*m-d- “Tree (pole) at middle of the world, middle of the world, order of the world”

from IELS: *med- In historical times the root *med- designated a great variety of different things: “govern”, “think”, “care for”, “measure”. The primary meaning cannot be determined simply by reducing all these to a vague common denominator or by a confused agglomeration of the historically attested forms. It can be defined as “measure” not “measurement”, but “moderation” (Lat. modus, modestus), designed to restore order in a sick body (Lat. medeor “care for”, medicus), in the universe (Hom. Zeùs (Idèthen) medéo:n “Zeus the moderator”), in human affairs, incuding the most serious like war, or everyday things like a meal. Finally, the man who knows the médea (Hom. mé:dea eidó:s) is not a thinker, a philosopher, he is one of those "chiefs and moderators" (Hom. hégé:tores e:dè médontes) who in every circumstance know how to take the tried and tested measures which are necessary. *Med-, therefore, belongs to the same register of terms as ius and díke: : it is the established rule, not of justice but of order, which it is the function of the magistrate to formulate: Osc. med-diss (cf. iu-dex). PMA mut “to break, crush” Sanskrit also math, manth “churn, crush, destroy” and mota-ka “crushing, breaking, destruction, strangulation” matha “churning-stick” Sanskrit, also manthan “fire-stick” mit “post, pillar” mahina? “month” Hindi, also masa “month” Sanskrit IENH 408: *m[i|e]H- “to measure, mark off” Proto-Nostratic > *m[i|e]Hh- (> *me:-) “to measure, mark off” Proto-IndoEuropean mh Egyptian, AfroAsiatic IENH 527: *m[a|ë]t'- “to stretch, expand, lengthen, draw out, measure out” Proto-Nostratic > *m(e|o)t'- “to measure, measure out, estimate” Proto-IndoEuropean mat'- “to augment, increase” Georgian, Kartvelian *m[a|ë]t- “to stretch, expand, to lengthen, to draw out, measure out” Proto-AfroAsiatic *mede- “to know, perceive, understand” Proto-Altaic IENH 517: *m[a|ë]-t[h]- “middle, in the middle of, with, among” Proto-Nostratic > *met[h]- “middle, in the middle of, with, among” Proto-IndoEuropean *m[a|ë]t[h]- “middle, in the middle of” Proto-AfroAsiatic SIG, IESSG, VISW *A-m- “measure” Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic extended with -Á-, half redupl. *me:- trans. “measure” Proto-IndoEuropean má:ti “measures” Sanskrit má:tram “measure” Sanskrit me:-tior “measure” Latin me:ra: “measure” Old Church Slavonic me:la m. “bushel” Gothic '-m- “measure” Arabic single redupl. '-m-m- “aim at” Arabic ammatu “ell” Assyrian 'amma: “ell” Hebrew 'am(me)tha “ell” Syrian 'em(m)at “ell” Ethiopian *A-m-d- “end” pre-IndoEuropean-Semittic *énto-s or *ánto-s Proto-IndoEuropean ánta- m. “end” Sanskrit ántya- “last” Sanskrit ánta-má “the last one” Sanskrit andeis “end” Gothic enti “end” Old High German To Sanskr. ánda- as high tone word corresponds exactly 'amadun “terminus, finis; the utmost (extreme) term, limit, point or reach, each of the two terms of the life (of a man, i.e. the time of his birth and the time of his death), time considered with regard to its end, starting place, goal” Arabic (balaya) 'amadu-hu “(he reached, attained) his utmost or extreme extent, term” Arabic From the point of view of Proto-IndoEuropean (with the third radical d > t being that of the participle) the word must be considered as participle of *A-m- [above] whence, extended *A-m-t- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *'amát- 'amata “he measured” Arabic *med- IndoEuropean Alternating forms: *m-d- “measure” Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic reduplicated m-d-d- “measure” Assyrian m-d-d- “measure” Hebrew midda: “measure” n. Hebrew muddun, mida:dunn pl. “a certain measure of dry land” Arabic muddatun “distance (spatial or temporal)” Arabic : *m-D.- Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *m-d- Proto-IndoEuropean mitan “measure” Gothic metan “measure” Old English mizzan “measure” Old High German médomai “I measure” Greek médimnos “measure for grain” Greek *med-tro-m > mettron > métron “measure” n. Greek modus “measure” n. Latin modius “peck, a Roman dry measure” Latin But *m-d- “measure” Proto-IndoEuropean may derive from *(A-)m-t- “measure” Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *A1-m- Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic ìm- prep. “in, inter” Egyptian whence ìmwty “between, midst” Egyptian (pyramids) mtt “center” Egyptian mite “center” Coptic mtr t “noon” Egyptian meere “noon” Coptic extended with t > T. > Proto-IndoEuropean dh *médhyò-s Proto-IndoEuropean mádhja-s Sanskrit méssos, mésos Greek medius “middle” Latin miðr “middle” Old Norse midjis “moddle” Gothic mitti “middle” Old High German extended with d > Proto-IndoEuropean t méta, metà “midst, among” Greek miþ “midst, among” Gothic *m-t- Semitic extended with (originally suffixal) -n- matnun “the middle, the middle part of a bow, a spear, a sword, a road” Arabic extended with the comparative suffix t-r- (or, rather, with the same t- and the comparative suffix r-) *mter Proto-IndoEuropean antár “between” Sanskrit inter “midst, between” Latin unter “among” Old High German [ Not to be confused with the comparative of *A1-n “in” Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic éni “in” Greek namely *nter Proto-IndoEuropean *ntéro, *ntré “inner, more inward” Proto-IndoEuropean intra: Latin interior Latin intimus, sup. Latin and with *ndher- Proto-IndoEuropean under “underneath” Gothic unter “underneath” Old High German infra: Latin inferior Latin untarn “noon” Old High German *undaurus “noon” Gothic undaurni-mats “noon meal” Gothic ] PIEL matan “on, before” Etruscan meta Proto-Indo-European meta Greek miþ Gothic EIEC *mentH2- “stir” (pres. *mntneH2- / *mntmH2ie/o-) mondull “handle on a pestle” Old Norse mêsti “stir, agitate” Lithuanian mêsti “disturb, molest” Old Church Slavonian motati sê “be agitated” Old Church Slavonian motáti “wind, shake, vanish” Russian *mntneH2- mathna:- Sanskrit mäntänä- Tokharian *mntnH2ye/o- matháyati Sanskrit mäntäññ- Tokharian mánthati mathnáti matháyati “stirs, whirls, churns; hurts, destroys” Sanskrit mänt- “remove (utterly) from its place, destroy; pour out; disturb, meddle with; fall into misfortune, be irritated, feel malice” TokharianAB *míts gen. *mitós “stake, post” *mit-ustu- methas “boundary marker” Middle Irish *moito- meið-r “post, border, boundary” Old Norse SBV: meju : mèju : miet “knock in a pole” Latvian ICSDIE: húntrú “lower” Oscan hondomu “from the lowest” Umbrian hondra “infra” Umbrian PIEL: hintha, hinthu, hinthin “under” Etruscan *ndhos, *ndheri Proto-Indo-European adhas Sanskrit ette Tocharian B inferus Latin anda Hittite HB: ondo “bottom, side; under” Basque (h)ondar “remains; beach, sand” Basque ondoren (ondo + gen.?) “after” Basque (ibaiondo “riverbank” Basque) EWBS: basa “sieve” Basque mase “sieve” Basque maso “club” Basque maso “soft, tender, fresh” Basque AHDIE: *bhes- “rub” Proto-IndoEuropean 1. Zero grade with unclear suffix *(bh)s-amadho “sand” Proto-IndoEuropean psamathos id. Greek *sam(a)dam), *sandam id. Proto-Germanic sand English 2. Suffixed form *(bh)s-abh- Proto-IndoEuropean further suffixed sabulum “sand” Latin 3. Suffixed form *bhs-a:- Proto-IndoEuropean pse:n “rub, scrape” Greek pse:phos “ballot, pebble” Greek TP: Note the 'unclear suffix' in 1. The suffix in 2. looks like a postposition too. TP: *bhs-e:na “sand” PIE? Substrate? NCGGL: (h)are:na “sand” Latin fase:na id. Sabine (Varro) DV: “tree, pole, gallows” The tree that Odin hung from for nine days, commonly identified with the world tree, Yggdrasil. AEDL 41 maddan “wood” Wiradyuri , Australian maddan “wood” Wongaibon , Australian madan “wood” Waliwun , Australian mada “wood” NWBundiyil, Australian *mutt- “log of wood” Proto-Dravidian RORROR 19: *mo-dun “tree” Proto-Mongolian > modun “tree” Middle Mongolian *mo: “tree” Proto-Tungus-Manchu > moo “tree” Literary Manchu cf. *mo:i(h), *mòró “forest” Korean *m&´rí id. Proto-Japanese > mori id. Japanese EIEC mietas “post” Lithuanian miets “post” Latvian moyt “pillar” Armenian mit “something erected, pillar, post” Sanskrit methi “pillar” Sanskrit *mei-, the underlying verb : meju “drive in a stake” Latvian minóti “fixes, fastens in the ground, sets up” Sanskrit me:ta “pyramid structure, boundary stone” Latin HSED 1750 *mawat-/*mayat- “tree” *mVt- “baobab” Central Chadic mëte Higi Nkafa mate Higi Ghye mëd- Higi Futu cf. mude Higi Nkafa *mawat- “kind of tree” East Chadic moote Mokilko *mayat- > *me:t- “palm tree” Lowland East Cushitic meetii Oromo Consonantal alternation *-w- ~ *-y-. Probably related to *mut- “stick” HSED 1763 *meti? “spear” mt3y.t “spear” Egyptian (Book of the Dead) *myat East Chadic meta Bidiya HSED 1766 *mi?es- “tree” *mVHVsh- “kind of tree” Semitic me:su “kind of tree” Akkadian *mVHyas- > *myas- West Chadic mes “mahagony” Chip mes “locust-bean” Mupun *mVHyas- > *myas- Central Chadic mesa: “tamarind” Logone *mi?es Highland East Cushitic mi?eesaa “cedar” Bambala HSED 1768 *mi-`Vbal- “arrow, spear” *mi-`(V)bal- “arrow” Semitic mi`bal-at- “arrow” Arabic m`b3 “harpune” Egyptian (pyramids) Semitic loanword? *mubul > *umbul- West Chadic ?umbul “throw (a spear)” Bolewa Denominative verb HSED 1806 *mut- “stick” *mat- Semitic mate “stick, branch” Hebrew mdw “stick” Egyptian (Old Kingdom) TP maat “order of the world” Egyptian PMA motu- “to break” Nanumea, Samoa muka- “to begin to break” Nanumea mongo-mongo- “crushed, bruised, shattered” Maori magai- “to crush” Arosi makere- “broken” Arosi mota- “mortar for crushing areca nut” Saa, Ulawa, Arosi makasi- “to break to pieces” Saa, Ulawa makaka- “broken in pieces” Saa, Ulawa madou- “broken” Ulawa mek-mek- “to crush into small pieces” Bontok mug-mug- “softened by pounding, made painful by beating” Tagalog moto- “to strike” Samoa moko- “pound with fist” Hawai'i moto- “to punch” Rarotonga moto- “squeeze, compress” Marquesas “embrace” Fiji mata- “club” Ulawa, Wango manda- “club” Viti mada- “club” Wedau, Arosi mata- “stick” Tolomako, Malmariv Nonona, Navut Morouas, Akei Fortesenal Penantsiro mant- “stick” Roria, Nambel meta- “spear” Ambrym mtah- “spear” Motlav metah- “spear” Volow moto- “spear” Fiji matah- “spear” Ureparapara mata- “spear” Torres Is metomwa- “digging stick” Hiw TP: The pole at the center of the world? The churning stick with which the oceans were churned to milk? If yes: IEW *me-, m-e-t- “measure, divide, set up limits for” *me:-no- “measure” *me:-ti- “measure, wisdom” *me:-to- “year” mati, mimati “measures” Sanskrit ma- “measure” Avestan ma- “measure” Old Persian métron “measure” Greek *matio: > mat, mas “measure” Albanian medru “hit a goal, be able” Middle Welsh medr “skill” Middle Welsh mæ:ð “measure” Old English mæ:la “measure” Old Icelandic metõ, mesti “throw” Old Church Slavonian motáti “wind up” Slovenian mera “measure” Old Church Slavonian metit' “aim” Russian thumb as measure? *mo:-ta: > maut “thumb” Old Welsh meut “thumb” Middle Breton *medhi-, *medhio-, *medhu- “middle” mádhya- “middle” Sanskrit me:j “center” Armenian me:sos “middle” Greek (Att.) medius “in middle” Latin mid- “center” Old Irish mide “center” Middle Irish Mide Meath (central province out of five) Middle Irish midjis “middle” Gothic midjun-gards “world” Gothic middan-geard “world” Old English mez^da “road” < “border of field” Old Bulgarian mez^á “border (of field)” Russian mez^du (loc. du.) “between” Old Bulgarian median “forest, wood(mat.)” Old Prussian mez^s “forest, wood(mat.)” Latvian medz^ias “tree” Lituanian *med- “measure” *me:dos- “a measure” *med- “healer, doctor” *med-ti > masti “measuring” Sanskrit mit “thought, mind” Armenian médomai “consider” Greek médon “ruler” Greek meditor “think about” Latin modus “way, manner” Latin modestus “measured, modest” Latin modera:re “moderate” Latin modius “bushel” Latin mers “right, duty, law” Umbrian merstu “right, just” Umbrian *medo-dik's > med-diss “judge” Oscan midiur “consider, pass judgement” Old Irish airmed “measure” Old Irish mitan “measure” Gothic mezzan “measure” Old High German meta “estimate” ge-met “measuring” Old English vi:-mad “healer, physician” Avestan medeor “heal” Latin *med- “healer, physician” > medicus “healer, physician” Latin ET matam, matan “above, before” Etruscan PMA mahina- “month, moon” common Polynesian, also masina, mase masina- “month, moon” Makatea NMNW madja “a kind of tree with edible fruits, with two species, the common or sweet and the madja pahit or bitter. From this, the old Javanese kingdom Madjapahit got its name. Further it also occurs as name of other trees the fruits of which are used in medicine, among others madja-kani, madja Keling and madja lawai” PMA math “to kill, exterminate, destroy” Sanskrit mat- Eratap tau-mata- Li'o bau-mata- Sula Fagudu ka-mate- Sobojo, Kadai, Taliabu bus mat- Dorig, Wetamut bus mate- Mota los mate- Valpei naki-mateia- Akei, Penantsiro lous-mateia- Fortsenal pu-matay- Philippines mata, etc.- “dead” common Austronesian Back