*w-gh- “boat, carry, road”, (Vehicle of the Sun?)

A study of certain Indic terms dealing with maritime navigation and the ocean might also be useful in determining how sea-faring Austronesians were able to have any influence at all in the region. TP: My interpretation: the root *w-gh- (?) shows a shift in meaning from east to west, namely from signifying transport by water to signifying transport by boat. This corresponds also to representations found of the respective pantheons (panthea?), and in particular the sun: in the east on a boat, in the west in a wain. Cf. also *p-l-(w-) (in *Y.-p-r-) “boat, swim, bathe”. PMA vahana “boat, raft” Sanskrit, from vah “to carry, bear” IENH 301: *w[a|ë]gy- “to carry, to convey” Proto-Nostratic > *w(e|o)g[h]- “to carry, to convey, to weigh” Proto-IndoEuropean *w[a|ë]gy- “to carry” Proto-AfroAsiatic *wighe- “to bring, to carry, to convey” Proto-FinnoUgrian IESSG, VISW *Y.-p- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic seems to have developped from *Y.-p- “double” with the original sense “pull in two, pull apart” ? *w- “pull” Proto-IndoEuropean with d-preformative *d-w- tjo:ðr “rope” Old Norse extended with -k- *d-wk- “pull” du:co “pull” Latin tiuhan “pull” Gothic dai-dussesthai helkesthai Greek (Hesychius) extended with -K^.- > PIE -g^h- *Y.apáK^.- trans. *w-gh- “pull” Proto-IndoEuropean váhati “pulls, goes” Sanskrit vazaiti “pulls (of draft animal), leads” Avestan va:há- “draft animal” Sanskrit vo:dhár- “draft animal” Sanskrit vas^tar- “draft animal” Avestan veho “pull” (currum, etc) Latin vehor intr. “go” (curru:) Latin *Y.-p- pre-Semitic extended with -K^.- > Semitic -s.- *Y.-p-s.- (= IndoEuropean *w-gh) Y.afas.a “he pulled (-hu it) out or forth” Arabic extended with -t- Y.afata “he twisted and broke (it)” Arabic PIEL: lauchum “the king” Etruscan lucair “to lead, to rule” Etruscan *deuk- “to draw” Proto-Indo-European ducere “to draw, to lead” Latin dux “chief, leader” Latin dougen “to bear, to transport” Breton tiuhan “to draw” Gothic MVc et al.: touw “cord, rope” Dutch touwen “spin” Dutch tou “scutched fibres of hemp, flax etc” Old Saxon to:w id. Old English tow id. English tow “to smooth the surface of a clay vessel by rubbing it with a length of cord” English (OED) Tau “cord, rope” German tooi “ornament” Dutch voltooien “complete, finish” Dutch *dowo- ? > Proto-IndoEuropean *tawa- ? > “plant fibre” Proto-Germanic tave id. Danish *taw-j- denominative -j- “to use a cord on” > “finish by decorating with a cord” > “decorate”; “finish” Proto-Germanic tawido “decorated, finished” Gallehus horn Germanic taw-i- “taw (skins), prepare (leather), curry (leather)” Old English *taw-an > Proto-Germanic tawa “tool” Old English zouw- “arrange, prepare” Old High German taw-j- “do, complete, make” Gothic doid “executes, takes care of” Old Irish davit' “press, squeeze, stamp, emboss” Russian > “vomit” Czech > “press” Ukrainian > “drown” Serbo-Croatian udavit' “strangle, hang” Russian EOND: taug “rope” Norwegian tov “rope” Danish tog n. “rope” Old Norse with different ablaut taug “rope” Old Norse téag id. Old English tíegan “tie” Old English tuien “tie” Dutch toga “pull” Old Norse toga id. Norwegian dial. togen id. Middle Low German togen id. Dutch zogôn id. Old High German tow English toga “pull, drag” Old Frisian zogôn “pull” Old High German from which zögern “hesitate” German verzögern “pull out” German togeren “hesitate, delay” Middle Low German further intensive formation toggen, tukken “tug” Middle English tucken, tocken id. Middle Low German tokkelen id. Dutch zucken id. Old High German zucken, zücken id. German deviant meaning in *teuhôn > tjôa “help” Old Norse *tauhian > tø^ja id. Old Norse *teuhian > ty^ja id. Old Norse tya “be of use, help, prepare” Norwegian dial. ty, tya “be capable, be enough” Swedish dial. tye, tøie “be capable” Danish dial. *teuhan “pull” Proto-Germanic probably originally “tool for pulling” toh-li:ne “tow-line” Old English to “textile, cloth wrt strength and quality, cloth for spinning or weaving, type and quality” Norwegian to, tov “uncleansed wool” Obs. Danish to “uncleansed wool or flax, thread material” Swedish dialect to: n. id. Old Norse to:whu:s “spinning mill” Old English towcræft “skill in spinning and weaving” Old English tow “the coarse part of the hemp” English related to taui (gen. tô:jis) “action” Gothic ubiltôjis “evil-doer” Gothic *towian > Proto-Germanic tooien “decorate” Dutch derivation *tôw-la- > *tôla- “tool” Proto-Germanic different ablaut *tau- *tâw- in taujan “do” Gothic têwa “order” Gothic gatêwjan “fix, order” Gothic tâwian “prepare, arrange” Old English getâwa “tools” Old English tauw, tow “tools, rope” Old Frisian touw “the coarse parts of hemp” Frisian tøir “tether” Norwegian tiur, tyr, tøger id. Obs. Danish tiuder id. Old Danish tjuder id. Swedish tjor id. Norwegian dial. tjoðr n. id. Old Norse *téoder id. Old English tedir id. Middle English tedder, tether English tiadar, tieder id. Old Frisian tûder, tudder id. Middle Low German ziotar “pole of a wagon” Old High German plus verbs tøire “tether” Norwegian tjudra id. Swedish tjora id. Norwegian dial. tjóðra id. Old Norse tuieren id. Dutch Probably formed with the PIE instrumental suffix *-tro- from the PIE root *du(k)- “pull, draw” tømme “rein” Norwegian, Danish töm id. Swedish taum id. Norwegian dial. taumr id. Old Norse tôm id. Old Saxon toom id. Dutch tâm id. Old Frisian zoum id. Old High German Zaum id. German Usually assumed derived from *taug-má > *tauma from *teuhan “pull” Proto-Germanic > causative *taugian Proto-Germanic tøie “stretch” Norwegian töja “pull” Swedish tøge id. Danish dial. teygja id. Old Norse getíegan id. Old English tíhan “pull” Gothic téon id. Old English *wantogen > wanton English getogen “brought up” Dutch tave “strand, fibre” Danish “tuft of flax, wool etc” Obs. Danish tøile “rein” Norwegian tygel id. Swedish, Norwegian dial. tygill “band, strap” Old Norse togel id. Old English teugel id. Dutch zugil, zuhil id. Old High German Zügel id. German instrumental formation from *teuhan “pull” Proto-Germanic WG: *deuk- > Proto-IndoEuropean suppletive stem tsuk-/yok- “drink” Tokharian AB du:co: “drink to the full” Latin (Horace at al.) nduk “suck out” Alban. dial. DSDE: Wickel “tuft of flax, roll” German wickili:n, wicchili: id. from *weg- “weave, tie; something woven, web” Proto-IndoEuropean CAD: CalíS “rope” Proto-Austronesian cal.isi id. Rukai cal.is id. Paiwan tali id. Palawan tali id. Molbog tali id. Sarangani Blaan tali id. Murut (Timugon) tadi id. Malagasy Merina talo& id. Aceh tali id. Batak Toba tali id. Minangkabau tali id. Indonesian tali id. Sundanese tali id. Javanese tali id. Madurese tali id. Balinese tali id. Sasak tulu? id. Bugis tulu? id. Konjo (Coastal) tali id. Sika tali id. Roti tái id. Cèmuhî tar^i id. Woleaian dali id. Eastern Fijian vase id. Manggarai vahe-t id. Buru wihi-t “cord intended as strap or handle” Buru wara “rope” Irarutu wole id. Sawai warige id. Manam woro id. Mbula voiau id. Paamese wa:k id. Nemi va:va: id. Mele-Fila *ta+pus “finished” Proto-Hesperonesian *(em+)pus “finish” Proto-MalayoPolynesian ta:pos + mag-/-in id. Tagalog ta:pus + -un id. Aklanon tobos id. Palawan tobos + mog- id. Molbog tapus + mag-/ma-/-&n id. Kagayanen ubus id. Ba:ngingi Sama pu id. Mekeo pwisi id. Lewo ?osi id. Tongan GCALLE 117: ?vil\x&-t “rope” Proto-ChukchiKamchatkan ovruks “(special) rope” Gilyak, Amur dialect (= Nivkh) ovruks^r id. Gilyak, East Sakhalin dialect Salishan: Xwí?l-m? “rope” Squamish Xwéy?l-m? id. Cowichan Algonquian-Ritwan: wis^kwe:-/wihkwe:- “wrap with a bundle-strap” Proto-Algonquian (?)weskul “strap” Yurok (?)weskwelekws “rope of wild grapevine” Yurok EIEC *wegh- “bear, carry”, also “ride”? (pres. wéghe/o) amwain “drive about” Welsh veh-, vec- “pull, carry” Latin but: equo: veh- “go by horseback” vega “move, bring” Old Norse wegan “bring, be in motion” Old English weigh English wegan “move, weigh” Old High German gawigan “move, shake” Gothic vezhu “drive” Lithuanian vezõ “drive” Old Church Slavonian vjedh “steal” Albanian (w)ekhéto: “he should bring” Greek vazaiti “transports; leads” Avestan váhati “carries, transports, conveys, leads” Sanskrit EIEC *wegh- “shake, set in motion” vexa:re “shake, vex” Latin wecgan “agitate” Old English waggen “wag” Middle English wag English wagian “shake” Gothic gaié-okhos “earth-shaking” Greek wa:sk-/wäsk- “move, budge, have motion (intr.) (< *wegh-ske/o) move (from a place) (intr.) tremble” Tokharian derivatives: *weghtis vectis “bar, pole, lever” Latin vétt “weight” Old Norse wiht “weight” Old English weight English *weghitlom vehiculum “vehicle” Latin vahitram “vehicle, ship” Sanskrit *weghyo vigg “horse” Old Norse wicg “horse” Old English vazyam “load” Avestan *weghyeH2- “track, road” (< *“capable of carrying passengers”) via “way, highway, road, path, street” Latin vezhe “rut, track, trail” Old Church Slavonian vezha “track” Latvian vahyá- “fit to be borne” Sanskrit *weghos fecht “trip” Old Irish veg-r “way” Old Norse weg “way” Old English way English weg “way” Old High German wig-s “way” Gothic *wughos vozû “wagon” Old Church Slavonian (w)okhos “chariot” Greek wo-ka “wagon” Mycenean Greek *weghnos fe:n “wagon” Old Irish gwain “wagon” Welsh wkäm “way, manner” TokharianA yakne “way, manner” TokharianB *woghno- vagn “wagon” Old Norse wægn “wagon” Old English wain English wagan “wagon” Old High German CELR VIII 329: *wa'u- “tie” West Chadic wh.´ id. Egyptian CELR VIII 330: *tVf- “tie” West Chadic ntf “untie” Egyptian CELR VIII 333: *'awar- “untie” East Chadic w3r.t “rope” Egyptian G: -dígì “bark-fibre string” Proto-Bantu -dígÒ “load” id. -dòk- “to plait” id. -dúg- “to paddle” id. suffix -t ? -dùt- “pull, tug” id. PMA waha “to carry, bear” Hawai'i, Maori, and: waha “boat” Ceram waka “boat” Maori, Tonga, etc. vaka “boat” Vaturana, Savo, etc. vaga “boat” Alite va'a “boat” Tahiti wa “boat” Mate, Lamenu, Nul, etc. wak “boat” Numer paki “boat” Fila wakten Port Vato bangka “boat” Philippines wangka “boat” Malay, Indonesia [TP: n-infix. From verb?] TP: Møller's derivation of this root from the root underlying words for “double” is intriguing. If he is right, perhaps the original sense was “pull by a yoke of draft animals” or even “go by double (outrigger) boat”? Back