*yug- “join, pair”

PMA yug “to join, unite, mix” Sanskrit, also yoga “union, a spiritual discipline” yuga “epoch (joining of cycles)” yuva “bind, fasten” yuta “added to, joined to” yukti “union, connection” yama “forming a pair, twins, double” VISW, SIG : *3.^-w- Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *gi-w- “join, pair” Proto-IndoEuropean yuvá-ti yáu-ti “joins, harnesses” Sanskrit yutá participle + laryngeal extension *gi-wH2- jáutis “draft ox” Lithuanian reduced *gi-u:- yu:ta “joint” Avestan ju:tis “joint” Latvian with old half reduplication *3.^awáG- trans. Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *giw-g- Proto-IndoEuropean with nasal infix yunákti “joins” Sanskrit iungo “join” Latin *3.^áwaG- intrans. Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *gi-wg- Proto-IndoEuropean zeûgos Greek zeúgnumi “to join, harness” Greek reduced zugón “yoke” Greek + s, o:-grade *gio:s < *gio:ws yo:h- “to gird” Avestan jústi “to gird” Lithuanian zo:nnumi “to gird” Greek zo:stós participle zo:ste:r, zo:stron “girdle” Greek *z-w- “join” Proto-AfroAsiatic single redupl. *z-w-w- zawwun “a pair or a couple, two coupled together” Arabic ázwa: IV “he came having with him another” Arabic + H *z-w-H- za:Ha “gathered (camels)” Arabic + r *z-w-r- extended grade ziwa:run “rope between breast and hind girdle of a beast of burden” Arabic za:ra Perf. “tied (a beast of burden) with a type of rope called ziwa:r” Arabic + g- *z-w-g- “join (influenced, not borrowed from Greek)” Syriac, Arabic Ethiopian zawgun “a thing that is one of a pair or a couple, a woman's husband or a man's wife, a consociate, a fellow” Arabic zawga:ni Dual “a pair or couple” Arabic zawgatun Fem. “wife” Arabic zawgå: “yoke, similar” Syriac zawg “one of two, equal, associate” Ethiopian zo:ga, zawa:ga Perf. “was (someone's) associate” Ethiopian ta-za:waga “was equal (to), had intercourse with, joined” Arabic astaza:waga “joined, had intercourse with” Arabic zawwaga II “he coupled or paired a thing with a thing, gave in matrimony (to somebody)” Arabic V “led (somebody) in matrimony, married (to somebody)” Arabic VIII “(the birds) paired one with another” Arabic Proto-IndoEuropean -gi- denotes the sound which in Anlaut > Greek z-, otherwise j- and which derives from Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic 3.^, an emphatic spirant. TP : Note here processes typical of both Proto-IndoEuropean and Proto-Austronesian: n-infixing (typically in the verb) and reduplication. See below on morphology. EIEC *yugom “yoke” iou “yoke” Old Welsh iugum “yoke” Latin ok “yoke” Old Norse geoc “yoke” Old English yoke English joh “yoke” Old High German jùngas (n-infix) “yoke” Lithuanian zygón “yoke” Greek luc “yoke” Armenian yukan “yoke, couple, pair” Hittite yugam “yoke” Avestan jugh “yoke” NPers yugám “yoke” Sanskrit *yugtóm “yoke” geoht “yoke” Old English yuktám “yoke” Sanskrit *yuges “yoke” gycer “yoke” Old English *jukizi, progressive assimilation of vowel > jukuzi “yoke” Gothic igo (pl. izhesa) “yoke” Old Church Slavonian igo “yoke” Russian *yew- “bind, join together” jáutis (< “that which is joined”) “ox, steed” Lithuanian ju:tis “fork in a road, separation” Latvian yáuti “binds, unites” Sanskrit *yeu-g- “to join, harness, yoke” (pres. yu-né-g-ti with n-infix) iungo: “join, harness” Latin untar-jauhta “subjugated” Old High German jùngti “join, harness” Lithuanian zeúgnumi “join, harness” Greek yuj- “join, harness” Avestan yunákti - yañjati “joins, harnesses” Sanskrit yojayati “joins together” Sanskrit *syuH1- “sew” (TP: *s-yu-H1-, “sew, make join”, with causative s-preformative) suo: “sew, sew up/together” Latin sy:ja “sew, tie the planks of a ship together” Old Norse se:owian “sew” Old English sew English siuwen “sew” Old High German siujan “sew” Middle High German siuvù “sew, stitch, tailor” Lithuanian shuvu “sew” Latvian shijõ “sew” Old Church Slavonian *kat-súo: > kassúo: “sew” Greek sívyatti “sews, joins” Sanskrit su- “sew” TokharianB *syuH1men schumeno “waxed thread, shoemaker's thread” Old Prussian humén “thin skin, membrane, sinew” Greek sumanza “thread” Hittite syú:man- “band, strap; thong, girdle; seam” Sanskrit *syuH1tos su:ð “sewn planks of a ship” Old Norse sjo:ðr “pouch, bag” Old Norse se:od “pouch, bag” Old English siut “thread” Middle High German siùtas “sewn” Lithuanian shityj “sewn” Russian syu:tá- “sack” Sanskrit SSIRG 5.6.a: *yewH-, *yew-h- ~ *syewH- or *sewH- [variant/allomorph: ?secondarily formed?] yu- root “tie, bind” Vedic yáuti, yuváti yutá- vbl.-adj. yutí-/yu:tí vbl.-noun ~ syu- root “sew” Vedic syu:tá- vbl.-adj. syu:man “seam, bond, tying” Vedic but su:tra-m “thread, string” Vedic with *-y- -less variant: not secondarily formed, since Lat. and Gmc. cognates with the same *-y- -less allomorphy show that it must be inherited ju´´tis pl- “joint, crossroads” Lithuanian jáutis “ox”, lit. “youked animal” Lithuanian a type of metonomy, semantically a transfer from action-noun “joining” to passive object of action, “join-ee” (acute accent guarantees the *-H-) a link with root *yewg- “join. yoke” is probable, but it is unclear how: yunákti Vedic zeúgnu:mi Greek iungo: Latin yukam nt. zero grade Proto-Germanic > juk Gothic geoc Old English juch/joch Old High German siujan “sew” Gothic sýja id. Old Norse *siu:- sjóðr “sewn bag” Old Norse seowian “sew” Old English siowan id. Old High German siuvù, siúti id. Lithuanian siútas ptc. s^uvu id. Latvian schumeno “cobbler's thread” Old Prussian s^ityj “sewn” Russian *syuweno- > sIvenU id. Old Church Slavonic *syu:yo: >, s^ijo, s^iti “sew” Old Church Slavonic *syu:-y- > *su:-y- (by dissimilation?) > suo: “sew” Latin su:-bula “cobbler's awl” Latin su:-tor agent noun “cobbler” Latin su:tus vbl.-adj. *syu- (no *-H-) > humé:n “sew” Greek *syuH-dhleh2 > siula “awl” Old High German *su:-maz “seam” Proto-Germanic soum id. Old High German saumr id. Old Norse se:am id. Old English sum(m)anza “thread” Hittite CAIEH 63: *su(ng)kit Proto-Austronesian sungkit “forked pole, hairpin” Tagalog sungkit “embroidery” Ngaju sukitrâ “work with a sharp instrument” Mer. cf. (verb)-tr-,-tl- “tool with which to (verb)” Proto-IndoEuropean thukit-a “dig with a stick” Fiji i-thuki “digging stick” Fiji su?i “to thread, embroider” Samoan CAIEH suggests a connection with either Proto-IndoEuropean *(s)teu-k- “prick, dig; hammer” or (the alternative form) *(s)teu-g “press, push; stick”. I think it belongs here among “yoke” and “sew”. PMA yug-yug- “to mix, beat together” Ilocano yayoyag- “to bind, tie together” Woleaian yoka pa- “side by side” Kewa yoka-taba - “join together” Kewa yaka- “to knead together, press together like dough” Chamorro yakap, yapos- “to embrace, hug” Tagalog yapar- “to join, unite” Nengone yalaka- “to mix, stir” Chamorro yuhod- “point of contact of surfaces” Tagalog yu-yong- “to lift or bear together” Bisayan yong- “to bump, collide with, brush against, engage in battle” Iban yokeva- “to collaborate with” Papuan yovai- “to marry” Papuan yemyem- “to squeeze together, to close up” Bontok yet-yet- “to bind, tighten” Bontok yom-yom- “to gather, bring together” Bontok yakit- “pair, couple” Indonesia ya- “two” Sui, Mak Then, Kam yiri- “two” Sepik yakag- “to invite someone to join you or come with you” Tagalog yacore- “to cling” Nengone yethi- “to sew” Nengone yetutu “chain” Nengone yewagi- “hook and line” Nengone yeyeth- “to sew” Nengone yigey- “to add, put together with” Yap jodoh- “to be compatible, match for marriage” Indonesia ber-jodoh- “to be married to” Indonesia jujun- “to attract, be attractive” Javanese hunga- “company of people, group” Maori hui- “to join, connect, mix, assemble, assembly, union” Hawai'i aukahi- “united, flowing together” Hawai'i ugnay- “union, connection” Tagalog ugnayan- “to unite, join, connect, increase, make long” Tagalog aug-wiya- “to join” Auyana Back