*s-r- “flow, stream”; “arrow, spear”

PMA sar “to flow, move” Sanskrit sara “liquid, water” Sanskrit saru “dart” Sanskrit, also sarah “arrow” siri “sword” Sanskrit, also “wound, slit in pieces” IENH 163: *sy[u|o]r- “to surge, gush, flow, spring, or spread forth” Proto-Nostratic > *s[e|o]r- “to move quickly, run, flow” Proto-IndoEuropean *s(e|o)r-p[h]- “to creep, crawl” Proto-IndoEuropean *sr-(e|o)w- “to flow” Proto-IndoEuropean *sy[a|ë]r- “to surge, gush, flow, spring, or spread forth” Proto-AfroAsiatic *co:r- “to flow, ooze, trickle, leak, gush” Proto-Dravidian shur- “to pour out, flow, bubble or boil up, gush out; arise from, spring forth; spread or stretch out; rain” Sumerian IENH 192: *s[a|&]r- “to split, rip apart, tear asunder” Proto-Nostratic > *s(e|o)r- “to split, rip apart, tear asunder” Proto-IndoEuropean *sor-g[h]- “to wound, tear” Proto-IndoEuropean *s1[a]r- “to destroy” Proto-Kartvelian *s[a|&]r- “to split, rip apart, tear asunder” Proto-AfroAsiatic *säre- “to break” Proto-FinnoPermian SIG, VISW, IESSG Actually two roots *s-r- pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic *s-r- “flow” Proto-IndoEuropean *s-r- Semitic and *z-r- pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic *s-r- “flow” Proto-IndoEuropean *z-r- Semitic sára-ti, sísar-ti “flows” Sanskrit sará- “flowing” Sanskrit sárma- “flowing” n. Sanskrit orós “whey” Greek serum “whey” Greek extended with -b- or -P.- > PIE -p- / > Semitic -b- *sárab-, zárab- pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic sárapas “rapidly flowing water” Sanskrit saribam, saraba “(the water) ran, (the source, a leathern waterbag) flowed” Arabic sarabuN “flowing water” Arabic s^arba, s^urba “rain shower” Assyrian 'asra:b “torrent, waterfall” extended with -w- *sr-w- “flow” pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic sráva-ti “flows” Sanskrit rhéo: “flows” Greek straum-r “stream” Old Norse stroum “stream” Old High German stro:m “stream” Old Low German stre:am “stream” Old English *s-r- pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic *s-r- “flows” Proto-IndoEuropean extended with -b- > PIE -p- Alternative forms *s-rp- intr. Proto-IndoEuropean (formally = Semitic s-r-b “flow” if this b < pre-IE-Semitic b) sárpa-ti “creeps” Sanskrit herpo: “creep” Greek herpe:s “creeping, expanding rash” Greek serpo: “creep, spread unnoticed, take the upper hand” Latin : *S.-r-b- > *S.r-b- > *hr-b- > *r-b- ? pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic e-grade *re:p- Proto-IndoEuropean re:po: “creep, crawl” Latin re:plióti “creep” Lithuanian *s-r- Semitic extended with -y- sara: (denoting unseen progress) “(the root of a tree) crept along beneath the ground” transferred sense (of calamities etc.) “(the root of evil) crept” Arabic extended with -s.- *s^-r-s.- West Semitic s^&ras. “crept, crawled” Syrian s^a:ras. “creep (of worms on the ground), teem (of small water creatures, multiply rapidly (of people and animals)” Hebrew s^æ`ræs. “crawling worms” Hebrew s^ers.å: “reptiles” Syrian s^irs.a: “reptile” Jewish Aramaic *s-r- pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic *s-r- Proto-IndoEuropean sí-sar-ti “rushes” Sanskrit sarán.a “running” Sanskrit extended with -m- *sr.´mo- Proto-IndoEuropean storm-r “storm” Old Norse storm “storm” Old English storm “storm” Old Saxon *sr.´mi- sturm “storm” Old High German Herme:s the storm god Greek *sòr-ma^ Proto-IndoEuropean horme: “rushing forward” Greek hormáo: “rush forward” Greek *s-r- Semitic single redupl. sarara “rush, fly upon vehemently” Ethiopian extended with -y- saraya “he was hasty, rapid, he hastened” sariyuN “quick, rapid etc.” with w-infix *s-w-r- Semitic sa:ra perf. “he leaped, sprang, committed an assault upon another” Arabic s^&war “jumped, rushed forth” Syrian causative *s-r- “throw” pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic *s-r-y- Semitic s^a:ra: “release” Hebrew s^&rå: “release, throw” Syrian s-r-H- “release” Arabic *s-r-A1- > *sre: Proto-IndoEuropean stre:-la “arrow” Old Church Slavonian strala: “arrow” Old High German extended with -g2- *s-r-g2- Proto-IndoEuropean arkanem “I throw” Armenian arki aor. Armenian originally identical with *s-l- pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic *s-l- “send, throw” Proto-IndoEuropean extended with G.^ > PIE j sárja-ti, srjá-ti “sends away, shoots” Sanskrit sr.s^stá part. har&zaiti “releases, sends away” Avestan har&ito: part. extended with G.W : gW > PIE gW : kW sárga- “shot” Sanskrit with nasal infix slenken “sling” v. Middle High German slenker “sling” n. Middle High German : sr.ká- “dart, spear” Sanskrit har&ka- “throw” n. Old Persian har&c^eyeiti “hurls, slings” Old Persian with fra: “sends out” Old Persian with nasal infix *sl.nékti Proto-IndoEuropean slyngva “sling” v. Old Norse slenge “sling” n. Middle High German slengira “sling” n. Old High German slenger f. “sling” n. Middle High German extended with PIE -w- and laryngeal reduced *slu: Proto-IndoEuropean slu:r “slinging” Middle High German slu:der “sling” n. Middle High german schlauder “sling” n. German with umlaut schleuder “sling” n. German *s-l- Semitic extended with -k- hi-s^liX “throw (off, away)” Hebrew Hiph. extended with -H- s^elaH “sent” Syrian ethpe. “has been sent” Syrian s^alu: “throw, sling, shoot (arrow)” Assyrian s^æ'laH “dart, spear, missile” Hebrew silHuN, sila:HuN “a weapon, weapons” ma-slaHatuN “a place of arms wherein are parties that watch the enemy” Arabic *z-r- pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic *s-r- “strew, pour out, sow” Proto-IndoEuropean *s-r- “strew, pour out, sow” Semitic extended with -k.- za:rak. “strew (dust, semen), sprinkle (water, blood)” Syrian “throw, sprinkle blood onto the altar” New Hebrew zerak. “scattered” Syrian pa. aph. “dispersed” Syrian zerak. “strew, throw, shake” Jewish Aramaic pa. “throw” mizra:k. “vessel from which sprinkling is done” Hebrew “cleansing bowl” New Hwbrew mizr&k.a: “cleansing bowl” Jewish Aramaic zara:k.u, izarik. pres. izrik. pret. “sprinkle” Assyrian zarak.a “(the bird) excreted” Arabic extended with -p- z&raph “scattered” Syrian z&riptå: “violent rain” Syrian extended with -b- see above extended with -m- po. “pour out (of clouds)” Hebrew zæ`ræm “strong rain” Hebrew z&ra:miþ(a:) “storm” Jewish Aramic zirma: “ejaculation (of stallion)” Hebrew extended with -A- zar'a “ejaculate, strew, make fruitful” Ethiopian zar' “semen, sperm, offspring” Ethiopian extended with -y- *z-r-Y.- Common Semitic zaraY.a perf. “planted, sowed” Arabic zarz^a “planted, sowed” Ethiopian za:raz^ “planted, sowed” Hebrew z&raz^ “planted, sowed” Aramaic z&raz^ “planted, sowed” Syrian niph. “conceive” Hebrew hiph. “produce semen (also of women)” Hebrew hiph “ejaculate (in intercourse” Hebrew zarY.uN “seed, seminal fluid, offspring, child, children” Arabic ze:ru id. Assyrian zæ`raz^ id. Hebrew z&raz^ “seed, offspring” Biblical Aramaic zarz^å: “seed” Syrian pl. “descendants” Syrian za:ru: “begetter” Assyrian ze:rtu “descendant” Assyrian extended with -d- *s-r-t- “have intercourse with woman” Proto-IndoEuropean *zárad Proto-IndoEuropean serðan “have intercourse” Old English serða “have intercourse” Old Norse serten “have illicit intercourse” Middle High German z-r-d- Semitic zarada:nuN “vulva” Arabic extended with -w- strieman, stre:man “beget offspring” Old English EIEC *ser- “flow” Proto-IndoEuropean verb : sirid “flows” Middle Irish nominal derivatives serum “whey” Latin *srdyo- gjizë “whey, cheese” Albanian horós “whey” Greek extension : *srew- (gen. *sréwe/o-) “flow” sraviù “ooze” Lithuanian rheo: “flow” Greek aroganem “moisten” Armenian srávati “flow” Sanskrit *srowo/eH2- sravá- “what flows; menstruation” Sanskrit ostrovû “island” Old Church Slavonian rhúos “flow” Greek cf. sru:aim “stream” Old Irish straum-r “stream” Old Norse stroum “stream” Old High German stroom “stream” Old Low German stre:am “stream” Old English stream English IELL sara “current, stream” Thracian IEW *k'el “arrow, straw” Proto-IndoEuropean shalyá- “arrow point, spear point” Sanskrit shará “reed, arrow” Sanskrit sháru “arrow, spear” Sanskrit kelon “arrow, shot” Greek cail “spear” Middle Irish hali “point of stick, tail” Old Norse TP: Dubious. If we assume a borrowing from Proto-Austronesian into IE, then Austronesian must later have gone through a sound change similar to that of the satem languages (k' (> ch > ts) > s), which is unlikely. If the borrowing went the other way, it must have been from a satem language. Or else these two are not cognates. CAIEH 43 *sreu- “flow” Proto-IndoEuropean *saluR Proto-Hesperonesian sa?og “stream” Tagalog salor “conduit” Mal. NS 170: *s^arV “flow, stream, lake” Proto-Nostratic *s^OrV id. Sino-Caucasian *s^ur “flow, pour” Sino-Tibetan *s^or “lake, river” North Caucasian PMS sur “to flow, to rain, drip” Sumerian PMA sari- “to flow” Aore, Mafea saro- “to flow” Peterara sara- “to flow” Woraviu, Sesake, Nguna Pwele, Siviri, Lelepa, Fila ser- “to flow” Eratap, Eton soro-soro- “to flow” Ngwatua sileng- “water” Apma serik- “rain” Shark Bay I serk- “rain” Lorediakarkar seri- “rain” Shark Bay II sari- “spear” Lolsiwoi, Morouas, Batunlamak, Fortsenal, Penantsiro, Narango, Mafea, Tutuba, Aore, Malo sare- “spear” Amblong ser- “spear” Sasar, Vetumboso, Mosina, Bek saria- “spear” Tambotalo siri “spear” Nuwas salapang “spear” Tagalog suligi “dart” Tagalog sari- “arrow” Ngwatua saer- “arrow” Merig PMA sele- “knife” Hukua, Valpei, Fiji seleta- “sword” Samoa hele- “to cut” Tonga hilis- “cut, slice, incision” Tagalog Back