*k-r- “bark, skin; turn, circle, enclosure”

PMA chira “bark, cloth, rag” Sanskrit IENH 239: *g[u|o]r- “to turn, twist, wind, wrap, roll” Proto-Nostratic *g[o]r- “to roll, rotate” Proto-Kartvelian *g[a|&]r- “to roll, revolve” Proto-AfroAsiatic *kura- “to twist, turn, plait, tie (together), twine together, braid” Proto-Uralic *göre- “to turn, twist, wind, wrap” Proto-Altaic gur “to bend (tr.)” Sumerian gur “to wind up, roll up; to turn, twist” Sumerian gur “basket” Sumerian gúr “ring, circle” Sumerian gúr “to bend, bow (intr.)” Sumerian gurú “to wriggle, writhe” Sumerian gurum “to bend, bow (intr.); to bend (tr.)” Sumerian IENH 247: *k[h][a|ë]r- “skin, hide; bark, rind” Proto-Nostratic > *k[h](e|o)r- “skin, hide; bark, rind” Proto-IndoEuropean *kere- “bark” Proto-FinnoUgric IS: */k'/erV “bark” Proto-Nostratic *Kar'ä “bark” Proto-Nostratic 231: *K'ar'ä “bark, crust, rind” Proto-Nostratic IENH 263: *k[h][a|&]r- “to twist, turn, wind” Proto-Nostratic > *(s)k[h](e|o)r- “to twist, turn, wind” Proto-IndoEuropean *k[h](a|&)r- “to twist, turn, wind” Proto-AfroAsiatic *kerä- “round; to turn, twist, wind” Proto-FinnoUgric *kere “any round thing or object” Proto-FinnoUgric *kar_ “to whirl, spin, turn around” Proto-Dravidian IENH 267: *k[h][a|&]d- “to twist, wind, wrap, bend” Proto-Nostratic *k[h]ad > (with progressive voicing assimilation) *k[h]at[h]- “to twist, bend together, fasten, tie” Proto-IndoEuropean *k[h][a]d- (“to be or become bent, twisted, crooked”) > “to be wrong, mistaken” Proto-Kartvelian *k[h][a|&]d- “to cover, wrap” Proto-AfroAsiatic *kat.i “protection, shield” Proto-Kartvelian *kat.ikay “bolt, pin” Proto-Davidian *kat.t.- “to tie, bind, fasten; to clasp, yoke, shut” Proto-Davidian *ked- “to put on clothing” Proto-Altaic kàd “to fasten, tie, bind” Sumerian kad5 “to tie, fasten” Sumerian IENH 293: *k'[a|&]r- “to twist, turn, bend, wind; to tie (together), bind; (adj.) curved, bent, crooked” Proto-Nostratic > *k'(o|e)r- “to twist, turn, bend, wind, tie (together)” Proto-IndoEuropean *m-k'erd- “breast” Proto-Kartvelian *k'[a]r- “to bind, tie together” Proto-Kartvelian *kär3- “to twist or tie (together), bind, thread” Proto-FinnoUgric *kar_r_ “collection, bundle” Proto-Dravidian *kar- “lump, mass, knot, clot” Proto-Dravidian garadin, kàradin, karadin5 “bundle, sheaf” Sumerian IENH 303: *gy[i|e]r- “to enclose, gird” Proto-Nostratic > *g[h][e|o]r- “to gird, enclose” Proto-IndoEuropean *gy[a|&]r- “to enclose, gird” Proto-AfroAsiatic *ker_ “to join together, tighten, shut, close, block up, secure” Proto-Dravidian Dravidian: gru'- “to fence or surround” Kuwi gru:pa “to surround, encircle” Kui gír “girdle” Sumerian IENH 306: *kY[h][a|&]l-“to twist, twine, wind around, plait” Proto-Nostratic > *k[h](e|o)lH-, *k[h]loH- (> *k[h]lo:-) “to twist, turn, plait” Proto-IndoEuropean *k[h](e|o)lk'- “to twist, wind” Proto-IndoEuropean *kY[h][a|&]l-“to twist, twine, plait” Proto-AfroAsiatic IENH 317: *kW[h][u|o]l-“to bend, curve, turn, revolve, move around” Proto-Nostratic > *kW[h](e|o)l-“to revolve, turn, move around” Proto-IndoEuropean *kW[h][a|&]l-“to bend, curve, turn, revolve, move around” Proto-AfroAsiatic *kulka- “to ramble about, to roam or wander about” Proto-Uralic *kul- “to bend, to curve” Proto-Dravidian *kul- “to walk, run or move about, to round and round” Proto-Dravidian VISW Two roots: 1: *kW-r- “turn, bend” pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *kW-r- Proto-IndoEuropean extension *kWarád (transitive) Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic > (since *kWr- >* kr-) *kr-t- “turn” Proto-IndoEuropean kr.n.átti “twines the thread” Sanskrit kre~no~tI “turns” Old Bulgarian kro~tU “spun” Old Bulgarian extension with -i- *kr-i- Proto-IndoEuropean with s-preformative skre:jù, skre~:ti “move in a circle” Lithuanian apskritùs “round” Lithuanian scri:nium “roll-shaped cover (for storing books, papers etc” Latin extension with -p- *kr-yp- Proto-IndoEuropean hreifi “wrist” Old Norse krei~pti tr. “turn” Lithuanian kraipýti frq.“turn back and forth” Lithuanian *kW-r- “turn” pre-Semitic full reduplication 'an-kWarkWara“turn” intr. & tr. Ethiopian karkara “turned the millstone” tr. “he returned” intr. II “was turned over by air (of bird, cloud)” Arabic kirke:r “turn around, dance” Hebrew “turn back and forth” Modern Hebrew kirku:r “dance, jump” Modern Hebrew with assimilation (rk > kk) kikka:r “environ(ment)” Hebrew kikkar læ`Hæm“(bread-circle =) round loaf” Hebrew half reduplication *k-r-k- k&raX “encircled” pa. “enveloped” ethpe. “surrounded” Syriac k&råXå: “circuit” Syriac k&raX “wrap around” pa. “turn” intr. Jewish Aramaic ka:raX “wrap (around), unite” New Hebrew kæræX “book roll, bundle” New Hebrew k&ri:X m. “book roll, bundle” Jewish Aramaic adj. “going in circle” Jewish Aramaic k&ri:Xa: f. “wrap, bundle” Modern Hebrew single reduplication *k-r-r- karra “he wheeled round, turned, returned” Arabic karrun “a rope” Arabic with -w- infix *k-w-r- (< *kW-r) kawrun “a turn (of a turban)” Arabic ka:ra perf. tr. “he wound (-hu it) round” Arabic 2: *gW-r- “turn, bend” pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *kW-r- “bend” Proto-IndoEuropean [ > *gW-l- with r > l after labiovelar Proto-IndoEuropean *kW-l- “roll, turn” Proto-IndoEuropean c^árati “moves” Sanskrit c´araiti “moves around” Avestan pélei, péletai “moves around” Greek pereplómenos (eniaitós) “rolling, moving around” Greek hvel “wheel” Old Norse pólos “axis” Greek kolo n. “wheel” Slavic ( zero grade *kul- in kulíndo: Greek ) reduplicated *kW-kl- extended *kl-ng (kl- < kWl-) clingo “surround, encircle, ring” Latin hlekkr “ring” Old Norse gelenke “bend” Middle High German Gelenk “joint” High German *kl-nk- pre-IE pokle~ca:ti “bend, arch” Old Bulgarian *gW-l- pre-Semitic > *g-w-l- pre-Semitic ga:la perf. “he went round, wheeled round” Arabic ga:lun, gu:ln “the wall that surrounds a well” Arabic mi-ga:lun “circle” Arabic full reduplication gilga:l “wheel” Hebrew galgal “wheel (mechanism)” Hebrew “zodiac” Modern Hebrew gilg&la: “zodiac” Jewish Aramaic gilge:l “roll, turn over” Hebrew galge:l “roll, turn over” Jewish Aramaic gulgòlæþ “skull” Hebrew gulgulta: “skull, ball, round stone” Jewish Aramaic single reduplication *gW-l-l- “roll” Amharic ga:lal “roll, turn over” Hebrew g&lal “roll, turn over” Jewish Aramaic ga:li:l “turnable” Hebrew subst. “roll, circle” Hebrew g&li:la: f. “outline” Hebrew extended with -i- gilla:yo:n “(parchment) roll, belt” Modern Hebrew ] whence also words meaning “ring”, “circle”, thus probably the m-formation *kWr.mi- “worm” Proto-IndoEuropean kr.mi-s. “worm” Sanskrit kirmis “worm” Lithuanian pryf “worm” Welsh w-formation *kWr.wi- Proto-IndoEuropean c^ervI “worm” Russian c^rUvI “worm” Old Bulgarian as in the w-participle curvus “curved” Latin y-formation *kr-y- (kr- < kWr-) Proto-IndoEuropean krei~vas “wound” Lithuanian kri:vu “oblique” Old Bulgarian kríkos “ring” Greek extended with -w- and -k- krúñc´ati “curves” Sanskrit (Dha:tup.) [alternative form *G.W-r- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *gW-r- Proto-IndoEuropean crumb “curved” Anglo-Saxon krumb “curved” Old Frisian krumb “curved” Old Saxon chrump “curved” Old High German *gr-mb- “curved” Proto-IndoEuropean crump “curved” Anglo-Saxon crump English krimpf “curved” Middle High German krampf “curved” Old High German krumpf “curved” Old High German krumpf “curved” Middle High German *kr-wk- “creep” Proto-Germanic *kr-wp- “creep” Proto-Germanic krüpfen “curve” Bavarian reduced *gru:p- (*gr- extended with laryngeal and -p-) Proto-IndoEuropean gru:pós “curved, hook-nosed etc” Greek ] The existence of the alternative form demonstrates that *gW-r- Proto-IndoEuropean is also the origin of the extension *kr-ngH- Proto-IndoEuropean hringr “ring” Old Norse hring “ring” Old High German kro~gU “circle” Old Bulgarian kro~glU “round” Old Bulgarian [alternative form *gr-ngH- pre-IE kringr “ring” Old Norse krinc “circle” Middle High German kranc “circle” Middle High German *gr-ng^H- pre-IE gre,z^iù, gre,s^ti “turn” Lithuanian ] Half reduplication *kr-k-, reduced *kr.k- pre-IE circus “circle” Latin k from pre-IE g, since *gW-r- pre-Semitic half reduplication *g-r-g- (gr- < gWr-) pre-Semitic gariga perf. intr. “moved in a circle (as a ring on a finger)” Arabic WM454: The form indeed seems at a glance to answer to the protoform *kurung, reconstructed by Otto Dempwolff (1938) for: kulong “pen, enclosure” Tagalog bang-kulong “trap” Tagalog hurung “put in captivity” Toba-Batak kurung “pen, enclosure” Javanese kurung “enclose, pen in” Malay kurong “penned, enclosed” Ngaju-Dayak horona “confined, enclosed” Merina-Malagasy Mark Harvey (MHSA, see there p. 56) included *kurung Proto-Austronesian as proposed evidence for recognizing *r as PAN phoneme, and cited: kurung “wooden frame for carrying firewood” Paiwan t-h-i-krungu “surrounding walls of a pig pen” Tsou re-krungv-a “mosquito net” Tsou kulóng “fortress” Tagalog kurúng “fortress” Ilokano kurúng “fortress” Bikol ku:ngan “cage” Tausug kolo “fortress, temporary fence of native cloth around a grave” Tonga ?olo “fort” Samoa I think that the reflexes assigned to *kurung actually reflect two protoforms, one authentic and one secondary or "doublet". The primary protoform (probably not PAN but PMP), I think, was: *kuDung > k_er_udung (infix -er-) “veil, lamp shade” Malay kudung “closed up, closed in” Kroe-Lampung kudung “cloth to cover or wrap around the head” Sundanese a-kurung “be closed in, pent up” Old Javanese kurung “confine, enclose, pen up” New Javanese kurungan “cage' New Javanese kòDung “wear over one's head” Madurese kuDung “head covering (of women), veil, cap” Balinese where ò is o with grave accent, D is d with dot under it (except *D which is the PAN reconstruct). The secondary protoform *kurung.... was probably at first a borrowing from Javanese into Malay, and then spread as Malay feature along the Java Sea-Strait of Makassar-Celebes Sea-Philippines-Taiwan route, resulting in the Western Austronesian reflexes ascribed to *kurung above by Dempwolf and Harvey. The one or other of the Philippine cognates could however directly reflect *kuDung (compare the meaning of the Kroe-Lampung reflex, which cannot be reconciled with a *kurung, but must reflect *kuDung). The Merina-Malagasy cited form could also reflect *kuDung. The following Javanese reflexes (perhaps also Sundanese kudung above), must be seen as borrowings from kudung < *kuDung Malay : kuDung “veil, hood” Old Javanese, kuDung “cloth to cover or wrap around the head, cover, lid” New Javanese TP: Note again the suffixes -g- (ergative?), -d- (accustive?): The *k-r-g- (e.g. “ring”) *k-r-'s (encircles?) the *k-r-d- (eg. Latin cardo “axis, pole”). NS 14: *c´arV “rind, crust” Proto-Nostratic *s^tArV id. Sino-Caucasian *t&r-ap Proto-Yeniseian *c^H&:rV North Caucasian NS 45: *k'al´V “peel; bark, skin” Proto-Nostratic initial k'- because of *k'al´i- Proto-Altaic *qa_l_V “bark, skin” North Caucasian NS 54: kolV “peel, bark” Proto-Nostratic *q'wAl\HV “bark, skin” Sino-Caucasian *qhro:w (~kh-) Sino-Tibetan *qo:l “dandruff” Proto-Yeniseian q'wal\HV “bark” North Caucasian NS 72: *k'ErdV “heart, breast” Proto-Nostratic *ki:rV “breast, belly” North Caucasian NS 73: *k'ol`V “round, roll” Proto-Nostratic *gwVl(g)V id. Sino-Caucasian *kW(r)el\ “roll, wind” Sino-Tibetan *gwe:lgV “round” North Caucasian NS 81: *k'ar´ä “bark” Proto-Nostratic k'&_ri: “bark, shell” North Caucasian PMA kiri- “bark, skin” Maori, Rarot. kili- “skin, bark” Tonga koli “bark” Sula Is. Back