*A-d-m- “cover, fill, build, create”

IENH 77: *d(u|o)m- “to become dark” Proto-Nostratic *d[h][e|o]m- “dark; darken, make dark” Proto-IndoEuropean *d(a|&)m- “to become dark” Proto-AfroAsiatic > IENH 78: (*d(u|o)m-k'W- >) *d(u|o)m-k'W- “to cover over, obscure, make dark” Proto-Nostratic *d[h][e|o]nk'W- “to be or become dark” Proto-IndoEuropean Altaic: dun, “a cave” Manchu dun,gu “a cave, grotto” Manchu dungu “cloud” Sumerian IENH 101: *t[h](a|&)m- “to cover over, hide; become dark” Proto-Nostratic *t[h][e|o]m- “dark, darkness” Proto-IndoEuropean *t[h](a|&)m- “to cover over, to hide; become dark” Proto-AfroAsiatic *ta(a)ml&k “darkness” Proto-Yeniseian (Sirenikski) IENH 104: *t[h](a|<6)w- “to swell” Proto-Nostratic *t[h][o|e]w- “to swell” AfroAsiatic: tw3-w “pustules, swellings” Egyptian *täwðe “full” Proto-FinnoUgric *tava “much, abundantly, greatly” Proto-Dravidian IENH 107: *t[h](a|&)m- “to fill, fullfill” Proto-Nostratic *t[h](a|&)m- “to fulfill, finish, complete, terminate, end; to be fulfilled, completed, finished, ended, done” Proto-AfroAsiatic *tum-ke- > (through assimilation) *tun,-ke “to fill up, stuff in, cram” Proto-FinnoUgric tump- “to be or become full, filled up, complete; to fill, abound; (adj.) abundant, much” Proto-Dravidian tum “abundance, plenty” Sumerian IENH 125: *t'[a|ë]m- “to quiet, calm, pacify, tame” Proto-Nostratic *t'(o)m-H- “to tame, subdue” Proto-IndoEuropean t.ammana “to quiet, calm, appease, pacify, allay, assuage, soothe” Arabic, AfroAsiatic t.amn “quiet, tranquil” Arabic, AfroAsiatic t.am'ana, t.a'mana “to calm, quiet, pacify, appease, assuage, soothe” Arabic, AfroAsiatic SIG, SIG, VISW Alternate form *A-D.-m- Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *'aD.ám-, transitive *d-m- “bring forth, create, build” Proto-IndoEuropean démo: “build” Greek dómos “house” Greek dáma- “house” Sanskrit domU “house” Old Church Slavonian domu-s “house” Latin d&mana- nma:na “house” Avestan da:man “creature, created being” Avestan da:may- “creative, creator” Avestan da:may f. “creature” Avestan extended with -A- or -H- *déma- or *dmá:- Proto-IndoEuropean démas “shape, body” Greek de-dme:-ka -(mai) eu-dma:-tos “well built” Greek *démaro-m Proto-IndoEuropean timb-r “timber” Old Norse timber “timber” Old English zimbar “timber” Old High German timrjan “build (in wood)” Gothic *dma:- > ma:terie:s “wood for construction” Latin de-dme:-tai “has been built” Greek eú-dme:tos “well-built” Greek neó-dma:tos “new-built” Doric Greek (Pindar) : *A-d-m “bring forth, create, build” Proto-AfroAsiatic ´a:Da:m “man, humanity” Hebrew admu “young of animals especially birds” Assyrian udmu (“creation” >) “generation” Assyrian > 'udmatuN “sociableness, companionship, familiarity” Arabic adma:nu “building, house, dwelling place” Assyrian An old alternation *T.-m- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *dh-m- “be dark”, tr. “cover” Proto-IndoEuropean deim “dark” extended grade dhe:m- Proto-IndoEuropean dåm “dark” Norwegian dåme “fog” Norwegian + kW- : k.W- > pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic + gW- : ghW- Proto-IndoEuropean dengiù, deñgti “cover” Lithuanian dengà n. “cover” Lithuanian dañgtis “lid” Lithuanian *T.ámakW- pre.IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *dh-mgW- > Proto-IndoEuropean *dh-ngW- Proto-IndoEuropean dyunk- “dark” Old Frisian døkkr “dark” Old Norse dunkar “dark” Old Saxon donker “dark” Dutch dunkel “dark” Low German tunchar, tunchal “dark” Old High German tunkel “dark” Middle High German *dh-nghW- Proto-IndoEuropean dung “subterranean room” Old Saxon dunk id. Middle Low German tung id. Old High German tunc id. Middle High German dung “prison” Old English *t.-m- Proto-AfroAsiatic t.amma “he covered over (a thing with earth or dust), it filled up, choked up (the well)” Arabic t.&mam ithpa. “be covered, buried” Jewish Aramaic + suffix n- t.a:man “bury” Hebrew niph. “hide oneself” Hebrew t.&man “bury, keep” Jewish Aramaic t.a:man id. Modern Hebrew niph. “be hidden, kept” Modern Hebrew ma-t.mo:ni:m pl.“hidden treasures” Hebrew mat.mo:n m. “hiding place” Modern Hebrew mat.monæþ f. id., “treasure” Modern Hebrew half redupl. *T.-m-T.- t.&mat. “hid, concealed” Syrian extended + r- *T.-m-r- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *dh-m-r- Proto-IndoEuropean themer-opis “with stern look” Greek timber “dark, gloomy” Old High German timber “dark, gloomy” Middle High German *t.-m-r- Proto-AfroAsiatic t.amara “he hid, concealed, buried” Arabic t.&mar “hid, put away” Syrian “hide, keep” Jewish Aramaic t.umra: “hiding place” Jewish Aramaic t.&mi:ra: “hidden” Jewish Aramaic *T.-m-s- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *dh-m-s- Proto-IndoEuropean Gmc. mz > mm dimmr “dark” Old Norse dim Old English = *t.m.s- Proto-AfroAsiatic t.amasa “erased, made disappear” Arabic intr. “it became effaced, obliterated” Arabic t.&mas^ “dive” Jewish Aramaic t.&ma:s^a: “immersion” Jewish Aramaic t.&mås^å id. Syrian + Y. t.am3a “dip, immerse” Ethiopian t.emu:3 part. “dipped, immersed” Ethiopian t.&ma3 “go down (into sea)” (of sun) Jewish Aramaic pa. “bury, sink” Jewish Aramaic t.-m-3- niph. “sink, disappear” Modern Hebrew t.um3a: “hiding place, hidden treasure” Jewish Aramaic : *t-m- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *t-m- Proto-IndoEuropean témti “become dark” Lithuanian tIma: f. “darkness” Old Church Slavonic + n- *t-m-n- Proto-IndoEuropean tImInU “dark” Old Church Slavonic tImInIna: f. “darkness” Old Church Slavonic tImInica: “prison” Old Church Slavonic *d-m-n- Proto-AfroAsiatic dam(m)ana “be (become) dark, cloudy” Ethiopian demu:n “cloudy, dark” Ethiopian damana: “clouds” Ethiopian + r- *t-m-r- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic itammir “bury” Assyrian + s- *t-m-s- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *témos n. támas n. “darkness” Sanskrit temere abl. “blindly” Latin thim “dark” Old Saxon dinstar “dark” Old High German *tensr- > tenebrae “darkness” Latin with *d-m- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *t-m- Proto-IndoEuropean see above : *D.-m- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *d-m- Proto-IndoEuropean + d- *D.amád- intr., half redupl.? > pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *d-mt- > Proto-IndoEuropean *d-nt- Proto-IndoEuropean dasú-s Greek + s- *D.ámas- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *d-ns- Proto-IndoEuropean densus “dense” Latin + b- *D.-n-b- > pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *D.ànB.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *dòmb- Proto-IndoEuropean tamp “end of rope” Low German (> Danish, Swedish) : *d-n-B.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *t-mb- Proto-IndoEuropean with s-preformative stump “stump; blunt” Low German stumph id. Old High German stumpf id. Middle High German stambas “cabbage stem” Lithuanian stambras “stem” Lithuanian : *d-n-b- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *t-mp- Proto-IndoEuropean to,bU “blunt” Slavic with s-preformative stumbal “stump, stub; maimed” Old High German stumbel id. Middle High German = *D-n-b- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic z.inbuN “the root or lower part or stem (of a tree)” Arabic z.unbu:buN “(end of) shin-bone” Arabic : *d-n-b- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic ð-n-b- Semitic ðanabuN “the tail, the end of anything” Arabic ðeneb id. Modern Arabic mi-ðnabuN “a long tail, a ladle (because it has a tail)” Arabic ðanu:buN “(horse) having a long tail” Arabic zanab “tail” Ethiopian zéneb id. Tigre: za:na:B “tail, stump” Hebrew “end, penis” Modern Hebrew zibbatu “tail” Assyrian dunbå: “tail, end (of smt.)” Syrian *d-m- Proto-AfroAsiatic + s- damasa “the darkness was dense” Arabic *t-m- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *t-m- “cut (into)” Proto-IndoEuropean + t- : T.- , half reduplication? > pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic + d- : dh- Proto-IndoEuropean *t-nd- : *t-ndh- Proto-IndoEuropean téndo: “gnaw (at)” Greek : tentho: id. Attic Greek ténte:s “people with sweet tooth” Greek o-grade tondeo:, totondi “cut (hair, beard), shear (sheep)” Latin : t.m- Semitic single redupl t.-m-m- Semitic t.amma perf. “he took somewhat from (the hair of) ra'asa-hu his head, he cut (s^aY.ara-hu) his hair” Arabic IV X “(s^aY.ara-hu his hair) drew near to the time for its being cut” Arabic ma-t.mu:mun part. “(ra'asun a head) of which all the hair is cut off, (a man mat.mu:mu-r-ra'asi having all of his hair cut off)” Arabic *t-m- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic or *H.-d-m-, *H.-ð-m- trans. pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *Haðám- trans. pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *t-m- Proto-IndoEuropean témno:, étamon “cut up” Greek te,ti “tear, split, divide” Old Bulgarian + laryngeal *t-ma- Proto-IndoEuropean témakhos Greek 2nd high pitch form *tmé:- Proto-IndoEuropean tétme:-ka, -mai tme:ma, tme:sis Greek extended tmé:go:, étmagon Greek : H.-ð-m- H.aðama perf. trans. “he cut (-hu it), cut it off” Arabic H.aðimu*, H.aði:mun “sharp, cutting (sword)” Arabic miH.ðamun “sharp sword” Arabic *t-p- “extinguish” pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic with nasal infix *t-mb- “rob sby. of smt.” Proto-IndoEuropean a-témbo: “harm, shorten, pretend” Greek atémbomai neóte:tos “have been robbed of my youth = am past it” Greek : *T.-p- “extinguish” pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *dh-w- id. Proto-IndoEuropean plus Á- *T.apáÁ- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *dhwe:- Proto-IndoEuropean dwæscan “extinguish” Old English ádhvani:t aor. “was extinguished” Sanskrit dhvanáyati caus. Sanskrit + m- + laryngeal *dhwm.- > Proto-IndoEuropean dhva:ntá pert. “dark” Sanskrit *t.-p- Proto-AfroAsiatic + A- t.afi'a intr. “became extinguished, quenched” Arabic 'at.fa'a IV caus. “extinguished (an-na:ra the fire)” Arabic VII “is exstinguished” Arabic t.af'a intr. “I extinguished” Ethiopian t.efu:' part. “extinguished” Ethiopian t.ef'at “extinction” Ethiopian t.&Pa: “extinguish” intr. Jewish Aramaic pa. aph. “extinguish” tr. Jewish Aramaic ithpe. “become extinguished” Jewish Aramaic + w- t.afa: perf. intr. “has been ectinguished (of torches)” > “is dead” Arabic t.afa: tr. “put out (light)” New Arabic int.afa: VII “extinguish” > “die out” New Arabic : *T.-P.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *dh-bh- “harm, deceive” Proto-IndoEuropean plus w- *T.aP.áw- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *dhbh-w- Proto-IndoEuropean *dhbhnéw-ti pres. > Proto-IndoEuropean dabhnóti “damages, deceives” Sanskrit d&b&naoti “deceives, robs sby. of smt.” Avestan d&bav- “fool” vb. Avestan á-dbuta “(without deceit) wonderful” Sanskrit with nasal infix *dh-mbh- Proto-IndoEuropean dambhá- “deceit” Sanskrit dambháya-ti “damages” Sanskrit : *t-P.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *t-b- Proto-Afro>Asiatic full redupl. tabtaba Arabic single redupl. tabba “he suffered loss or diminution” Arabic taba:buN “the suffering loss or diminution” Arabic tabba “he became an old man (the loss of youth being likened to taba:buN)” Arabic tabira intr. “he (it) perished” Arabic tabbara II “he destroyed, ruined (-hu him or it)” Arabic mu-tabbaruN part. “destroyed, brought to nought” Arabic taba:ruN “perdition” Arabic *A-T.-m- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic 'aT.ám- tr. pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic + labial (b- or P.-) *A-T.-m-b-, *A-T.-m-P.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *dh-m- Proto-IndoEuropean + labial (p- or bh-) *dh-mp-, *dh-mbh- intr. “stuffed, obstructed, blocked” > “deaf, dumb” Proto-IndoEuropean dumbs “dumb” Gothic afdumbnan “become silent” Gothic dumbr “dumb” Old Norse dumb “dumb” Old English tumb “deaf, dumb, simple-minded”Old High German A-T.-m- Proto-AfroAsiatic 'a:t.am perf. tr. “stuff, close (mouth, ears)” Hebrew 'o:t.æm “obstruction” and “obstructing object” New Hebrew 'at.ama “arctavit, angustum ore fecit” Arabic 'at.ima intr. “was obstipated” Arabic IV “closed (the door)” Arabic full redupl. t.-mt.-m- t.amt.e:m “close, stuff, obstruct” Jewish Aramaic t.imt.e:m “stuff, obstruct” Jewish Aramaic single redupl. t.-m-m- t.am “closed, struck dumb” Syrian pa. “stopped up, obstructed” Syrian aph. “closed his lips” Syrian t.a:mam “stuff, obstruct” New Hebrew t.&mam id. Jewish Aramaic t.amma “he choked up (the well)” Arabic t.-m-m- II 1 pi.“block (ear)” Assyrian II 2 “be blocked” Assyrian t.ummumu “stuffed, blocked” > “deaf” Assyrian + y- *A-T.-m-y- > t.-m-y- niph. “stuffed, blocked” > “stupid” Hebrew *T.-p-s- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *dhw-s- Proto-IndoEuropean dwæ:s “stupid” Old English dwa:s “fool” Middle Low German twa:s id. Middle High German dosen “walk thoughtlessly” Middle Low German doze English dysig “stupid” Old English dizzy English dusig “stunned, dizzy” Middle Low German tusi:c “stupid” Old High German = t.-p-s- Semitic t.afisa “was dirty (man, dress)” Arabic t.aPas^ “was stupid, insensitive” Arabic hithp “become foolish, behave foolishly” Modern Hebrew t.EPe:s^ “was foolish” Jewish Aramaic pa. caus “make foolish, blunt” Jewish Aramaic ithpe “become stupid, behave foolishly” Jewish Aramaic t.aPs^a “stupid, foolish” Jewish Aramaic t.iPs^u:T, t.aPs^u:T “folly, stupidity” Modern Hebrew t.aPs^u:Ta: id. Jewish Aramaic t.ippe:s^ “stupid, foolish” Modern Hebrew IELS *domós- “builder” Greek oiko-dómos “builder of the house” Greek dominus “lord, master” Latin damu:-nah “domestic (protector) of the house” Sanskrit tanu-(te:r) “(master of) the house” Armenian ga-timan “to be in accord, to agree” Gothic geziemen “to be in accord, to agree” German timber “timber” Old English domare “tame” Latin damáo: “tame” Greek damayati “tame” Sanskrit gatamjan “tame” Gothic a-dámatos “indomitable” Greek damash- “to do violence, to oppress, to subject” Hittite de:mos “people” Greek tomt “plot of land for a house” Swedish NO: tom “empty” Danish, Swedish HSED 16: *?adam- “earth, field” *?adam- “earth” Semitic ?dmt “country” Punic ?Ada:ma: “earth” Hebrew ?Adamta: “earth” Aramaic *dam- “place” West Chadic tom “place” Tangale No trace of the initial laryngeal. *dam- Central Chadic dam “field” Tera dama “place” Ngwahi May reflect an earlier *?adam-. However, considering East Chadic, we could reconstruct *da?am- > *dam- *dVHVm- “field” East Chadic doome “field” Mokilko Mokilko -oo- does not necessarily imply East Chadic *-wa-. It may also go back to *-aHa- or *-awa-. Metathesis of the original *?adam-. *?ud(V)m- “desert” Highland East Cushitic udma?a “desert” Kambatta A derivational and semantic variant of the original AfroAsiatic stem? The alternative AfroAsiatic reconstruction is *da?am- PC 80: *tum “to pile” Galla-Somali, of East Cushitic *tim id. West Chadic TP: IELS (Benveniste) insists on dividing *dem- into three areas “family”, “construct”, “tame”. I can't follow him. Perhaps the idea is “to drive out the wild from something”, i.e. the dominus domesticates not just animals, but also the piece of land, where his house is. Or even Force of creation? EHWL: tham “to build, to found” Etruscan dim “to make fast, bond” Sumerian temen “foundations” Sumerian IENH: tmia “place, sacred building” Etruscan GLDFD: teme “king”(?) Guanche PMS: dam “spouse” Sumerian PMA: kama- “first husband” Hawai'i tememem- “husband” Merlav tama-raxa- “husband” Nasawa tamaine tungu- “husband” Wailengi, Lolomatui temem ekie- “husband” Hiw tamlus- “husband” Hukua tamanatu- “husband” Malo North teme natuk- “husband” Vao toma-raya- “king” Sekol PMA tamas “sloth, darkness” Sanskrit EIEC *tómHes- temere “blindly, by chance” Latin tamsà “darkness” Lithuanian tùmsa “darkness” Latvian tëmah- “darkness” Avestan támas- “darkness” Sanskrit *temHsreH3- tenebrae (< *temebrae) “darkness” Latin támisra:h “darkness” Sanskrit *temsro/eH3- dinstar “dark” Old High German timsras “dark” Lithuanian tathra “darkness” Avestan ta:r “dark” New Persian teimen “dark gray” Middle Irish tIma “darkness” Old Church Slavonian tImInU “dark” Old Church Slavonian témrivo “darkness” Russian témti “become dark” Lithuanian VMPSIE: maytim “black” Tagalog ê-tam “black” Malay PHCOR 66: *t'umV “dark” Proto-Nostratic *tumV “dark” Proto-Uralic but restricted to Balto-Finnic tumma “dark” Finnish NS 187: *t'umV “dark” Proto-Nostratic *dwVmV “dark, black” Sino-Caucasian PMA: dam- “black, dark” Tai, Mak, N. Li, Pu-peo, tam- “dark” S. Li dedem- “dark” Indonesia dedem- “shade” Tagalog dem, tidem- “dark” Formosa kam- “dark in color” Tai tamad- “lazy, indolent” Tagalog tuma- “slow” Anutan SSIRG: *dhewH- ~ *stewH- dhu:nóti “shake, move qiuckly” Vedic dhu:má “smoke” Vedic thu:mós “spirit” Greek thú:o:, thúno: “storm” etc Greek fu:mus “smoke” Latin dymU id. Old Church Slavonic dûmai pl. id. Lithuanian toum “steam, vapour” Old High German do:mian “steam” Old Saxon doom id. Middle Dutch *staumaz > Proto-Germanic ste:am “steam” Old English stoom “steam, vapor” Dutch sto:m id. Low German or, with medial-cluster syncope, simplification, or assimilation *staubmaz > Proto-Germanic Staub “dust” German stieben “fly around in a cloud” German stubjus “dust” Gothic Probably with another root-extension: *dhew[H]bh- ~ *stewbh- dumbs “stupid” Gothic (if not from *stem-, see below) daufs “stubborn, deaf” Gothic tumb “deaf, stupid” Old High German toub “stupid, crazy” Old High German tob id. Middle High German töben “stun” Middle High German dumm “stupid” German taub “deaf” German betäuben “stun” German toben “rave” German duff “dull” Dutch, Low German doof “stopid” coll. (North) German thup- > tuphlós “blind” Greek tûphos “smoke” Greek túpo: “make smoke” Greek tupho:s “whirlwind” Greek dupt “dust” Old Norse tuft “frost” Old High German duft “vapor, fog” Middle High German Duft “aroma” German stum(m) “dumb” Old High German, Old Saxon stum(p) id. Middle high German stom(p) id. Dutch stu:f “insensitive, obtuse, blunt” Low German (easily contaminated with cognates of *stebh- “post” Proto-Germanic stumpf “blunt” German stump “stump” Low German ) stubjus “dust” Gothic stuppi, stoup id. Old High German Staub “dust” German stieben “fly around in a cloud” German *dhem-[?] ~ *stem-[?] (faur-)dammjan “prevent” Gothic demma id. Old Nordic dammr “dam, embankment” Old Norse tam id. Middle High German Damm id. German stemma “stop, prevent” Old Norse stem English stem(m)en “halt” Middle High German un-gi-stuomi “lack of self-control” Old High German Ungestüm “impetuousness” German stamms “stammering” Gothic stam, stamor “prevented, stammering” Old English stamm id. Old High German stammr id. Old Norse stum(m) “mute” Old High German stom id. Middle Dutch (see above under *stewbh-) stumra/stumla “stumble” Old Norse > stumblen id. Middle English *dhemH- ~ *stem[H]- dampf “steam, smoke” Old High German dimba “steam, fly about” Swedish dial. damb “dust” Norw. dial. dumba id. Old Norse (but cf *dhewbh-) dimmr “dark” Old Norse, dimm id. Old Frisian, Old English dim English dhámati “blow” Vedic > dhma:tá- vbl.-adj. stimba/stimma “steam” Swedish dial. stamba/stamma “smell” Norw. dial. perhaps also from root-extended form *dhemH1- > with H-loss, or [labio]velar~H substitution *dhemgWo- dunkel “dark” German tunkal id. Old High German døkkr id. Old Norse danguis id. Hittite PEWM: tepa “hill” Etruscan The:bai city in Greece prehellenic A tamera kind of priest Etruscan thémeros “holy, sacred” prehellenic A G: -dèm- “cultivate” Proto-Bantu -dèmÒ “work” id. -dÈm- “to become heavy” id. -dÉm- “to become lame” id. -dÉmad- “to become lame” id. -dÉmá “lame person” id. -dím- “to become extinguished; to extinguish” id. -dímed- “to get lost” id. -dìb- “to stop up, to block” id. -dìb- “to shut” id. -dímò “spirit” id. -dómÈ “husband; man” id. -dómÈ “male” id. -dònd- “to amass” id. -dÒbá “sticky soil” id. -tím- “to dig” id. plus suffix ? -tíndÉ “stubble; clod” id. -tòndà “heap, mound” id. M: -damu “brother-in-law, sister-in-law” Proto-Bantu -damud- “judge, settle a controversy” id. -dem- “to tire, overcome, to lame, lie heavy upon” id. -d-am- “sink in, be in earth” id. -db- “stop up” id. -dema “young female” id. -demb- “deceive” id. -dim- “cultivate” id. -dm- “be extinguished, extinguish” id. -dma “ancestral spirit” id. -dmu “god, spirit, darkness (ancestral spirit)” id. -dp- “beat” id. -dúme “husband, male” id. -dm- “curse, abuse, revile” id. -tamb- “stretch out” id. -tém- “cut down, fell” id. -tem- “burn” id. -tém-o “hoe” id. -tm- “stand” id. -tm- “dig, plant (fix vertically into)” id. -tma “fountain, well” id. -tma “well, fountain” id. -tmb- “thrust into the ground, plant” id. -tombo “breast, swelling, elevation” id. -tumb- “mould, shape” id. -tumb- “root, swell up” id. -tumb- “swell up, be round, swell” id. -tumb “corpse” id. -tup- “swell” id. plus suffix? -tund- “grow, leave, come out” id. -tund- “rise, be accumulated” id. -tunda “elevation, hill” id. PKMa: *t&pas (Lopez) “crush” Proto-Austronesian CAD: *dajam/ma- “tame, accustomed to” Proto-Austronesian *debu “dust” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *d2em “dark” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *d2em+d2ém(1) “dark(ness)” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *d2em+d2ém(2) “think, meditate, brood; keep silent” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *dump+pel “dull, blunt” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *ta(m)pu “ancestor” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *tumpu “ancestor, lord, master, owner” Proto-MalayoPolynesian CAD 04.790: tabur& “grave, tomb” Irarutu tampona “mound” Lewo FTIG 1: *tapp- “tap, peg” Nordwestblock tæppa id. in Old English zapfo id. in Old High German tape in French tapon in French tampon in French samtapati “presses together” Sanskrit þefia “stamp” Old Norse daven id. Frisian þæfa “throng, push” Old Norse FTIG 5: *tap-, tapp- “destroy, lose” Nordwestblock tapa id. Old Norse tappa id. Old Swedish FTIG 6: *tapp-, *ta:p-, *to:p-, *taip- “fool” Nordwestblock tåbe “fool” in Danish tåp id. in Swedish taip id. te:p id. tabbe id. in Swedish tópi “foolishness” in Old Norse tæpisch “foolish” in Middle High German täppisch id. in German tappo comical figure Latin DSDE: tumpe “walk heavily; walk thoughtlessly, stray like a fool” Danish, old, dial. tumba “fall over” Norwegian dial. tumba “wallow” Swedish dial. tumba “fall over” Old Norse probably borrowed through tumben “tumble” Middle Low German from tumbare Medieval Latin of uncertain origin TP: I doubt it. DSDE: tumpe “fool, idiot” Danish dial. FTIG 32: *tu:m-, *tumal-, *tu:mal “tumble” etc Nordwestblock tu:mo:n id. in Old High German tu:men id. in Middle Dutch, Middle Low German, Middle High German tumblen id. in Middle English tuimelen id. in Dutch tumelen, tu:melen id. in Low German tu:meln id. in Middle High German tumbian id. in Old English tumba id. in Old Norse tomber id. in French tumer id. in Old French tombolare id. in Italian tumala- “noise, racket” Sanskrit tumultus id. Latin tumel id. Middle High German getümel id. Middle High German I don't know if this belongs here; Kuhn says it has to do with dance and acrobatics; but they are connected with funeral games, so I thought I'd mention it. PKMa: tambuh “drum-stick” Proto-Austronesian tambuq “drum-stick” Proto-Austronesian tambal “magic” (from beating drums/gongs?) Proto-Austronesian PAT: *()(n)tab “beat, strike, pound, wing”Proto-Austro-Tai *nt/r/ab id. Proto-Austro-Tai *(n)tab/tab id. Proto-Austro-Tai *(n)ta/tab id. Proto-Austro-Tai *t/r/a/tab id. Proto-Austro-Tai *[t&/]t&b id. Proto-Austro-Tai *[(n)tu/]tub id. Proto-Austro-Tai (where / = morphological boundary). PDL: tupos “beat, stamp” Greek tuptô “beat, beating, beaten” Greek tupoô “stamp, stamped” Greek FTIG 33: *tunn-, *tünn- “barrel” Nordwestblock tunne id. in Old English tunna id. in Old Norse tunna id. in Old High German tonne id. in French tonneau id. in French tond, tonn, ton “skin, crust, shell” in Celtic þyn “barrel” Swedish thynna id. Swedish tynna id. Old Danish tønde id. Danish tönna id. Swedish tynna id. Norwegian tunna id. in Swedish ti:na “wine barrel” Latin PMa: tambak “mound” PAN (Dempwolff) *(Ct)uNpuk “heap, pile” PAN (Blust) *tunpuk “heap, pile” PPH (Zorc) *ta(m)bun “heap, pile” PAN (Dempwolff) *ti(m)bun “heap, pile” PAN (Dempwolff) tumbos “cairn, mound” Greek *tumbo “hillock” Proto-Celtic tumba “tomb, burial mound” Late Latin tom “a hillock” Irish tomm “a hillock” Welsh tom “a hillock” Breton das-tum “to heap” tomb “vault or grave for dead” English *tVmp “hill, island” Ugrian dob “to heap up” Hungarian domb “a mound, heap” Hungarian tomp, tump “island” Vogul tómp “hill, mound” Vogul dobo-go “a sort of dais, platform” Hungarian dub “to heap up” Sumerian du_6 “hill, mound” Sumerian temen “foundation, platform” Sumerian DELL: *ta- “melt” Proto-IndoEuropean + -b tabeo: “melt, thaw” > “perish” Latin ta:bum “putrefying matter” Latin ta:be:s id. Latin + ke/o ta:ko: Greek dial. te:ko: Attic-Ioniab tawdd “melted state” Welsh toddi “melt” Welsh ta:m “death” Old Irish t'anam “soak, bathe” Armenian taïn, tajun “thaw” Ossetic + -u þawien “thaw” Old English tauen id. German Vocalisme 'a', mot populaire RWa, MCVc: *dhm.bh-os > tumbos “grave” Pelasgian in Greek taphos “grave” Greek tumulus “mound, hill, barrow” Latin Cybalist 37555: domb “mound, hillock” Hungarian dembe “hill; mountain” Mongolian tepe Turkish LBa: tapak- “trample”, “tread” Tagalog tampal- “slap” Tagalog tapi/tapik- “touch”, “tap” Tagalog tupi- “to flatten”, “sort” (pertaining to cloth), “smooth out” Tagalog tama- v. “hit” Back