrit amm id. Kur.ux, Malto am, a:m id, Tamil AE: ãm/ë,-a ãma,-t pl. f. “river bed, riverine area, fount” North Geg Albanian (h)ãm,-i m. “fount” Central and South Geg Albanian (h)ãmull m. “pond; stagnant water” Geg Albanian ámull m. id. Tosk Albanian dial. whence ãmti f. “fondiglio, deposito” Albanian ãmullí f. “recession” Albanian i ãmët, (h)amullt adj. “stagnant” Albanian RHA: *hWap- > h_apzi “abounds” Hittite h_appinant- “rich” Hittite r/n-stem > h_appar “trade” Hittite h_appina “rich” Hittite *hWop- opus “work” Latin *openont- > opulentus id. Latin not, because of lacking laryngeal epirijeti “sells” Lycian TP: but if it's a loanword, the missing laryngeal is not a problem HSED 1027: *`ab- “drink” *`Vb- Semitic `bb “gulp, swallow in one draught” Arabic *`ab-/*`ub- “drink” South Arabic a`ab-, a`ub- “drink” Afar o:`ob- “drink” Saho `abb- “drink” Lowland East Cushitic `abb- “drink” Somali DSDE *innuBlia- Proto-Germanic innelfe, in(n)ielfe, inifli n. “innards, inner organs” Old English innouvilu, innubli pl. id. Old High German innyfli, innifli, innylfi n. pl. id. Old Norse inulf, inuluæ pl. id. Old Danish indvolde pl. id. Danish innvoller pl. id. Norwegian inälvor pl. id. Swedish The Danish and Norwegian forms have been transformed later; in a number of forms there is metathesis -fl- > -lf- 1st elmt. is 'in'. 2nd elmt. is prob. related to *apelo- “power” Proto-IndoEuropean *aB(a)la- Proto-Germanic afol “power” Old English afli “strength” Old Norse afl “strength, power, activity” Old Norse avl “harvest yield, offspring” Danish avl id. Norwegian avel id. Swedish “strength, power” Swedish dial. (the sense “harvest yield, offspring” in Danish and Swedish is a later development, whereby 'al-', now surviving only in Norwegian, has been ousted) or rather to *ep- Proto-IndoEuropean *ep-elo- > Proto-IndoEuropean epulum “religuous task” > “meal” Latin o-grade *op- “work” Proto-IndoEuropean opus, operis “work, action” Latin Thus = “inner workings”? TP *awil- > *al- DSDE *al- “(make) grow), nourish” Proto-IndoEuropean ala “nourish, produce” Old Norse alan “grow up” Gothic, Old English allen “grown up(?)” Jysk alim “nourish” Old Irish alere “nourish, breed” Latin alimentum “nourishment, entertainment” Latin TP: The root vowel /a/ in a Latin word might indicate it's a loan. DSDE: an-ala- “the insatiable” > “fire” Sanskrit ala “nourish” Old Swedish + -ster alster “creation, product” Swedish, Danish dial. + to- *altos- Proto-IndoEuropean *alþaz- Proto-Germanic alt “grown” > “old” Crimean Gothic, Old High German, German alt “high coast” Middle Irish altus “grown big” > “hill” Latin + ti- *alti- Proto-IndoEuropean *alði- Proto-Germanic alds “timespan, life(time)” Gothic ield “timespan, lifetime, age” Old English transformed *alðo:- Proto-Norse o,ld “epoch” Old Norse old “epoch, ancient times” Danish old id. Norwegian old “crowd of people” Norwegian dial. + *-tro- *altro- Proto-IndoEuropean altram “nourishment” Old Irish altru “foster father” Old Irish *alðra- Proto-Germanic framaldrs “gotten on in years” Gothic ealdor “life” Old English aldar “age, life(time), long timespan” Old Saxon altar id. Old High German aldr id. Old Norse Alter “age” German aldær id. Old Danish alder id. Danish alder id. Norwegian ålder id. Swedish *wera-alði, -alðo:- “man's age” Proto-Germanic werold “earthly life, epoch, era” Old Saxon weralt id. Old High German weorold id. Old English vero,ld id. Old Norse (loan from Old English?) wæræld “world” Old Danish wærælz, wærlds gen. wærælden def. form > verden indef. form id. Danish verd, verden id. Norwegian värld id. Swedish 1st elmt. *wiro-s “man” Proto-IndoEuropean 2nd elmt. belongs to alder (q.v.) Semantic development “human lifespan” > “world” influenced by saeculum “human lifespan, epoch, century” Latin kosmos “world” Greek VISW: *H.-y- “live” pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *ay- “live” Proto-IndoEuropean + d- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic + t- Proto-IndoEuropean *ayt- Proto-IndoEuropean dí-aita “way of life” Greek oet “age” Old Welsh *ayttu- Proto-IndoEuropean a:es “age” Old Irish oes “century” Welsh o-grade *oyt- Proto-IndoEuropean oîtos “(unfortunate) event” Greek *H-y- “live” Semitic + n- (the old alternation n : d) Semitic H.a:na “its time came, he was tested by calamity, he perished” Arabic II “he apppointed a time (-hu for him)” Arabic IV “(God) caused him to die” Arabic H.inun “a space, period of time” Arabic H.aynun “calamity, death, the time of the appointed term (of life), time of death” Arabic (exact correspondence H.ayn- : oît- with n : t) + w- H.-y-w- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *ayw- Proto-IndoEuropean *aevos “alive” Latin > aevita:s > aeta:s, aevum “life(time), age, epoch, time, eternity” Latin long-aevus “long-lived” Latin aivs “life(time)” etc Gothic ni aiv “never” Gothic with s-preformative saivala etc “life, soul” Gothic TP: saeculum “century, age” Latin VISW: e:-grade *a:yu- Proto-IndoEuropean ayú- “lively” Sanskrit m. “living creature” Sanskrit a:yu- “age, duration” Avestan + n- *ayu-n- Proto-IndoEuropean aió:n “life(time), long time, eternity” Greek aién loc. Greek + s- *aió:s “life(time)” Greek aio: acc. aieí loc. á:yus.- n. id. Sanskrit H.-y-w- “live” Semitic H.aywa perf. “lived” Ethiopian -yw- > -yy- H.aya: id. Hebrew H.ayya id. Arabic H.ayyun “living, having life, alive, quick, lively, (applied to God) deathless” Arabic H.ay “living, fresh, (of water) running” Hebrew H.ayyi:m pl. “life” Hebrew H.ayyatun “live thing, serpent” Arabic H.ayya: “animal, life, soul” Arabic ta-Hiyyatun “continuance, endurance, everlasting existence” Arabic H.aya:tun “life” Arabic H.ayawa:nun “animal, animated/live/everlasting thing, ever-flowing well” Arabic H.aywa:nun “living creature, animal” Arabic + g- (g^- ?) *ayug- Proto-IndoEuropean in ajukduþ Gothic e:ce “eternally” Old English *yug- Proto-IndoEuropean ju:gis “everlasting, ever flowing water/well/spring” Latin TP: *áywg- > *áwg- Proto-IndoEuropean DSDE: *aweg-, *wo:g-, *aug-, *ug- “increase” Proto-IndoEuropean auge:re id. Latin áugu, áugti “grow” Lithuanian ugrá- “mighty” Sanskrit *aukan “increase” Proto-Germanic aukan id. Gothic aíauk redupl. pret. o:kian id. Old Saxon oucho:n id. Old High German auka id. Old Norse jók redupl. pret. økæ id. Old Danish øge id. Danish øke id. Norwegian öka id. Swedish e:acian id. Old English eke English + s- *awek-s-, *auk-s- *wek-s, *uk-s- “increase, grow” Proto-IndoEuropean aéxo “increase” Greek auxilium “aid” Latin oks- “grow” Tocharian A vaks.áyati “lets grow” Sanskrit *wahsan, *wahsian “increase” Proto-Germanic wahsjan id. Gothic wahsan id. Old Saxon, Old High German wachsen id. German vaxa id. Old Norse óx pret. waxæ, woxæ id. Old Danish vokse id. Danish vokse id. Norwegian vaksa, veksa id. Norwegian dial. váxa id. Swedish weaxan id. Old English wax English OE: avil-s gen. “at years” Etruscan avi-s gen. id. Lemnian MP: aper, apir-e, apir-es, apir-ase, apirthe, apir-the-s, aper-ucen “sacred, funeral or sacrificial act” Etruscan cf. parentare “to honor or avenge a relative” Latin apir- act associated with religion Etruscan aprensais, aprenSaiS “the gods intending” Etruscan aprinthu, aprinthvale “sacred title” Etruscan AZ: aprensais, aprenSaiS “the gods intending” Etruscan “in the last” Etruscan aprinthu, aprinthvale “next, last” Etruscan aprinth-vale “last good-bye” Etruscan aua “welfare” Etruscan ausaz “eager, desirous” Etruscan av “to desire” Etruscan aut “wealth, fortune” Etruscan autle “relative to destiny, weaver” Etruscan avcva “welfare, health” Etruscan ave “to be propitious, beneficient” Etruscan aveini “propitious” Etruscan avequ “favor, grant, greeting” Etruscan avhircina “occurance, happenstance” Etruscan avi “propitious” Etruscan avulni “favorable” Etruscan ave “farewell” Latin aveo “to be well, long for” Latin various writers according to EG: avil “year” Etruscan “year(s)” Etruscan “years; aged xxx years” Etruscan “per year” Etruscan avils, avilS “years” Etruscan “years of age” Etruscan avilxva, avilxval “anniversary, yearly” Etruscan “to the year-count” Etruscan avil + adjectival suffix -xva > avilxva “annual, yearly” Etruscan avil “year” Etruscan avils “year, season” Etruscan cf. aviz Lemnian avis Lemnian aiws “eternity” Gothic aevus “time, eternity” Latin ayôn “lifetime” Greek eshë “timespan” Albanian aes “life, age” Old Irish *aiwon “lifetime” Indo-European *h.aju “to live” Nostratic sval, sval-as, sval-asi, sval-th-as, saval-, saval-thas, sval-en “to live, alive” Etruscan “alive, sibi?” Etruscan svalas, svalasi “for life” Etruscan svalce “s/he lived” Etruscan svaltha “alive” Etruscan svel-, Svel-, Svel-eri, Svel-S-treS “to be alive” Etruscan cf. valeo “I am well, I am strong” Latin veliji “great” Old Baltic swell English swal-, wal- “to be strong, to be big” Proto-IndoEuropean DED 5153: ya-, a- *av- “year” Dravidian DED 5437: vil- “to mature, ripen, grow ripe, grow big, person to grow up” Dravidian SIG, IESSG, VISW: prepositions *Á-b- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *ep- Proto-IndoEuropean + i- (cf *À-n- + i- > Proto-IndoEuropean *eni) *epi, *pi “in, by” Proto-IndoEuropean épi, epí id. Greek api, api- pi- id. Sanskrit aipi “by” Avestan Proto-IndoEuropean *pi in unstressed syllable > bi “by” Gothic ápi adv. “further, also” Sanskrit aipi id. Avestan apij id. Old Persian + (pre-IndoEuropean-Afroasiatic d- >) t- *ept- Proto-IndoEuropean iftumin daga “te~: èpaúrion” Gothic = *A-b- >? pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic b- prep. “in” Semitic be id. Hebrew be id. Aramaic ba id. Ethiopian *A.-p- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *aw- “mouth” Proto-IndoEuropean + s- *aws- Proto-IndoEuropean s + pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic t- > sth ós^t.ha- m. “lip” Vedic Sanskrit dual “lips” Vedic Sanskrit u:sta: pl. n. “lips, mouth” Old Church Slavonic aos^tra “lip” Avestan dual “both lips” Avestan ausculum > o:sculum “kiss, mouth, lips, mouthpiece” Latin austium > o:stium “door (w/frame); front door, starting gate; entrance to underworld; river mouth, mouth, entrance; doorway” Latin o-grade *o:ws- > Proto-IndoEuropean *o:s Proto-IndoEuropean o:s “mouth” Latin á:s id. Sanskrit o:ss “mouth of river” Old Norse originally the same word as *o:ws, *aws- (“opening” >) “ear” Proto-IndoEuropean = A-p- “mouth (of river)” Semitic 'af id. Ethiopian 'af “mouth” Tigre p- id. Semitic pu: nom. id. Assyrian fu: id. Arabic + y- pæ: Hebrew pi: stat. constr. Hebrew + m- *A-p-m- > p-m- Semitic single redupl. p-m-m- Semitic fammun, fumun “mouth (of river), opening” Arabic p m id. Old Aramaic pumma: id. Biblical Aramac puma: id. Jewish Aramaic + n- li-phene: “face to face with, facing, before” Hebrew extended *A-pa:n- > pa:nu “face” Assyrian pa:n stat. constr. Assyrian la-pa:n “facing” Assyrian *A.-w- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *aw- “lighten, dawn” Proto-IndoEuropean *aw-trom >?, *awg-trom >? u:tro, ju:tro “morning” Old Bulgarian + k- or G.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic + g- Proto-IndoEuropean aúgé: “shining” Greek ju:gU “south” Old Bulgarian + s *'áwas- intr. pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *aws- Proto-IndoEuropean *awso:s Proto-IndoEuropean auro:ra “dawn” Latin auster “south wind” Latin austr “east” Old Norse o:star id. Old Saxon o:star id. Old High German *'awás- tr. pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *w-s- Proto-IndoEuropean a-vasran 3rd pl. aor. med. “they shone” Sanskrit vasantá “spring” Sanskrit vesna: id. Old Bulgarian *wesr. > éar id. Greek extended grade *we:sr.- > ve:r id. Latin va:r id. Old Norse reduced *us- Proto-IndoEuropean us^á:s- “early light” Sanskrit either + r- : l- (r- > l- after the labial w) *au-r- Proto-IndoEuropean aúrion “morning” Greek árkh-auros ? Greek or *ausr- > Proto-IndoEuropean *aur- Proto-IndoEuropean *w-l- Proto-IndoEuropean with s-preformative sa:u-l- “sun” Proto-IndoEuropean = *A-w- Semitic + r- áwru > Semitic 'o:r “morning-, day-, sun-light” Hebrew *A.-f- “back, hind, obverse part, other side” pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *ápo Proto-IndoEuropean ápa Sanskrit ápo Greek apó Greek ab Latin aba-, ab Old High Gefman af Gothic af Old Norse apios “far, distant” Greek apataram adv. “far off, elsewhere” Old Persian apóteros “more distant” Greek apótatos (superl.) “most distant” Greek zero grade *po Proto-IndoEuropean po- Latin pa- Avestan + n- fona “from” Old High German o-grade *op- Proto-IndoEuropean op-ó:ra: “late summer, autumn” Greek ópithe, ópisthe, opísso: “behind, after” Greek + u- apú Aeolian zero grade *pu- Proto-IndoEuropean púnar “back, again” Sanskrit púmatos “the last” Greek + (pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic d- >) t- afta Gothic aftana Gothic aftar “after” Old High German æfter id. Old English aftero “rear” Old High German = A-X- (X < f) Semitic common Semitic for “brother”, originally “alter”, eg. “the other” and “the following, the next” 'aXun “brother, companion, ally” Arabic aXu “brother, comrade, friend” Assyrian a:H id. Hebrew + w- 'eXw, 'eXw Ethiopian fem. 'uXtun “sister, female companion” Arabic 'eXt id. Ethiopian aXa:tu id. Assyrian aXu - aXu “alter - alter”, “one - the other” Assyrian ('i:s^-) 'a:Hiw “(one -) the other” Hebrew ('is^s^a -) 'aHo:þa:h “(one -) the other” Hebrew extended aXu:, aXi:tu f. “stranger, foreigner” Assyrian : (old alternation f:p) *A.-p- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *áwo- “away” Proto-IndoEuropean áva Sanskrit ava Avestan ava Old Persian au- (eg au-fero) Latin aù- (Hesychios) Greek au- Prussian au- Lithuanian au- Latvian u:- Old Bulgarian o:, ua Old Irish *aw “again” Proto-IndoEuropean aû- (aû-te, aù-t-ár) Greek autem Latin *À-P.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *ebh- “down, sink, go under” tr. “make go down” Proto-IndoEuropean kat-e:phéo: “be defeated, ashamed, lower (gaze)” Greek kate:phé:s “with lowered gaze, defeated, ashamed” Greek katé:pheia “the lowering of the gaze, shame, being defeated” Greek : *À-b- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *ep- Proto-IndoEuropean ib-, ibns Gothic ib-dalja “descent” Gothic + n- *epnó-s partc. Proto.IndoEuropean ibns “pedinós” Gothic eBan “even” Old English eban id. Old Higherman jafn id. Old Norse ebano:n “even, make equal” Old High German jafna id. Old Norse extended grade *e:pn- (or *e:bh-) Proto-IndoEuropean æ:fen “evening” Old English eve, evening English + t- a:Band id. Old Saxon a:band id. Old High German + (pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic d- >) t-, o-grade *opt- Proto-IndoEuropean ópsi-, opsé Greek + n- æften(-ti:d) id. Old English aptann id. Old Norse = *A.-b- Semitic + d- A-b-d- “perish” West Semitic 'a:Bað perf. id. Hebrew 'aBað id. Aramaic 'eBað “perished” Syrian 'aBda: “ruin, destruction” Aramaic 'o:Beð “ruin, destruction” Hebrew 'aBaddo: “place of destruction, realm of the dead” Hebrew + n-suffix 'aBaddo:n id. Hebrew 'obda:n, 'uBda:n “destruction, annihilation” Modern Hebrew 'uBda:na: id. and “place of banishment” Jewish Aramaic + t- aba:tu tr. “throw onto the ground” > “destroy, annihilate” Assyrian SL: appo “away, from” Hittite apa id. Sanskrit apó id. Greek [on the evidence for the laryngeal theory in Hittite:] On the other hand there are difficulties: although /h_/ appears where the thery demands in h_ant : Greek antì it is absent in appa : Greek apó where the theory equally demands it. TP: The alternative is that the ancestor of appa was borrowed into PIE with a- and without an initial laryngeal. That would explain the differing initial laryngeals of the Semitic cognates of the root: The root had alternating initial vowels *ap-/*op- and Semitic added an appropiate laryngeal in front of that initial vowel to make the root conform to its consonant-based root structure PMA: ava- “downward indicator” Sanskrit ipo- “to descend, downward indicator” Anutan ibaba- “to descend, downward” Tagalog ifo- “down” Nanumea papa- “downward, to descend” Proto-Oceanic abhi- “towards, to” Sanskrit, also abhi-gama “approaching”, upa “near, next to”. ofi- “to approach, near” Tonga ofi- “to enter” Samoa ipaka- “near” Isiai apena- “near” Raga abeti- “near” Numi upotpotet “near” Aneityum l-apit- “near” Tagalog opi- “near” Rempi op- “near” Gal api-na - “near” Are'ar SIG, IESSG, VISW: *H.-n-p- : *H.-n-P.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *amb- Proto-IndoEuropean ámbon “the protruding rim (of a bowl or shield), mountain ridge” Greek : *ambh- “circle” Proto-IndoEuropean àmphí “around” Greek ambi- id. Latin amb- id. Gaulish a:mpi (a: < a, p < bh) id. Tokharian *n-bh- “nave, navel” Proto-IndoEuropean *n.bh- > *m.bh- in umbi “around” Old High German umbi id. Old Saxon ymb id. Old English umb id. Old Norse abhí-tas id. Sanskrit (merged with, abhí < obhi abhí-tas “before” Sanskrit ) o-grade *ombh- Proto-IndoEropean umbo “shield buckle” Latin + l- omphalós id. Greek Demp38: ´umban, “drift on the water, float (tr.)” Proto-Austronesian `umban, “float (tr.)” Indonesian, Toba-Batak `umban, “sound of something floated” Malay SSIRG: u-po Mycenean Greek hupo “under” Greek s-ub “near,under” Latin sub- Umbrian sup Oscan hipa Messapic zup Thracian uf “on, under” Gothic up “up from under” Old English up English auf “on” German úpa “at” Sanskrit vo- preverb “under” Celtic fo id. Old Irish up-zi 3sg. athem. (sun) “rises” Hittite suppus “upwards” Old Latin hup “near” Armenian säpa > Proto-Tocharian spe, sape “nearby” Tocharian B hupér “over” Greek s-uper id. Latin s-upra: “above” > “beyond” Latin s-uperi: “gods” (lit. “the above ones”) Latin supruis d.pl. id. Oscan supru “above” Umbrian ufar “over” Gothic yfer Old English over English über “over” German ober id. German úpari id. Sanskrit for id. Old Irish *ewp-/*owp- > *u:psa- Proto-Slavic vysokU “high” Old Church Slavonic *owp-su > úas/ós “up, above, over” Old Irish uch id. Welsh *owp-s-leh2 úasal “high” Old Irish iupa “above” Gothic iup “above, after” Gothic huptios “thrown under”, “under-side up” > “lying on one's back” Greek hupsi loc.pl. “aloft” Greek *(s)ups-e(os- > hupsos “height” Greek Locational adverbs: *(s)ups-o- > hupsóthi Greek hupsóse Greek hupsóthen Greek hupsoû Greek (Footnote: Suffixed *up-s-, attested in Slav., Celt., Gk. and Gmc., eg. Greek /up-s[-]i-/ cpds. (unless is a true loc. pl. and this cpd.-stem is built straight to it) would seem to point to possible Caland suffix-alternant system here, with adjectival compound-suffix *-i- alternating with simplex-suffix *re/o- Cf. to *h2erg^- [“shine”] ... zero-gr. *h2rg^-ros “shining, white” ~ zero-gr. *h2rg^-î- [in compounds] ) TP: So this might be the origin of the suffixed -r-. has Basque connections to. Interesting SSIRG: On the prefixed s- : Meillet makes the reasonable ... suggestion that the s- of Latin s-uper, sub, sine might not merely be one and the same morph, but that in fact thisa Latin preverb s- is identical to the IE "adverbial" final *-s. Whatever the latter is in terms of linguistic classification within IE, there certainly is no dearth of examples amphi-s “around” Greek oúto:-s “thus” Greek patiy Old Persian patis^ Old Persian khori-s “separate, without” Greek áneu “without” Greek áneus id. Elean áni-s id. [proximate] Megaria abs- compositional “from-” Latin *ud- úd- “up” > “out” Vedic Sanskrit u:t “out” Gothic, Old English u:z id. Old High German *(s)ud-teros “upper” > hústeros “later” Greek *ud-s- us- preverb Vedic Sanskrit uz- preverb Avestan uz preverb “out of” Proto-Germanic us- Gothic ór, or- Old Norse ur[-], ar[-], ir[-] Old High German usque “up to” Latin uz^- “up on” Lithuanian uz id. Latvian vUz[-] “up to” Old Church Slavonic SIPE: hupèr “over, across” Greek upari id. Sanskrit *hupéri > hupeir id. Greek (Homer) AE: áfër + dat. “by, at” Albanian adv. “near; almost” Albanian whence afrój v. “approach” Albanian (i) áfërt, áfërm adj. “near, neighbour-, (blood-)related” Albanian afërí “(blood)relatedness, Gemeinschaft” Albanian PIEL: pul, epi, pi “into, toward, till” Etruscan *per(i) “forwards, through” Proto-Indo-European er Breton fair- Gothic pe Albanese per Latin per Lithuanian per Greek pari Sanskrit pairi Avestan par Hittite TP: What is the connection between the words for “water” and the various ad-/pre-verbs? It is this: The water words were mainly used in compounds (one might say as a suffix); *-apa, *-aha, *-ud etc together with a river name. But such a compound at the same time is a locative, “on, at {that river}”, or directions with respect to the river, cf that those adverbs are used in German as postpositions 'flussauf/flussab' “upriver/downriver” (and 'bergauf/bergab' “uphill/downhill”). Cf. that in some stationary cultures various locative expressions are not general, but relative to local rivers and mountains. Cf. EWBS: auñ, ahuñ “north east wind” Basque after a direction-giving mountain Ahuñe (lit. the goat kid), the Pic dAnie, also called Ahuñemendi As to the developments of preverbs from adverbs, Møller proposes that it went this way: 'das meer-bi segeln' “to sail on the sea” > 'das meer besegeln' “to be-sail the sea” SSIRG: C1.4 *[s]peh1-y- “thrive” / *peyH- “be fat”, with laryngeal metathesis *peyH- > “be fat, swell” Proto-IndoEuropean *faitaz id. Proto-Germanic feitr “fat” Old Norse veiz id. Middle High German ve:t id. Middle Low German fæ:tt ptc “fattened” Old English fat English feizzit “fat” Old High German feist id. German *spi-kaz > “bacon” Proto-Germanic Speck id. German spec id. Old High German spec id. Middle High German spik id. Old Norse spo:diz > Proto-Germanic spe:d “success” Old English speed English spa:ti “late” Old High German spät id. German spe:diza “later” Gothic C2.17 *[s]peh1-y- “thrive” / *peyH- “be fat”, with laryngeal metathesis *pi- “fat” Proto-Germanic + “supplied with” + individualising n-suffix *pi-þa-n > “supplied with fat” Proto-Germanic piða > “the insides, pith, marrow” Old English pith English *pittan Proto-Germanic pitte “marrow, pit, kernel” Middle Dutch pitte “marrow, strength” Middle Low German pit English with "sound-symbolic softening" of tt > dd piddaka- > Proto-Germanic ped[d]ik “marrow” Middle Low German HTV: ibai “river” Basque ibi “ford” Basque *ibara Vasconic ibar(a) “valley, estuary, [mouth of a] river” Basque cf. *Y.-b-r- HB: ibai “river” Basque *hibaie indef. “river” > hibaiea def. “the river” Basque, 1741 ibaso “river” Basque, Lapurdi dial. ur ibaia “ford, fordable river” Basque, 17th cent. (Labordeau) ibar “water-meadow, valley” Basque ipar-haize “north wind” Basque ipar “north” Basque pike, bike “pitch” Latin loanword in Basque Iberus name of river Ebro, which is outsuide Basque territory in Latin Baia tributary of river Ebro, in Basque territory Basque? Ibaiuda id. Basque? Bainona Bayonne Basque? Baigorri < ibai gorri, “red river” Basque A few scholars have tried to claim for the word ibai some kind of ancient pan-European existence by imputing it to an early 'Mediterranean' or 'Old European' substrate, but convincing evidence for such a suggestion has not been forthcoming. TP: *peCe > pre-Basque HTV: behe, bei, be, pe “below” Basque *baika > pre-Latin vajka, vayca > vega “water meadow, fertile land beside a river” Spanish, Portuguese, Sardinian EWBS: beira “edge, river bank, beach” Portuguese EBAE: Germany and Austia Iba river Ibra id. Ibenbach id. Ibichbach Ybbs/Ips (975 Ibisa) id. Eiba Eyb Eibingen (1074 Ibingen) Eibenwag a/d Ybbs England Ibeshol Ibesley Ivelcestre > Ilchester (on Ivel) Gallia Belgica Ibliacum Ibliodurum Spain, near Basque contry Ibarus > Ebro river Serbia Ibar (to Morava) river Thrace Ebros Ibar, its source today Serbia IbrU river Ukraine Ibra river Germany Ibra river (to Aula to Fulda) Ipf (a. 777 Ipfa) river (to Danube) Ipfgau district Ipfhofen town Flanders Yper (a. 1086 Ipra) EIEC *mu:- “dumb” mu:tus “dumb” Latin mua “be silent” Norwegian mukós “dumb” Greek (Hesychius) munj “dumb” Armenian mú:ka- “dumb” Sanskrit "To be dumb is, in fact, to be seen as dead" PMA mo “to be faint, lose consciousness” Sanskrit muka “dumb” Sanskrit, also maukya “dumbness” RVCFRN *mo: < *H2meH3 “become tired” muodi “tired” Old High German af-mauith-s “éreinté” Gothic *H2ómH3 ami:-va- “épreuve, angoisse” Sanskrit ami:-ti “er bedrängt” Sanskrit IR 17: may “worn out” Sechelt *maHjV “lose strength, weaken, perish” Proto-Nostratic PMA moe “lie down, fall, prostrate, sleep” Hawai'i moe “to sleep” Samoa moe “to forget” Tahiti mutu- “dumb, stupid” Marquesas mute-ki- “silent, dumb” Rarotonga mua- “dumb, foolish” Malagasy PMA: ip- “water” Mendi ipa- “water” Kewa, Enga, Ipili iba- “water” Huli ibo- “rain” Awa obe- “water” Dorig ebe- “rain” Nengone ubata- “rain” New Georgia abo-abo- “rain” Tagalog afa- “storm” Samoa afu- “waterfall” Samoa TP *Y.-bh/p-g- “bind; pole; catch; to divide, apportion” + r-/l- *Y.-p-r- “(break on through to) the other side” + A- *(Y.-)bh-A- “(make) appear from the beyond” + y- *Y.-m-y- “urinate; cloud” + t- *(Y.-)p/bh-t- “under, next to (water)” *(Y.-)p/bh-t- “flat (land); foot” *(Y.-)p/bh-t- “lord, mistress” + H- *(Y.-)p-H- “feed, protect” : + H- *w-H- “lack; empty, waste” + d- *w-d- “water” + d- + s- > + s- *w-s- “water” + gh- *w-gh- “boat, carry, road”, (Vehicle of the Sun?) + r- *w-r- “water” Back