*Y.-p-r/l- “(break on through to) the other side”

PMA bala “strength, stoutness” Sanskrit bal “to live, be strong” Sanskrit phal “to bear fruit” Sanskrit, also phala “fruit” phalya “flower” PMA plava “boat” Sanskrit, probably related to pluta “bathed, wet” aplu “to bathe, wash” BLW plewe “boat” Tocharian B plava “boat” Gurung plyog “boat” Archaic Chinese plyow “boat” ancient Chinese OOL 18: *pal- “two” Proto-World badi “two” Proto-Bantu bar(-si) “twin” Nubian *pol “half” Proto-IndoEuropean (ka-)palam “half” Sanskrit pol “half” Russian pälä “half” Proto-Uralic fél “half” Hungarian pal “side, half” Votyak pâl “part, portion, share” Tamil -pol “two” Andaman *bula “two” Proto-Austalian bar “two” Munda pir “two” Khmer ber- “two” Orang Asli ke-bar “doubled” Javanese palo(-l) “two” Wintun bor “two” Chiripo pula “both” Quechua OOL 19: *par “to fly” Proto-World fo “to fly” Yoruba par “to fly” Dinka parr “flee” Aramaic farra “flee” Arabic far “jump, hop” Beja p'er “to fly” Georgian parNa “feather” Sanskrit parena “feather, wing” Avestan parr- “to fly” Persian parr “wing” Persian perie “feathers” Yukagir por “to fly” Khanty paRa “to fly, hover, flutter” Tamil parpar “to fly, hover about” Gilyak *pirV “to fly” Proto-Caucasian pir “to fly” Abkhaz *pir-pir- > pimpirina “butterfly” Basque *phur “to fly” Proto-Sino-Tibetan *pjwer Archaic Chinese fei “to fly” Chinese 'phur-ba “to fly” Tibetan par “to fly” Khmer OOL 3. *BUR--'ashes; dust' ---- barr “dry land” > barrio Arabic pöly “dust” Finnish pori “mud” Estonian podi “dust” Telugu bur-di “the ground” Burushaski bur “ashes” Altai bor “chalk” Kazakh bur “clay” Buriat buraki “dust, sand” Manchu IENH 2: *b(u|o)r- “to bore, pierce” Proto-Nostratic > *b[h][o]r- “to bore, pierce” Proto-IndoEuropean *b(a|&)r- “to bore, pierce” Proto-AfroAsiatic *pura “borer, auger” Proto-FinnoUgric *bur- “to bore through, pierce” Proto-Altaic bùr “to bore through, pierce” Sumerian IENH 4: *b(a|&)r- “to swell, puff up, expand” Proto-Nostratic *b[h][e|o]r- (*b[h]ar-) “to swell, puff up, expand, bristle” Proto-IndoEuropean *b[h]rst[h]-i-s “bristle, point” Proto-IndoEuropean *b[h]r(e|o)ws- “to swell, swelling” Proto-IndoEuropean *b[h][e|o]rw-, *b[h]r[e|o]w- “to bubble up, boil” Proto-IndoEuropean *b[h]ard[h]eA (> *b[h]ard[h]a:) “beard” Proto-IndoEuropean *b[h]r[e|o]nd[h]- “to swell up” Proto-IndoEuropean *b[h]r[e]w- “to sprout, swell” Proto-IndoEuropean *ber- “to blow, inflate, puff out” Proto-Kartvelian *b[a|&]r- “to swell, puff up, expand” Proto-AfroAsiatic *par- “to swell, grow, expand” Proto-Dravidian bar “to blow, stretch or spread out, ferment, blow out” Sumerian bàr “to spread or stretch out, lay out” Sumerian bàra “to spread or stretch out” Sumerian bara “to spread or stretch out, open wide” Sumerian bar7 “to blow at or upon” Sumerian > IENH 5: *b(a|&)r- “projection, bristle, point” Proto-Nostratic > *b[h](a|o)r- “projection, bristle, point” Proto-IndoEuropean *b&r- “cypress, pine, fir” Proto-AfroAsiatic IENH 6: *b(a|&)r- “to bring, bear, carry” Proto-Nostratic > *b[h][e|o]r- “to bear, carry, bring forth” Proto-IndoEuropean *b(a|&)r- “to bear, carry, bring forth” Proto-AfroAsiatic *par “child, young one” Proto-ElamoDravidian bar “origin, descent, ancestry; family, descendants, offspring” Sumerian IENH 10: *b[u|o]l- “to swell, expand, spread out, overflow, puff up, inflate” Proto-Nostratic > *b[h](e|o)l- “to swell, puff up, inflate, expand, bubble up, overflow” Proto-IndoEuropean Kartvelian *blom- “multitude” Georgian blomad “in a crowd, mass, mob, multitude” Georgian *b[a|&]l- “to swell, expand, spread out, overflow” Proto-AfroAsiatic bul “to blow, breathe, puff” Sumerian IENH 11: *b[u|o]l-u?- “to ripen, to blossom, to sprout, to mature” (extended from 10) Proto-Nostratic > *b[h][u|o]l?H-/b[h]lo?H- (> *b[h]lo:-, later also *b[h]le:-) to blossom, to sprout” Proto-IndoEuropean *b[a|&]l[a|&]?- “to grow, to mature” Proto-AfroAsiatic *pol- “to increase, flourish, prosper, abound” Proto-Dravidian *bo:l- “to become” Proto-Altaic bulug3 “to grow, to make grow” Sumerian IENH 13: *b(a|&)l- “to be or become dark, obscure, blind” Proto-Nostratic > *b[h]l[e|o]nd[h]- “to make blind, to blind” Proto-IndoEuropean *b(a|&)l- “to be blind” Proto-AfroAsiatic Altaic balai “dark, obscure, ignorant; intellectually or morally blind; stupid” Mongolian balar “dark, obscure, blind, unclear, ignorant; primitive, primeval; thick, dense, impenetrable” Mongolian balu “blind” Manchu IENH 14: *b(u|o)l- “to become worn out, weak, tired, old” Proto-Nostratic *b[h]ol- “worn out, weak; misfortune, calamity” Proto-IndoEuropean *b[a|&]l- “to become worn out” Proto-AfroAsiatic *pul- “to wither, fade, become weak, decrease” Proto-Dravidian IENH 15: *b[a|&]ly- “to shine, be bright” Proto-Nostratic > *b[h][e|o]l- “shining, white” Proto-Indoeuropean *b[h]l[e|o]s- “to shine” Proto-Indoeuropean *b[h]l[i|e]yC- “to shine” Proto-Indoeuropean > *b[h]l[i|e]:- *b[h]l[i|e]yV- “to shine” Proto-Indoeuropean *b[h]lu(H)- “to shine” Proto-Indoeuropean *b[h](e|o)lk'-, *b[h]l[e|o]k'- “to shine” Proto-Indoeuropean *b[a|&]l- “to shine, be bright” Proto-AfroAsiatic *pal- “to glitter, shine” Proto-Dravidian IENH 16: *b[a|&]r- “to shine, be bright” Proto-Nostratic > *b[h]erEk'-, *b[h]reEk'- (*b[h]re:k´-) “to shine, gleam, be bright” Proto-IndoEuropean *b[e]rc'q'- “to shine” Proto-Kartvelian *b[a|&]r- “to shine, be bright” Proto-AfroAsiatic *par- “to shine brightly, become dawn” Proto-Dravidian bar “to shine, light, illuminate, sparkle, glitter, glisten; bright, shining; light, brightness” Sumerian bar6-bar6 “light, white; to whiten, make white” Sumerian IENH 19: *b[u|o]r-gy- “to protrude, to be prominent” Proto-Nostratic > *b[h](e|o)rg[h]- “high; mountain, hill” Proto-IndoEuropean *brg- “strong, powerful, high, large” Proto-Kartvelian *b[a|&]r[a|&]gy- “to protrude, to stand out” Proto-AfroAsiatic *por- “mountain, hill, top” Proto-Dravidian *burga(n) “(wooded) mountain, (wooded) pasture, promontory” Proto-Altaic IENH 24: *b(a|&)r- “seed, grain” Proto-Nostratic *b[h]ars- “grain” Proto-IndoEuropean *b(a|&)r- “grain, cereal” Proto-AfroAsiatic *par- “grain, seed, pebble” Proto-Dravidian bar “seed” Sumerian IENH 29: *b(u|o)ry- “dark-colored” Proto-Nostratic > *b[h]er-, *b[h]ru- “brown” Proto-IndoEuropean AfroAsiatic (*bor? >?) *bo?r- “yellow, brown, red, dark-colored” Proto-EastCushitic *bory- (“dark-colored” >) “gray, brown” Proto-Altaic IENH 35: *p[h](i|e)ly- “to split, cleave” Proto-Nostratic > *p[h][e|o]l- (*p[h]l-(e|o)y-; *p[l]l-(i|e)yC- > *p[h]l-(i:|e:)C- “to split, cleave” Proto-IndoEuropean *p[h](a|&)l- “to split, cleave” Proto-AfroAsiatic *pily3- “to cleave, split” Proto-Uralic *pil.- “to cleave asunder; to divide; to crush; to be split, cleaved, rent, cracked; to cleave, rend, part asunder” Proto-Dravidian *pilay- “to butcher” Proto-Eskimo *pilaytuR- “to cut up” Proto-Eskimo IENH 37: *p[h](a|&)r- “to separate, divide” Proto-Nostratic > *p[h][e|o]r- “to separate, divide” Proto-IndoEuropean *p[h]ric'- “to tear, rend, to break or burst apart” Proto-Kartvelian *p[h](a|&)r- “to separate, divide” Proto-AfroAsiatic *par- “to separate, cut asunder, break off, rend, tear off” Proto-Dravidian *pir- “to separate, part, sever” Proto-Dravidian IENH 39: *p[h](i|e)r- “to bring forth, bear fruit” Proto-Nostratic *p[h][e]r- “to bear, bring forth” Proto-IndoEuropean *p[h](a|&)r- “to bring forth, bear fruit” Proto-AfroAsiatic *per_- “to get, beget, bear” Proto-Dravidian *püre “seed, fruit; result, offspring” Proto-Altaic IENH 41: *p[h](a|&)r- “to precede, surpass, outstrip, overtake” Proto-Nostratic > *p[h][e|o]r- “preceding, surpassing” (used as the base of prepositions and preverbs and a wide range of extended meanings) Proto-IndoEuropean *p[h](a|&)r- “to precede, surpass, outstrip” Proto-AfroAsiatic IENH 46: *p[h](a|&)r- “to spread, scatter” Proto-Nostratic > *p[h](e|o)r- “to spray, spread, scatter” Proto-IndoEuropean extended *p[h]r-eE- [> *p[h]r-e:-] *p[h]r-[e|o]w- *p[h](a|&)r- “to spread, scatter” Proto-AfroAsiatic *par- “to spread” Proto-Dravidian pàr- “to spread or stretch out” Sumerian IENH 47: *p[h](a|&)r- “to move swiftly, hasten, be in a hurry, be greatly agitated; to fly, flee” Proto-Nostratic > *p[h][e|o]r- “to fly, flee” Proto-IndoEuropean *p[h]r-in- “to fly” Proto-Kartvelian *p[h](a|&)r- “to fly, flee” Proto-AfroAsiatic *par_ “to fly, flee; to hasten, hurry” Proto-Dravidian *par- “to run, flow, move quickly” Proto-Dravidian *paRla- “to hurry eagerly towards” Proto-Inuit IENH 55: *p[h][a|&]l- “settlement, settled place” Proto-Nostratic > *p[h]lH- “citadel, fortified high place” Proto-IndoEuropean *palghe- “village, dwelling-place” Proto-FinnoUgrian *palli “settlement, hamlet, village” Proto-Dravidian *palaga “city, town, village” Proto-Altaic IENH 61: *p[h][e|i]r (?) “house” Proto-Nostratic Indo-European pi-ir (nom.acc. sg.) “house” Hittite parn- “house” Hieroglyphic Luwian Afro-Asiatic pr “house” Egyptian *puray “house, dwelling” Proto-Dravidian IENH 63: *p[h](a|&)ly- “to burn, be warm; to smart, be painful” Proto-Nostratic > *p[h](e|o)l-, *p[h]loH- (> *p[h]lo:-) “to burn, be warm; to smart, be painful” Proto-IndoEuropean *o-p[h]l- “sweat, perspiration” Proto-Kartvelian *palya- “to burn, be cold; to be freezing, smart” Proto-Finno-Ugrian IENH 64: *p[h](i|e)l- “to tremble, shake; to be frightened, fearful, afraid” Proto-Nostratic > *p[h][e|o]l- “to tremble, shake; to be frightened, fearful, afraid” Proto-IndoEuropean *p[h](a|&)l- “to tremble, shake; to be frightened, fearful, afraid, awe-struck” Proto-AfroAsiatic *pelä “to fear, be afraid” Proto-Uralic IENH 68: *p[h](i|e)r- “to tremble, shake; to be afraid, fear” Proto-Nostratic > *p[h][e]rk[h]- “to be afraid, fear” Proto-IndoEuropean *p[h]ert[h]x- “to shake” Proto-Kartvelian *p[h](a|&)r- “to tremble, shake, quiver” Proto-AfroAsiatic *pir_- “to tremble” Proto-Dravidian *pürk- “to be afraid” Proto-Altaic IENH 69: *p[h](a|&)r- “to go or pass; to go or pass over or across; to go forth or out” Proto-Nostratic *p[h][e|o]r- “to go or pass; to go or pass over or across” Proto-IndoEuropean AfroAsiatic prì “to go, come out, go forth; to go up, ascend” Egyptian prw “motion, procession, outcome, result” Egyptian prt “(ritual) procession” Egyptian pàr “to go or pass by; to go past” Sumerian IENH 487: *wal- “to be or become strong” Proto-Nostratic > *wal- “to be strong” Proto-IndoEuropean *val- “to be strong, hard; (adj.) strong, hard, forceful; (n.) strength, power, firmness” Proto-Dravidian SIG, IESSG, VISW: *Y.-b-r- pre-IndoEuropean *op-r- Proto-IndoEuropean extended grade *o:pr- Proto-IndoEuropean o:fer “river bank, coast” Old English o:ver “river bank, coast” Low German oever “river bank, coast” Dutch uover “river bank, coast” Middle High German 2nd high tone form *Y.abár- pre-IndoEuropean *p-r- Proto-IndoEuropean péran, pére:n “on the other side of” Greek pérathen “from the other side” Greek peráo: “take across the sea to be sold” Greek perai~os “being on the other side” Greek peraióo: “go, take across to the other bank, coast” Greek pa:rá- “the opposite bank, coast” Greek pa:ra n. “bank, coast” Avestan pa:ráyati “go, take across” Sanskrit fra-pa:rayeiti “takes across” Avestan *Y.-b-r- Semitic Y.abara “he crossed, passed over (namely a river)” Arabic Y.a:bar “cross (e.g. a river)” Hebrew ebe:ru inf. “cross (e.g. a river)” Assyrian Y.&ba:ra: “passing, ford” Hebrew *Y.ibr- Common Semitic Y.íbrun “bank or side (of a river)” Arabic Y.èbær “the opposite side of a river (or sea)” Hebrew Y.ebrå: “the opposite side of a river (or sea)” Syrian ebru “the opposite side of a river (or sea)” Assyrian ebirtu “the opposite bank of a river” Assyrian Y.iBra:'a: “the opposite area” Hebrew Originally without doubt signifying only the bank of a river or coast of a strait where the other side is visible, therefore most frequently connected with “the one, the other, the opposite bank”. [TP: Which is what one would expect in Sundaland, with straits ever widening, forcing people to learn to sail. ] Alternative forms *P.-r- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *bh-r-, *bhr- “break forth, sprout” Proto-IndoEuropean > *bh-r- trans. “bring, carry” Proto-IndoEuropean phéro: “bring, carry” Greek fero “bring, carry” Latin beran “bear fruit, give birth” Old High German bern “bear fruit, give birth” Middle High German bera “bear fruit, give birth” Old Norse ur-bor “profit” Middle High German barn “child” Gothic berõ “take” Old Bulgarian bUrU “millet” Old Bulgarian borU “millet” Russian extended with -s- barizeins “barley” Gothic bóros^no “rye flour” Russian bra:s^Ino “food, fare” Old Bulgarian extended with -gh- (-g^h-?) with nasal infix bringan “bring” Old English bringan “bring” Old High German briggan “bring” Gothic extended with -A.- *bh-râ- bérnas “son, young man” Lithuanian extended with -s- *bh-râs- farr- “spelt, grits” Latin *bhr-s, with t-suffix Proto-IndoEuropean brustian “bud” v. Old Low German *P.-r- + w + pre-IndoEuropean d : D., or rather *P.-r- + d : D. + collective-forming w-infix? pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *P.r-w-d- frutex “shrubs” Latin frutica:re “break out” Latin : *P.r-w-D.- briezen “to blossom, sprout” Middle High German broz “sprout, bud” Old High German broz “sprout, bud” Middle High German *sp(h)r-w-d- spriezen “to sprout, bud” Middle High German sproz “sprout, bud” Middle High German cf. *sp(h)r-g^h- springen “to blossom, jump” Middle High German cf. *P-r- + -w- + -H- + -g- fru:x “crops” Latin fru:ctus “produce” Latin fruor “enjoy, profit from” Latin bru:can Old English bru:can Old Low German bruhhan Old High German bru:kjan Gothic : *p-r- “break forth, through” Proto-IndoEuropean perõ intr. “be brought” Old Church Slavonian *pr-to- part. Proto-IndoEuropean whence porta:re “carry, bring” Latin (na:-)peryõ “penetrate, bore through” Old Church Slavonian peíro: “penetrate, bore through” Greek : *bh-r- “bore, drill” Proto-IndoEuropean peráo: “penetrate, go through” Greek póros “ford” Greek faran “wander” Gothic faran “go” Old High German faran “go” Old Low German faran “go” Old English *p-r- Proto-AfroAsiatic *p-r- + -Y.- p&raY. “sprouted, blossomed” Syrian p&råY.å: “fruit” Syrian single redupl. *p-r-r- intr. “break” Proto-AfroAsiatic iprur pret. “broke” Assyrian he:Pe:r hiph. “make break = break(tr.)” Hebrew full redupl. *p-rp-r farra perf. (“broke through”) > “fled” Arabic par (“broke through”) > “fled” Syrian with n-preformative *n-p-r- nafara “fled” Arabic extended with -y- p-r-y- IV “flee” Assyrian extended with -d- p&rað “fled” Syrian extended with -h- farha “fled” > “feared” Ethiopian *p-r- > *p-l- Semitic extended with -t- : -t.- falata V “fled” Arabic VII “escaped” Arabic IV “caused to escape” Arabic falatun “flight” Arabic : pa:lat. “evaded, escaped” Hebrew p&lat “evaded, escaped” Syrian *p-r- “chicken” Proto-IndoEuropean póris, pórtis “young ox, calf of deer, young animal, young son, young daughter” Greek extended with -s- Germ. -rz- > -rr- far, farro “bull” Old High German var, varro “bull” Middle High German verse “young cow” Middle High German *p-r- Semitic redupl. furfu:run “lamb, youth, young man” Arabic single redupl. p-r-r- par “young bull” Hebrew pa:ra: “young cow” Hebrew fari:run, fura:run “lambkin, kid, wild calf” Arabic further extensions of *p-r- in numerous other names of young animals *p-r- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *p-l-, *pl- “fly” Proto-IndoEuropean extended with -w- pláva-te: med. “flies” Sanskrit plu:ma “feater, plume” Latin lu:amain “flying” Old Irish extended fliogan “fly” Old High German fliu:ga “fly” Old Norse extended with -s^- p-r-s^- “fly” Assyrian extended with -H.- p-r-H.- “fly” Hebrew p-r-H.- “fly” Aramaic *p-r- pre-IndoEuropean-Afrosiatic Alternative forms bh:p, r:l *bh-r- Proto-IndoEuropean extended bhns^a-te: “falls” Sanskrit bhns^a- “fall” Sanskrit with laryngeal infix *pa:l- Proto-IndoEuropean reduced *pâl- Proto-IndoEuropean -ln- > -ll- fallan “fall” Old High German fallan “fall” Old Saxon falla “fall” Old Norse o-grade púlu “I fall” Lithuanian with s-preformative causative *sphâl- Proto-IndoEuropean spállo: “I cause to fall” Greek *p-l- Semitic single redupl. p-l-l- hiþ-palle:l (Ezr. 10, 1) “throw oneself down” Hebrew with n-preformative (=? PIE suffix -n- in *pâln- > Germanic *fall-) n-p-l- Semitic na:Pal “killed” Hebrew n&Pal “killed” Syrian extended with pre-Semitic -G^.- para:s.u “break” Assyrian p-r-s.- “break” Hebrew extended with -s- or -s´- parasa “he broke, bruised, crushed (esp. of predators)” Arabic extended with -X- para:Xu inf. “bud” Assyrian farraXa II “(the plant) began sprouting, (the bird) bred chicks, (the egg) produced a chick” Arabic pa:raH “sprout, bloom” Hebrew p&raH “bloom” Jewish Aramaic farXun “young of birds and certain other animals” Arabic p`æraH “sprout, blooming” Hebrew “young bird, young man” Modern Hebrew parHå: “flower” Syrian parHa: “flower, fruit of Capparis Spinosa, young bird” Jewish Aramaic pirXu “young seed, sprout” Assyrian extended with -Y.- p-r-z- “flourished” Syrian extended with -y- *pr-y- Proto-IndoEuropean o-grade with w-suffix fraiv Gothic fræ:, frio: “seed” Old Norse *p-r-y- Semitic farya perf. “(plant) produced flowers, fruit” Arabic fere: “flower, fruit, offspring” Arabic p&ri: “was fertile, fruitful” Syrian aph. “(field) brought forth” Syrian peryå: “fruitfulness, progeny” Syrian pa:ra: “produce fruit, be fruitful” Hebrew p&ri “fruit” Hebrew extended with -A- p&ra: “sprout” Jewish Aramaic pir'u “offspring” Assyrian : *b-r- Proto-AfroAsiatic bar “son” Aramaic single redupl. *b-r-r- Proto-AfroAsiatic bar “(thrashed) grain” Hebrew burrun “wheat” Arabic extended with -A- *b-r-A- “bring forth, create” Semitic bara'a perf. “(God) created” Arabic ba:ra:' “(God) created” Hebrew b&rå: “(God) created” Syrian “make, build” Southern Arabic extended with -w- bara: perf. “(God) created” Arabic al-bari:yatu “the beings, things that are created” Arabic with w-preformative and r > l after the labials *w-b-l- Semitic ubbal pres. “bring, carry (away)” Assyrian u:bil pret. Assyrian III “let bring” Assyrian y-b-l- Hebrew hiph. “carry (of feet), lead, bring (tribute, gifts)” hoph. “be brought, lead, carried (to the grave)” y&Bal pa. “carry, bring” Aramaic aph. “carry, bring” Aramaic pa. “lead, carried, handed over” Syrian aph. “lead, carried” Syrian y&Bu:l “profit” Hebrew *biltu Assyrian bilat stat. constr. “tribute, tax, profit, burden, load, fruit of one's loins” Assyrian mu-wblå: “burden” Syrian b-r-r “penetrate” Ethiopian extended with -H.- *b-r-H.- “go through, flee” Semitic b-r-H.- “recede, flee” Arabic *b-r- > *b-l- Semitic extended with -t- : -t.- ba:lat.a “fled” Arabic Alternative forms *P.-r- (“penetrate”) > “bore, drill” pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic fora:re “bore, drill” Latin boro:n “bore, drill” Old High German boro:n “bore, drill” Old English bora “bore, drill” Old Norse pháros “furrow” Greek pharóo: “plough” v. Greek extended with -d- or -dh- bredõ, bresti “wade, cross” Slavic bredù, brìsti “wade, cross” Lithuanian brodU “ford” Slavic *b-r- Semitic single redupl. *b-r-r- barara “crossed, penetrated, perforated” Ethiopian redupl. barbi:r “pit, cistern, well” Ethiopian extended with -k- birkun, birkatun “tank or cistern dug in the ground” Arabic b&re:Xa: “pond” Hebrew extended with -s.- “penetrated, pervaded” Syrian extended with -z- b&raz “drill through” Jewish Aramaic birza: “hole” Jewish Aramaic barzi:þa: “spear” Jewish Aramaic barde:k. “penetrate” Aramaic extended with -A- b&ra: “cut, drill through” Jewish Aramaic aph. “drill through” Jewish Aramaic with A-infix (*b-r-A- >?) *b-A-r- Semitic ba'ara “dug (pit, well)” Arabic bi'run “well” Arabic b&'e:r “well” Hebrew be'rå: “well, pit, grave” Syrian bu'ratun “pit” Arabic bo:r “cistern, grave” Hebrew bu:ru “well, cistern, grave” Assyrian be:ru, bi:ru “deep” Assyrian be:ru:tu, bi:ru:tu “depression, mine, subterranean passage” Assyrian extended with -H.- ba:raH. “go through” > “flee” Hebrew b&raH “flee” Aramaic bariH.a “receded, fled” Arabic : *p-r- póros “ford” Greek ford “ford” Old English furt “ford” German -ritum “ford” Gaulish *p-r-r- *n-p-r- “flee” Semitic extended with -G.^- > Proto-IndoEuropean -g^- *P.-r-G^.- *P.aráG^. trans. *bhr-g- brikan “break” Gothic brecan “break” Old English brechan “break” Old High German giri-bhráj- “breaking forth from mountains”, really trans. “mountain-breaking” Sanskrit fre:gi perf. frango pres. “break” Latin *p-r-G^.- pre-AfroAsiatic *paráG^. farad.a perf. “cut into” Arabic pa:ras. “break (a mine shaft), tear down (a wall), crack, break in” Hebrew p&ras. “break through” Jewish Aramaic para:s.u inf. “break, break through” Assyrian fard.un “cut, inscription” Arabic p`æræs. “crack, gap, breach (in the wall), break-through (of water)” Hebrew pirs.a: m. “crack, hole, opening” Jewish Aramaic pirs.a: f. “crack, hole, opeening” Modern Hebrew furd.atun “a gap or an opening in a wall, a gap or breach in the bank of a river” Arabic extended with -w- *bhr-w- Proto-IndoEuropean phréar “(dug-out) cistern, water tank” Greek Old parallel form *P.-l- “break forth” > “break up, sprout” Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic extended with -y- *bh-ly- Proto-IndoEuropean folium “leaf” Latin with collective-forming w-infix *bh-wly- púllon Greek extended with -Á- *bhle:- Proto-IndoEuropean blæ:d “flower” Old English extended with -Y.- *bhlo:- “bloom” v. Proto-IndoEuropean pluon “bloom” v. Old High German bluojen “bloom” v. Old High German blo:wan “bloom” v. Old English bluot “bloom” n. Old High German *bhlo:to-, *-ta:- > bla:th “bloom” n. Irish flo:s “bloom” n. Latin flo:rere “bloom” v. Latin reduction of *bhle:- or *bhlo:- *bhlâ- > *bhlâ-tó- blað “leave” Old Norse blat “leave” High German with m-suffix *bhlo:m.- “bloom” Proto-IndoEuropean blo:m n. coll. “sprouting buds and leaves” Old Norse blo:ma “bloom” Gothic blo:ma “bloom” Old English blo:mi “bloom” Old Norse blo:mo “bloom” Old High German *b-r-Y.-m barY.ama “(the tree) grew flower buds” Arabic burY.u:mun “blossoms before they open, flowers, the flower of a tree before the opening, the calyx of the fruit of a tree” Arabic *b-l- extended with -s.- b&las. “sprouted, flourished” Syrian *P.-l- “swell (also of water)” Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic (as in Goethe's “Das Wasser rauscht, das Wasser schwoll” > want to overflow *bh-l- Proto-IndoEuropean follis “hose, bellows, baloon” Latin *ballu-z (-ln- > -ll-) Germanic bollr “ball” Old Norse bal “ball” Middle High German ballo “bale” Old High German extended with -Á- *P.alá'- > *bh-le:- “swell” Proto-IndoEuropean bla:en “blow” Old High German blæjen “blow” Middle High German bla:wan “blow” Old English bla:-san “blow” Old High German ble:san “blow” Gothic bla:sa “bladder” Old High German bla:sa “bladder” Old English bla:tere “bladder” Middle High German fle:mina “growth on the knuckles” extended with -K^.- > PIE -g- *P.aláK^.- > *bh-l-g^h- intr. belgan “become swollen” Old English belgan “become swollen” Old High German bolginn part. “swollen” Old Norse balgs “bellows, hose” Gothic balg “bellows, shed skin, shell, pod” Old High German belgr “bellows, shed skin, shell, pod” Old Norse bylgja “wave” Old Norse upa-barha- m. “pillow” Sanskrit upa-barhan.a- n. “pillow (cover)” Sanskrit bar&zis^ “pillow (cover)” Avestan blàzina “pillow, feather bed” Serbian blazina “pillow, feather bed” Slovenian *bulXstra- > bolstr “pillow” Old Norse bolstar “pillow” Old High German bolster “pillow” Middle High German bolster “pillow” Old English *bh-le:- “overflow” Proto-IndoEuropean fle:re “weep” Latin extended with -A.- *P.aláA.- > *bhla:- Proto-IndoEuropean fla:re (caus. “make swell” > ) “blow” Latin extended with -p- (half redupl.) or with -w- identical to Semitic w-preformative *bhl-w- Proto-IndoEuropean *bhléwo: > phléo: “overflow” Greek phlúo: “flow, overflow” > “chatter” Greek phlúos “chatter” Greek ew > ow > u fluo: “flow” Latin fluvius “river, stream; running water” Latin extended with -gw- (or *bhl-g- with collective-forming w-infix?) *bhl-wg- flu:xi “flowed, streamed” Latin flu:c-tus “wave, disorder, flood” Latin flu:men “river, strem” Latin phluzo: “swell over” Greek oìno-phlux “drunk on wine” Greek phluktís, phlúktaina “bladder” Greek : *pl-w- Proto-IndoEuropean pláva-te: “swims” Sanskrit plovã “float, swim, ship” Old Church Slavonian pléo: Greek pluit “rains” Latin pluvia “rain, shower” Latin peri-plúo: “burn around” Greek peri-pleúo: “burn around” Greek *pl-wd- > Proto-IndoEuropean *flewt- Germanic fle:otan “flow” Old English fliozan “flow” Old High German extended with -n- èk-pla-íno: “well forth” Greek phle:naros “talkative” Greek extended with -d- plédo:n, pledó:n “chatterbox” Greek extended with -G.- or -k- > PIE -g- phlegmaíno: “swell, inflate, nourish” Greek phlegmoné: “tumor” Greek extended with -K^.- > PIE -g^h- with n-preformative *n-b-l- Semitic whence nèBæl, niBl- “hose, sack of wine” Hebrew niBle:(y) s^a:mayim (Hiob 38, 37) “hoses of heaven”, = “clouds” Hebrew whence ma-bbu:l “(Noah's) flood” Hebrew with w-preformative *w-b-l- wablun, wa:bilun “violent rain, consisting of large drops” Arabic yible:(y) mayim “streams of water” Hebrew with w-infix (same as w-preformative) *b-w-l- Semitic ba:la “he urined, begat offspring” Arabic whence baulun “urine, seminal fluid, offspring, a large number” Arabic buwa:lun “a disease occasioning much discharging of urine” Arabic *b-l-l- redupl. bala:lu II 1 “pour out, pour over” Assyrian II 2 “be poured over” Assyrian ba:lal “pour over” Hebrew intr. “be poured over” Hebrew balla “he moistened” intr. “it became moist” Arabic 'aballu “wetter, damper” Arabic billatun “fluency (= facility, of the tongue)” Arabic extended with -t- *b-l-t- bala:tu “overflow” Assyrian baltu “abundant power, wealth” Assyrian *P.-r- > *P.-l- “break forth” > “appear” > “become (be) bright, shine” (and “be naked, bald”) pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *bh-l- r > l after labial Proto-IndoEuropean belo- “bright, shiring” Celtic perhaps reduced *bh&l- phaló:-s “bright, shining, white” Greek phalakrós “bald” Greek phalákra: “baldness” Greek phala:rós “bright, shining, white” Greek phale:rós “bright, shining, white” Greek extended grade bæ:l “pyre” Old English ba:l “pyre” Old Norse balled “bald” Middle English extended with laryngeal *bh-lâ- “become bright” Proto-IndoEuropean -olâ- > Lithuanian -ál- o-grade bálti “turn white, pale” Lithuanian báltas “white” Lithuanian extended with -s- with r-suffix -asr- > -a:r- phala:rós “bright, of bright color” Greek phale:rós “bright, of bright color” Ionian Greek extended with -g^:G^.- > IndoEuropean -k^:g^- *bh-lâk^- Proto-IndoEuropean phalakrós “bald, bare, smooth, shiny” Greek phalákra “baldness” Greek : *bh-lâg^- Proto-IndoEuropean flagro “blaze, burn” Latin *bhlâg^ma:- > Proto-IndoEuropean flamma “flame” Latin blecchen “make visible, expose oneself” Old High German blecken “make visible, expose oneself” Middle High German extended with -s- (: AfroAsiatic -s.- or = AfroAsiatic -z-) *bhl-s- Proto-IndoEuropean blas n. “torch” Middle High German blæse f. “torch” Old English blysa “torch” Old English blysige “torch” Old English blys n. “torch, flame” Old Norse extended with laryngeal ? extended with -s- *bhl-âs- Proto-IndoEuropean blas-ros “horse with white spot on forehead” Old High German blasenhengst “horse with white spot on forehead” Middle Low German blare “(cow with) spot” Middle Low German blare “(cow with) spot” Middle Dutch blaar “(cow with) spot” Dutch blas “bald” Middle High German blaer “bald” Middle Dutch extended with -w- *bhl-w- (= *b-l-w- Arabic) with dental suffix bla:t “bare, naked” Old Frisian blo:t “bare, naked” Middle Low German blo:t “bare, naked” Middle Dutch blo:z “bare, naked” Middle High German blut “bare, naked” Dutch blutsch “bare, naked” Dutch blut “bare, naked” Middle High German extended with -k- (-k^-?) far-bluhita “was on fire, burned” Old High German verblohen “finished burning, burned out” > “extinguished” Middle High German extended -y- with w-suffix blaivýti-s “become clear (of sky)” extended with (-d- : -D.-) > PIE (-t- : -d-) bli:ði “shiny, bright, (of sky) clear” > “happy” Old English : ble:dU “pale” Old Bulgarian bla:t “pale” Old English extended with -G.- > PIE -g- extended with PIE -yg^- *bhl-yg^- Proto-IndoEuropean *blaika- “pale” Germanic bli:kan “blink” Old English bli:kya “blink” Old Norse *bhlig^sk- > *blIsk- Slavic *b-l- Semitic *b-l-w- (= PIE *bhl-w-) extended with -w- bala: trans. “was evident” Arabic 'abla: IV “he made (-hu it) manifest, apparent, evident, clear or plain” Arabic extended with -g:k.- Alternative forms *b-r- Semitic redupl. *b-r-r- Semitic bara:ru “be bright, gleam” Assyrian bar “pure, empty” Hebrew ba:rar Hebrew niph. “purify oneself” Hebrew hithp. “purify oneself” hiph. “purify” pi. “cleanse” cal. “sift, separate” ba:ru:r “clean” Hebrew in Arabic transferred onto the ethical field beru:r “silver” Ethiopian bari:ra: “clear, pure” Aramaic bari:ru “resplendent rising of the stars” Assyrian extensions *b-r-H.- barha “be luminous, shine” Ethiopian bariH.a “he was (became) white” Arabic bara:H. “bald” Ethiopian baru: “look, see” Assyrian whence baru: “look, see” Assyrian ba:ru: “clairvoyant, magic” Assyrian extended with -s^- baras^un “a whiteness that appears upon the nails, white specks in the skin, small specks (in the hair of a horse) differing from the rest of the colour” Arabic 'abras^u “white (horse) speckled with black” Arabic extended with -s.- *b-r-s.- baras.un “white leprosy” Arabic 'abras.u “leprous” Arabic baris.a “he was (became) leprous” Arabic ta-baras.a “twinkle, shine” Ethiopian birs.u “light (of stars)” Assyrian *b-r-A- bari'a “was (became) clear (of)” Arabic extended with -Y.- *b-r-Y.- baraY.a “he was (became) accomplished in every excellence” Arabic ba:riY.un “excelling” Arabic -atun “beautiful, goodly” Arabic b-r-H- “to become manifest, apparent” Arabic bara:Hun “what is open and wholly apparent (of land)” Arabic bara:Hu a name of the sun Arabic *b-r-z- baraza “he (it) appeared, became apparent” Arabic bara:zun “an open tract of land” Arabic ba:rizun “entirely apparent” Arabic : *p-r- Semitic extended with -Y.- p&raz “bare, uncover” Aramaic “bare, uncover (head)” Syrian pe:raz “uncover” Modern Hebrew pi. “uncover” hiph. “uncover oneself” extended parsi: “made naked, revealed” Syrian prusåyå: “making naked, revelatio, pudenda” Syrian extended with -G.- *P.álaG.- intr. “flash, shine, be bright” pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *bh-lg- Proto-IndoEuropean *P.aláG.- trans. “flash, shine, be bright” pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *bhl-g- Proto-IndoEuropean bhárgas “splendor” Sanskrit bhrágavas “mythical beings who brought fire to Man” Sanskrit phlé:go “burn” Greek phlóx “flame” Greek phlegmaíno: “inflame” Greek phlegmoné: “inflammation” Greek *bhlog- Proto-IndoEuropean *blak- Germanic blecken “flash” Middle High German *P.aráG.a- trans. pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *P.áliG.a- intr. ? pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *b-r-k.- Common Semitic barak.a perf. “flashed, twinkled, shone” Arabic barak.a perf. “flashed, twinkled, shone” Ethiopian ba:rak. “flash” v. Hebrew bara:k.u inf. “flash” Assyrian ba:rak. “flash, shine, twinkle” Modern Hebrew b&rak. “flash, shine, twinkle” Aramaic b&rak. “flash, shine, twinkle” Syrian hiph, “be visible” Modern Hebrew ba:ra:k. b&ra:k.i:m pl. “lightning” Hebrew b&rak. “lightning” Aramaic bark.a: “lightning” Biblic Aramaic bark.å: “lightning” Syrian birk.u “lightning” Assyrian bark.un “lightning, billiance, thunderbolt” Arabic baràk.t “emarald” Phoenician (>máragdos “emerald” Greek ) ba:r`æk.æþ “emerald” Hebrew with originally suffixal -l- bark.ala “there was lightning without rain” Arabic : *b-r-g- intr. bariga “it was (became) apparent” Arabic baragun “clearness of the white (and back parts) of the eye” Arabic *b-l-g- original -l-, in PIE Semitic baliga “he was (became) bright (in countenance), joyful, glad” Arabic balaga “(the sun, the dawn etc) shone, was bright; it was (became) manifest, apparent, clear” Arabic 'ablaga “he made (-hu it) apparent, clear, he made (-hu him) glad” Arabic b-l-g hiph. “let lightning strike (of God)” Hebrew intr. “become joyful, glad” Hebrew baligun “joyful, glad” Arabic balgatun, bulgatun “the light (of the dawn)” Arabic : b-l-k.- Proto-AfroAsiatic b&lak. “appeared, was evident, visible shone, was bright” Syrian bulåkå: “splendor” Syrian phléo: “overflow” Greek phlúo: “flow, overflow” > “chatter” Greek phlúos “chatter” Greek ew > ow > u fluo: “flow” Latin fluvius “river, stream; running water” Latin extended with -gw- (or *bhl-g- with collective-forming w-infix?) *bhl-wg- : *pl-w- Proto-IndoEuropean plovã “float, swim, ship” Old Church Slavonian pléo: Greek pluit Latin pluvia Latin *pl-wd- > Proto-IndoEuropean *flewt- Germanic fle:otan “flow” Old English fliozan “flow” Old High German fulgeo “shine, flash” Latin fulgur “lightning, flashing” Latin extended with laryngeal if -A.- or -H.- *bhrâ- Proto-IndoEuropean if -Á- *bhre:- Proto-IndoEuropean extended with -g^:k^- > PIE -k^:g^- (retained r before extension with laryngeal and k^) *bh-râk^- Proto-IndoEuropean bhrá:s^a-te: “shines” Sanskrit phorkó-s “bright” Greek (Hesychios) : *bh-râg^- Proto-IndoEuropean bhrá:jati, -te: “radiates” Sanskrit bhra:zaiti “radiates” Avestan bérs^-ta “the crop begins to turn white” Lithuanian bairhts “bright, apparent” Gothic biart-r “bright, apparent” Old Norse beorht “bright, apparent” Old English beraht “bright, apparent” Old High German *bherâg^o-s, *bherâg^a:- “birch” Proto-IndoEuropean bardhë “white” Albanian b-r-H- (b-l-H-) Proto-AfroAsiatic b-l-H hiph. “flicker” Modern Hebrew bariH.a intr. perf. “it became apparent” Arabic bara:hun “clear, distinct (thing)” Arabic bara:H.u a name of the sun, so called because of the spreading of its light and its conspicuousness Arabic *bh-l- “become white” > “having a white spot, cataract in the eye” pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic albu:go “cataract” Latin leúko:ma “cataract” Greek be:lImo “cataract” Old Church Slavonian extended *P.alá'- > *bhle:-, *bhlâ- *bhlent- part. blind-s “blind” Gothic *P.-r- : *p-r- > pre-IndoEuropean-Afroasiatic *bh-r-, *bhr- “shine” Proto-IndoEuropean bryne “fire” Old English brand “fire” Old English brand-r “fire” Old Norse brant “fire” Old High German brinnan “burn” Gothic brinnan “burn” Old High German bronU “white, variegated” Russian Church Slavonic bradhná- “reddish, yellowish; sun” Sanskrit bero “bear (brown one)” Old High German bero “bear (brown one)” Old English bjorn “bear (brown one)” Old Norse bêras “brown (of horses)” Lithuanian bêris “brown horse” Lithuanian *bru:na- “shiny, brown” Germanic redupl. babhrú- “reddish brown, brown; beaver” Sanskrit *bhebh-r-, *bhibh-r- “beaver” Proto-IndoEuropean bawra-, bawri- “beaver” Avestan bebrU, bIbrU “beaver” Slavic fiber “beaver” Latin bibar “beaver” Old High German beofor “beaver” Old English *b-l- Semitic single redupl. *b-l-l- Semitic whence t&Ballul Lev. 21,20 “albuginem habens” Vulg. Hebrew (be-Ze:no:) “in oculo” Hebrew *b-r- Semitic extended bark.a: “cataract” Aramaic bark.i:þ “cataract” > “blindness” Modern Hebrew ba:rak. hiph. “blind” v. Modern Hebrew *P.-l- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *bh-l- “break through” > “split, cut, divide” Proto-IndoEuropean extended with -g:G^.- > PIE -g^- *P.àlG^.- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *bh-lg^- Proto-IndoEuropean *bholg- balz^éna Lithuanian bolozno “plank” Russian balcho “beam” Old High German bjalki “beam” Old Norse balk-r “dividing wall, division” Old Norse *balku-z > Germanic bolkr “division” Old Norse balca “ridge between furrows” Old English balka “ridge between furrows” German *bh-lg- Proto-IndoEuropean balke “beam” German with s-preformative *sp(h)-lg^- Proto-IndoEuropean : *p-r- Proto-IndoEuropean extended with laryngeal reduced *p-râ- Proto-IndoEuropean with t-suffix part-, pars nom “beam” Latin : *p-l- “burst, be split, break (forth)” Proto-IndoEuropean extended with -d- or -ð- > PIE -t- pálad- or pálað- *p-lt- “be split” Proto-IndoEuropean -lt- > -t.- pát.a-ti “bursts” Sanskrit with s-preformative *sph-lt- Proto-IndoEuropean spalden “cleave” Middle Low German spaltan “cleave” Old High German sphát.a-ti intr. Sanskrit *p-l-ð- Semitic falaða trans. “cut” Arabic fallaða II “cut to pieces” Arabic filðatun “part, segment” Arabic extended with -k^- péleku-s “axe” Greek *b-l- Semitic extended with -t- balata “cut, divided” Arabic extended with -s.- ta-ba:las.a refl. (p > P. after ta-) ta-fa:las.a “split little by little” Ethiopian extended with -X- balXa intr. “be pointed, sharp” Ethiopian extended with -H.- belhe “separate” Tigre : extended with -g- *p-l-k^- Proto-IndoEuropean péleku-s “axe” Greek paras^ú-, párs^u “axe” Sanskrit *p-l-g- Proto-AfroAsiatic falaga “he divided in halves, he furrowed (the land for sowing)” Arabic p&lay “divided” Aramaic p&lay “divided” Syrian pillay pi. “divide, split” Hebrew ni-Play niph. “be divided” Hebrew p&lay “half” n. Hebrew falgun “half” n. Arabic p`ælæy “half” n. Modern Hebrew palgu “canal” Assyrian p`ælæg “canal” Hebrew falag “wall, canal, stream” Ethiopian extended with -k.- *p-l-k.- Proto-AfroAsiatic falak.a “he split, clave, divided lengthwise” Arabic falk.un “a fissure, cleft” Arabic filkatun “a fragment, the half of a thing” Arabic pilak.k.u “axe” Assyrian extended with -H.- pa:laH. “furrow, turn over (earth)” Hebrew p&laH. “tilled (field)” Syrian p&laH. “tilled (field)” Jewish Aramaic falaH.a “furrowed, ploughed” Arabic falaH.atun “(field or land) furrowed or ploughed for cultivation” Arabic falla:H.un “plougher, peasant” Arabic fella:H. “plougher, peasant” Modern Arabic extended with -X- falaXa “split, divided” Arabic *p-r- “break forth” pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic > (r > l after labial) Alternative form *p-l- pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic falfala “rush forth (of spring)” Ethiopian falfal “spring” Ethiopian palpel “sprinkle, taint” Syrian extended with -H.- *p-l-H- falH.a “bubble, boil” Ethiopian extended with -y- fala: “(sword) stroke (head)” Arabic *P.-r- > *P.-l- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *bh-l, *bhl- “break” > intr. “become weak, soft, wither” Proto-IndoEuropean extended with -w- and -d:t- blautr “soft” Old Norse blotna “become soft” Old Norse : ble:oþ “weak, powerless” Old English blauð-r “timid” Old Norse blo:ði “fragile, shy” Old English blo:di “fragile, shy” Old High German blæ:de “fragile, shy” Middle High German blauþjan “weaken” Gothic with the original -r- bro:di “weak, fragile” Old High German bræ:de “weak, fragile” Middle High German with s-preformative *sp(h)r- spreþe “fragile” Middle English spröde “fragile” German extended with laryngeal *bhlu:- reduced blú:kti “become lax, atrophy (of muscles)”Lithuanian with laryngeal extension flaccus “withered” Latin *b-l- Semitic full redupl. balba:le:, belba:le: “worn-out garment” Ethiopian single redupl. bellele “lose color (clothes)” Tigre: extended with -y- *b-l-y- Semitic baliya intr. “it withered, wasted, decayed, it was (became) old and worn out” Arabic balla: II 'abla:(y) IV “he wore out (as^-s^awba the garment)” ba:lin “old and worn out” Arabic balya “be worn out though age and use, rot, pine away” Ethiopian belu:y part. “old, ancient” Ethiopiam belyat “ancient, aged” Ethiopian ba:la: “be worn, wither” Hebrew ba:læ: “worn (of people and clothes)” Hebrew b&elo:yi:m “rags” Hebrew b&li: “annihilation, destruction” Hebrew b&la:, b&li: “become decrepit, worn, wither” Aramaic b&li: “wore down, grew old, was destroyed” Syrian pa. “wore out (garment), made rot (meat)” ibéli “be annihilated, perish” Assyrian extended with -t.- 'aBlet. “rotted (wood)” Syrian balt.itu “wood worm” Assyrian b<.iþå: “wood worm” Syrian balt.iþa: “worm damage” Aramaic extended with -k.- belk.e “wear down” Tigre: bellek.e “wear oneself down” Tigre: with n-preformative na:Be:l intr. “wither, crumble” Hebrew n-b-l- trans. “destroy” Assyrian (denom.)VIII “died” Arabic nabaltu “corpse” Assyrian n&Be:la: “corpse” Hebrew nabi:latun “corpse” Arabic *P.-r- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *bh-r- “swell” Proto-IndoEuropean fermentum “yeast, sourdough” Latin berme “yeast” Middle Low German beorma “yeast” Old English extended with -w- *bh-rw- intr. Proto-IndoEuropean fervo, ferveo “seethe, boil” Latin *bhr-w- trans. Proto-IndoEuropean broþ “broth” Old English prod “broth” Old High German bre:ad “bread” Old English bro:t “bread” Old High German briuwan “brew” Old High German bre:owan “brew” Old English with w-infix *bh-w-r- “seethe, boil” Proto-IndoEuropean bior “beer” Old High German be:or “beer” Old English transferred sense furo “rave, rage” Latin furio “enrage” Latin furia “frenzy, fury” Latin *p-w-r Semitic fa:ra perf. “made boil, made seethe” Arabic intr. “boiled, (water, oíl) boiled, bubbling, (liquor) fermented, (water) welled came forth (from the earth or ground), (the vein) became in a state of commotion and flowed forth (with blood), (nafsu-hu his soul) heaved, (his stomach) became agitated with a tendency to vomit”, transferred sense “(fa:'iru-hu his anger) boiled” Arabic 'afa:ra IV “he made (-hu it) to boil or estuate” Arabic 'ett&Pi:r “he became enraged” Syrian fawrun, fawratun “summer heat” Arabic transferred sense “a ebullition of anger, rage or passion” Arabic purþå: “rabies, anger” Syrian puruþå: “anger” Syrian extended grade (-w- > -'-) fa:'irun “swollen in the sinews” Arabic n. “anger” Arabic (fa:ra fa:'iru-hu “his anger boiled, he was or became angry” Arabic) fuwaratun “the froth, foam that boils over (of a cooking-pot)” Arabic fawwa:ratun “a source or spring of water” Arabic redupl. purpårå: “ebullition” Arabic extended with laryngeal reduced *bhru:- Proto-IndoEuropean bru~tos, -ton “barley beer” Thracian extended with -s- *bhr-ws- Proto-IndoEuropean briust “breast” Old Low German breost “breast” Old English bryo:st “breast” Old Norse brust-s “breast” Gothic brust “breast” Old High German *b-r- Semitic extended with -A- or -y- baru: “strut, be full” Assyrian biru: “abundant plant growth” Assyrian tabru: “verdant fullness” Assyrian bitru: “strutting, fat, plentiful” Assyrian extended with -A.- b-r-A- hiph. “make fat” Hebrew ba:ri:' “well fed” Hebrew b&ra: intr. “be powerful” Aramaic aph. “feed oneself, become strong” Aramaic caus. “feed” Aramaic : *p-l- Semitic extended with -k- falikat, falakat intr. perf. f. “(a virgin) had rounded breasts” Arabic fallakat II “(a virgin) had rounded breasts” Arabic fallaka “(a girl's breast) became round” Arabic falikun “large in the buttocks, thick or coarse of make, in the joints” Arabic (> “become round” in general, whence falakun “round part (of whatever)” Arabic) al-faliku “the skies, orbis caelestis” Arabic falkatun “something round, the whirl of a spindle” Arabic pilku “district” Assyrian pilakku “spindle” Assyrian p`ælæX “circle, district, spindle” Hebrew p`ælæX “circle, district, spindle” Hebrew Assyrian >? p&laX denom. “spin” Hebrew *P.-r- : *p-r- pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *bh-r- “split” Proto-IndoEuropean extended with Proto-IndoEuropean -dh- or -t- bred “board” Old English bret “board” Old High German bret “board” Middle High German -baurd “board” Gothic borð “board” Old Norse bord “board” Old English bord “board” Old Low German extended with -y- with laryngeal extension feri:re “hit, strike” Latin bhri:n.á:-ti “injures” Sanskrit bri:naiti “cuts” Avestan bri-ti “cut” v. Old Churh Slavonian extended with -w- brUvno “beam” Old Bulgarian brevnó “beam” Russian br^evno “beam” Czech *b-r- Semitic single redupl. *b-r-r- ba:ru:r part. “sharpened” Hebrew hiph. “sharpen (an arrow)” Hebrew extended with -A- pi. “clear (forest), cut to pieces” Hebrew extended with -y- bara: perf. “he formed by cutting, shaped out (applied to an arrow, but not feathered nor headed” Arabic mi-bra:tun “the knife with which one forms or pares a bow” Arabic extended with -w- bara: “he formed by cutting, shaped out (a piece of wood)” Arabic barwatun “cuttings, chips” Arabic AKc 42741: *bhel-1 “to shine, flash, burn”. I. Suffixed o-grade form *bhol-eH2: 1a. balë “white blaze on the face or body of a domestic animal” b. balash “with blazed face or spotted body” Alb.; c. bal “dog with white spots; sheepdog”; d. baliskë “patch of white on the face or body of domestic animal”; 2a. In many compounds as a first or second element: balë•drenjë “goat with long straight horns and a white blaze on the forehead”, also bal•fllorë; b. balë•mushk “goat with dun-colored hair”; c. bal•dosë “badger” also dosëbalë; d. balë•sorrë “black ewe with a white blaze on the forehead”; e. balë•krocë “evergreen rose”; f. balgjosë “dark goat with white lines”; g. bal•mëllenjë “dark goat with a white blaze on the forehead”, etc (cf. phalaros “having a white spot” Gr.). (It was rightly supposed that the name of Belisarius' hors Balias could be explained through Albanian.). 3a. Extended root *bhol-t-a: > Alb. baltë “mud, dirt” Alb. (cf. blato, Sl. present also in balta Rom.); b. balt-ak “muddy, slimy”, c. balt-ovinë “muddy place”; d. balt-inë “muddy ground”; e. balt-omë “mud, filth” etc. 4. bajzë “coot” (cf. fulica Lat., phaleris/phalaris “id.” Gr.), probably from *bhol-dya:. II. Extended root *bhleH1-, contracted to *bhle:- 1a. blozë “smock-black, lampblack, smut”, Alb., probably from *bhleH1-dya:; b. i/e blozët “charred” (cf. *blewaz Gmc). III. Zero-grade form *bhl.H1- 1. blini/bliri “lime-tree, linden” Alb., probably derivev from suffixed form of zero-grade *bhl.-nu, even to some my research *r.H1 as well as *l.H1 have yielded in Alb. /ur/ and /ul/. IV. Extended root *bhleg- 1. bjeg-zë Alb. with metathetic variant bjezgë “Phlomis fruticosa”, probably from *bhleg-dya:. Same formation was found also in South Slavic belica “id.” from bel “white”. (Pokorny 1. bhel- 118, bheleg- 124. SIPE: é:peiro “seashore, mainland” `ibr|un “shore, bank” Arabic `éBer id. Hebrew `ubr|un id. Arabic `abr|un id. Arabic accusative construct of the last one: `abr|a “across, beyond” Arabic So much variation is unusual in Arabic, though not unparalleled. e-bi-ir-tim, a-bar-tim “(the other) bank” Akkadian e-bi-ir-tam anni:tam acc. “(on) the near bank” Akkadian ina e-be-er-tum nom. “on the (other) bank” Akkadian e-bi-ir-ti, a-bar-ti gen. “across” Akkadian e-bi-ir-ta acc. id. Akkadian e-bir-tu nom. id. Akkadian HTV: ibai “river” Basque *ibara Vasconic ibar(a) “valley, estuary, [mouth of a] river” Basque cf. *Y.p- EWBS: ibei, ibeni “land grown between two furrows” Basque ibeni “place, put, (stat) set” Basque ibili “go, walk” Basque basterr “edge” Basque ibei + basterr > iberts “steep bank” Basque ibi “brook, ford” Basque IEIE: pari “go on campaign, march” Elamite póros “passageway” Greek portus “harbour” Latin AR Foreign cultural influences: phá:la- “plough share” Loanword in Sanskrit bíla- n. “cleft, hollow” Loanword in Sanskrit CELR I 64: *buri- “horse” West Chadic *b(a)war- id. East Chadic CELR V 14: *pyalan- “coast” West Chadic npr.t id. Egyptian CELR V 98: *p.ar- “partridge” West Chadic *par- “turtle-dove” Central Chadic pr “kind of bird” Egyptian CELR V 106: *('a)mbi- “water” West Chadic *mbwa- id. East Chadic by3 “water in the sky” Egyptian CELR VIII 19: *m-bur- “boil” East Chadic brbr “be boiling” Egyptian CELR VIII 67: *par- “climb, rise” East Chadic pry id. Egyptian CELR VIII 191: *p.urya- “jump” West Chadic *fyar- id. Central Chadic *par- id. East Chadic pry “rise” Egyptian CELR X 4: *far- “first” West Chadic nfr “beautiful” Egyptian G: -bád- “shine” Proto-Bantu -bád- “speckle” id. -bádà “spot; speckle” id. -bàdÉ “two” id. -bádok- “burst open” id. -bàdok- “burst open” id. -bàdù “rib; side of body” id. -bèd- “come to the boil” id. -bíád- “bear a child” id. -bód- “hit and kill” id. -bótÒ “seed” id. -bùd- “be plentiful or numerous” id. -pàc- “to separate” id. -pácà “twin” id. -pádá “baldness” id. -pànd- “to split” tr. id. -pándà “fork in road or tree” id. -pÈn- “flash, as lightning” id. -pótÉ “boil, carbuncle” id. -pÓn- “fall from a height” id. IELS Unlike the word for 'sister', we have no means of analysing the name for 'brother', apart from isolating the final -ter itself, as in the case of 'mother' and 'father'. But we can offer no explanation for the root *bhra:-. It is useless to connect it with the root *bher- of Latin fero because we know of no use of the forms of this root which would lead to the sense of 'brother'. We are not in a position to interpret *bhra:ter any more than we can *p&ter and ma:ter. All three are inherited from the most ancient stock of Indo-European. TPNot so. CAD: *báliw “exchange” Proto-Austronesian *baRéq “swell(ing); abscess, boil” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *bê+láq “split” Proto-Austronesian *bêRas “husked rice” Proto-HesperonesianFormosan *bêRáy “give” Proto-Austronesian *bêRék “pig” Proto-Austronesian *beRsay “canoe paddle, oar” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *biras “scar” Proto-Hesperonesian *birás “sibling-in-law” Proto-Hesperonesian *biRaq “taro, giant arum, Alocasia sp.” Proto-Austronesian *biRaS “roe, fish eggs” Proto-Austronesian *búlaN, *bulay “albino” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *buláR “cataract of the eye” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *buléR “cataract of the eye” Proto-Hesperonesian *bulún, “leaf” Proto-Hesperonesian *buR “scatter” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *kam+buR “scatter (seed)” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *qa(m)+bud2 “scatter” Proto-Hesperonesian *sa(m)+beR “scatter seed” Proto-Hesperonesian *sa(m)+buR “scatter seed” Proto-Hesperonesian *burak “white” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *panaq “bow and arrow, to shoot an arrow” Proto-Austronesian *pánaw “walk, go, depart” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *panaw “skin disease leaving white patches” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *pan+tek “spotted, dappled” Proto-Hesperonesian *para[qh]u “boat” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *piRah “roe, fish eggs” Proto-Hesperonesian *piRsah “abscess, boil” Proto-Hesperonesian *hi-paR “sister-in-law” Proto-Hesperonesian cf. *p-r-k- “pig” FMV: #mblut “unhulled rice, sticky rice” Proto-Miao-Yao *m-lut “glutinous millet” Old Chinese *Ba:? “rice (general)” Proto-Austro-Asiatic *bra:s “husked rice” Proto-Chamic ACH: *beRas “husked rice” Proto-Austronesian SPNFL: *beRat “husked rice” Proto-Austronesian SAMP: *B&Ras “husked rice” Proto-Austronesian PPNR: *beGás “husked rice” Proto-Austronesian FMV: "Once down the A[ustronesia]n family tree as far as P[roto-]M[alayo-[Polynesian], words associated with rice become very numerous and reconstruction more certain. This situation would be best explained by supposing that the early A[ustronesia]n migrants to Formosa had both upland rice and millets, but that the millets were central to their agriculture and indeed their ritual calendar(LCMY, LF). There would be nothing very surprising about this; hill-rice is a minor opportunistic crop among many mountain peoples in Southeast Asia up to the present. The earliest rice occurs archaeologically at 2,500 BC, first in the Taiwan straits and then in Taiwan proper, rather late for it to be a key A[ustronesia]n crop." CAD 09.250 “axe”: parakul Isnag palakol Tagalog parakul\ Aklanon blakas “chopper, or small machete with long heavy blade” Balinese 'pan,kulu Konjo (Coastal) pilagis Takia pila-kiavi Lewo perhaps composed of CAD 09.250 “axe”: balyun, “axe handle driven into head” Sarangani Blaan buli:n,o Gorontalo baliu Da'a bali-bali “small axe” Wolio CAD 09.251 “adze”: buliyon, Aceh baliu&n, Minangkabau b&liun, Indonesian baliun, Sundanese paleppen Konjo (Coastal) bali-bali Wolio CAD 20.222 “battle axe”: bior Tolai pa:rau Tahitian and *H.-g^- “sharp” EIEC *pelH- “fort, fortified place” Proto-IndoEuropean pilìs “fort, castle” Lithuanian pils “fort, castle” Latvian pólis/ptólis “city; citadel; state or country” Greek pú:r “wall, rampart, palisade” Sanskrit EIEC *bhleg- “burn, shine” *bhlégti sg. *bhlgénti pl. fulgo: “lighten” Latin *flagma: > flamma “flame” Latin *bhlgmen- fulmen “lightning, thunderbolt” Latin (*bhlogo- “burned” >) blæc “black” Old English black English blecchen “be visible” Old High German phlégo “burn” Greek phlégma “flame” Greek phlóx “flame, torch” Greek bra:zaiti “gleams, shines” Avestan brá:jate “gleams, shines, glitters” Sanskrit pälk- “shine” TokharianAB Widespread and old in IE EIEC *bhergh- “height = fort” burg “fortress” Old High German baúrg-s “city, town” Gothic púrgos “town, fortress” Greek (Homeric) unexpected, should have been **párkhos burgn “town” Armenian unexpected, should have been **barjn EIEC therefore concludes: loan, Indo-European or not. I concur : Austronesian burgana- “bulwark, fortress” Urartian (Semitic) bu:rga: “tower” Syriac cf. for(c)tus “strong, hard” Old Latin for(c)tis “strong, hard” Latin brmháti “fortifies” Sanskrit präkär “hard, solid” TokharianA präkte “hard” TokharianB *bhergh- “keep, protect” bjarga “keep, preserve” Old Norse beorgan “keep, preserve” Old English bergan “keep, preserve” Old High German bairgith “keeps” Gothic birginti “be parsimonious” Lithuanian brestî “care for” Old Church Slavonian *bhrghús “high” barjr “high” Armenian parku- “high” Hittite parraya “high” Luvian in parrayanza “high mountains” Luvian pärkär “long” TokharianA pärkare “long” TokharianB bulyza “long” Khotanese brz- “long” Sogdian *bhrghént- “high” Brigit feminine proper name Old Irish Borgundarholm-r Bornholm Old Norse EIEC: an island that rises high from the sea. TP: Sort of. The south coast is pretty flat. Many Danish islands have names end in -ind, -und. They are generally considered pre-IndoEuropean (but some believe the suffix to be Proto-IndoEuropean *-went). Oldest known name present name Selund Sjælland, Zealand Burghund Bornholm Ekund Jegind-ø Anund Anholt Lavind Langeland And there are some in -s. Mors Sams Sams-ø Als It is is well known that there are a number of pre-Greek place-names in Greece ending in -inth-os, -unth-os, -ss-os, eg. Korinthos, Labyrinthos, Knossos, Parnassos. Burgunt feminine proper name Old High German b&r&ant- “high” Avestan brhánt- (fem. brhatí) “great, high” Sanskrit *brgh- bri: (acc. brig) “hill” Old Irish bre “hill” Welsh *brgh-a: -briga “hill” Gaulish *bhergh- (gen. *bhrghós) “height” *bhrgh- “high, hill, mountain” bjarg - berg “mountain, rock” Old Norse borg “height, wall, city, castle” Old Norse beorg “hill” Old English barrow English burg / burh “fortified place, castle, city” Old English borough English berg “mountain” Old High German burg “fort” Old High German *berga- bairgahei “mountaineous area” Gothic baúrg-s “tower, city” Gothic bars^ (gen. barazo:) “height” Avestan bærzond “high, mountain” Ossetic with a problematic -g : bregû “river bank” Old Church Slavonian bereg “river bank” Russian *wri- (*wrtyo/eH2 - *wrtyen-) “fort” bria “fort” Thracian ri-jo “promontory” Mycenian Greek rhíon “promontory” Greek ri “town” TokharianA riye “town” TokharianB from *wer- ? EIEC *bherH^g- “shine, gleam” berth “shining” Welsh bjartr “light” Old Norse beorht “shining, brilliant light, clear” Old English bright English beracht “shining” Old High German bairhts “bright, shining” Gothic (Celtic and Germanic < *bherH^gto-) breks^ta “dawns” Lithuanian (with apparent *-g- instead of *-^g-) brzark “dawn” Polish *bhrH^g- > bardhë “white” Albanian perhaps bra:zaiti “shines” Avestan brá:jate “shines, beams, glitters” Sanskrit Widespread and old in IE. Related to the word for birch. TP day-break ? English EIEC ?*plowos appr. “water-craft” plov “boat” Russian plewe “raft” TokharianB *plowyom appr. “water-craft” fley “ship” Old Norse ploîon “ship” Greek *plewós > ploûs “time for sailing” Greek plavá- “boat” Sanskrit *pleu- “float, swim; wash” luid “moves” Old Irish pluit “it's raining” Latin perplovere “rain through; admit rain” Latin flo:wan “overflow” Old English flow English flouwen “wash” Old High German plovõ “flow” Old Church Slavonic ple(w)o: “swim” Greek luanam “wash” Armenian us-fra:vaya- “swim away” Avestan fra-fra:vaya- “swim toward” Avestan plávate “swims” Sanskrit pla:vayati “causes to swim” Sanskrit plu- “soar” TokharianAB plus- “float” TokharianB RDS, DRV plyv-, plava- “swim, float” Russian EIEC *bélos “strong” de:bilis “weak, infirm” Latin bolîjî “larger” Old Church Slavonian bélteros “better” Greek bálam “power, strength” Sanskrit This is the strongest etymology containing the very rare initial *b-. I suggest it must be a loan. HSED 8: *`abol- “genitals” *`abal- “genitals”, “body” Semitic `aba:l “genitals” Geez h.ab&l “genitals” Tigre abal “body” Tigray abal “genitals; body” Amharic abal id. Gurage *HVbwal- > *b.wal- “penis” West Chadic b.wel id. Bokkos *bwal- “penis” Central Chadic bolle id. Bata HSED 207: *balag-/*balug- “shine” *bVlug- Semitic blg “shine” Hebrew blg[-u-] “dawn” Arabic *balag- “shine, sparkle” Lowland East Cushitic balag “shine, sparkle” Oromo Cf. a deverbative in bilig “sparkling” Somali HSED 213: *bar- “child” *bar “son” Semitic brw “son” South Arabian ber “son” S^h.eri ber “son” Mehri bar “son” Soqotri ber “son” Harsusi partial redupl. *barar- “son” Berber a-barar “son” Ayr a-burir “son” Ahaggar irregular vocalism barar “son” Tawlemmet *bar-/*byar- West Chadic be:ra “young girl” Hausa indicates *e in the first syllable par “child” Angas baryawa “young girl” Galambu HSED 215: *bar “take” *bVr- “take (in handfuls)” Berber a-b&r “take (in handfuls)” Tuareg *mV-bwar- “seize, grasp” Central Chadic mbwor^ “seize, grasp” Sukur *-wa- may be explained by the infkuence of the preceding labial consonant. bari “get, collect, have” Beja *bar- “grasp, hold” Saho-Afar bar- “grasp, hold” Saho HSED 219: *bar- “fly” v. *bar “son” Semitic brw “son” South Arabian ber “son” S^h.eri ber “son” Mehri bar “son” Soqotri ber “son” Harsusi partial redupl. *barar- “son” Berber a-barar “son” Ayr a-burir “son” Ahaggar irregular vocalism barar “son” Tawlemmet *bar-/*byar- West Chadic be:ra “young girl” Hausa indicates *e in the first syllable par “child” Angas baryawa “young girl” Galambu HSED 223: *bar-/*bur- “morning” *bur- “morning” East Chadic buri “morning” Ndam burburu “morning” Mubi *ber- “morning” South Arabian beeraa “morning” Saho beeraa “morning” Afar The root vowel is irregular. Cf. also *bar- “night” South Arabian baar “night” Saho baar “night” Afar *bar- “dawn, morning” Lowland East Cushitic bärii “dawn, morning” Somali barii “dawn, morning” Oromo barri “dawn, morning” Arbore *bar- “day” High East Cushitic barra “day” Bambala barra “day” Kambatta b.urra “morning” Dahalo Alternation *a ~ *u HSED 224: *bar-/*bur- “grain, cereal” Semitic *barr-/*burr- Semitic burru “cereal” Akkadian bar “cereal” Hebrew ba:r “cereal” Hebrew burr- “wheat” Arabic br “wheat” South Arabian bor “wheat” Soqotri barr “wheat” Mehri barr “wheat” S^h.eri *bVr- Berber a-Bar-&n “flour” Ghadames &Br-u:n “sorghum” Awjila a-bora “sorghum” Ayr a-bo:ra “sorghum” Ahaggar a-bo:ra “sorghum” Tawlemmet bu:ru “bread” Zenaga *bar-/*bur- West Chadic biri “kind of flour” Hausa with assimilation of vowels > buri “kind of flour” Hausa redupl. barbari “gruel” Ngizim *bar-/bur- East Chadic bura “flour” Sumray bar^ “flour” Tumak derivative with *ku- ku-b&ra “flour” Kabalay ku-bra “kind of millet” Lele *bur- “groats” Agaw bura “groats” Xamir *bur- “wheat” Lowland East Cushitic bur “wheat” Somali b.uru “maize” Dahalo *bar- “grain” Rift baru “grain” Burunge Alternation *a ~ *u. HSED 226: *barak- “lightning” *bark- “lightning” Semitic berq-, birq- “lightning” Akkadian brq “lightning” Ugaritic ba:ra:q “lightning” Hebrew barqo: “lightning” Aramaic(Syr) barq- “lightning” Arabic brq “lightning” South Arabian berq “lightning” S^h.eri bo:req “lightning” Mehri ba:rq “lightning” Tigre ba:rqi “lightning” Tigray *barak- “lightning” Central Chadic barak “lightning” Logone *barak- “lightning” Highland East Cushitic banko, birako “lightning” Sidamo balaka “lightning” Darasa banku-ta “lightning” Kambatta Irregular changes of *-r- in the cluster *-rk-. Related to *barik- “shine”. A parallel formation *birik- “lightning” seems to be preserved in birik'ina “lightning” Dahalo *birVk- “lightning” Agaw birqa “lightning” Xamir HSED 230: *barih.- “run, go” *bVrih.- Semitic brh. “leave, run away” Phoenician brh. “leave, run away” Pun brh. “run away” Hebrew b&rah. “run away” Aramaic (Palestine) brh. [-u-] “leave” Arabic ba:ra:yya “run in awe” Amharic Semitic *i of the second syllable is typical of verba movendi *HVbar- West Chadic bar “escape” Angas bar “go out” Tangale bo:r&- “return” Gera bar- “return” Galambu var “go out” Warji Metathesis. *barya- > *bir- East Chadic bire: “go” Dangla bire “go” Dangla *bariH >? bariy- “go out, depart” Dahalo HSED 231: *barik- “shine, be bright” *bVrik- “shine (of lightning)” Semitic bara:qu Akkadian bere:q, beraq Aramaic brq Arabic brq Geez ba:rra:qa: Amharic b3k “be light, be bright” Egyptian (pyramids) *[b]arik- “shine” Omotic pariqq(i)- “shine” Mocha Secondary p- < *b- influenced by *k? The present root may be further related to HSED 223: *bar-/*bur- “morning” HSED 234: HSED 213: *bar- “child” > *barVt.- “boy” *barat.- “boy” Berber a-barad. “boy” Ghat b.ooret_e “boy” Dahalo VMPSIE: vara “man” Sanskrit birun “man” Kavi vîra “hero” Sanskrit vir “man” Latin vair “man” Gothic HSED 258: *bel- “blood” *`Vbyal- “vein” West Chadic vel “vein” Ankwe prefix implied by the anlaut *byal- “blood” Central Chadic be:li “blood” Gidar cf. fel “blood” Musgum fal “blood” Mbara *bill- “blood” Agaw bir “blood” Bilin bir “blood” Xamir bera “blood” Xamta bir “blood” Kwara bir “blood” Dembea birr “blood” Kemant beri “blood” Aungi beri “blood” Damot *bil “blood” Saho-Afar biilo “blood” Saho bil “blood” Afar HSED 259: *bel- “weapon” with laryngeal prefix *HVbyal- “arrow” West Chadic b.elu “arrow” Karekare *byal- East Chadic bo:la “axe” Migama bela “knife” Sumray *bil- “knife” Lowland East Cushitic billaa “knife” Oromo *bil- “knife” Highland East Cushitic billawwa “knife” Kambatta HSED 260: *belal- “rivulet” *byalal- “rivulet” Central Chadic belle “rivulet” Gulfey In this case, the vowel is reconstructed in the second syllable as a single possibility in which the first syllable is not influenced. *byalal- “rivulet” East Chadic bellali “rivulet” Sumray Archaic reduplicative root widely preserved in derivatives, cf. HSED 314: *bolan “rain, cloud” The original form of root was *bVl- as it is continued in *byal- “pond” East Chadic be:li “pond” Mubi See also HSED 312: *bol- “flow, be wet” HSED 265: *ber- “cereal” partial redupl.? *y vowel brry “bread” Egyptian (new) partial redupl. *ba-byar- “maize” Central Chadic ba:bera: “maize” Logone HS *e > Omotic *a in certain contexts? *bar- “maize” Omotic baaro “maize” Mocha baro “maize” Anfilla HSED 266: *ber- “cut” *bVr- > *bVrVg´- “cut, cut down” Semitic br´ “cut, cut down” Hebrew br´ “cut, cut down” Arabic *bVr- > *bVrVy- “cut” Berber bri “cut” Semlal *byar- “cut off” Central Chadic ber “cut off” Tangale b.ir- “cut grass, mow” Dahalo HSED 293: *bir “bird” *bVr- “quail” Berber ta-b&rr-ut “quail” Tawlemmet b3 “kind of bird” Egyptian (ancient) *bir- “quail” West Chadic redupl. birabira: “quail” Hausa burabura: “quail” Hausa HSED 294: *birVg- “be high” *bVrVg- “rise” Berber burg-&t “rise” Tuareg birga “high” Bed HSED 312: *bol- “flow, be wet” with secondary *u *bul- Semitic bll “moisten” Aramaic bll [-u-] “rain” Arabic cf. wbl [-u-] “fall (of rain)” v. Arabic deverbative ya:ba:l “heavy shower” Hebrew wabl- “shower” Arabic with prefix *HV- *HV-bwal- “rain” Central Chadic b.ole “rain” Bachama HSED 313: *bol- “lead, follow” *wVbVl- “lead” Semitic ybl “lead” Hebrew ybl “lead” Aramaic *wV- may be a prefix *byal-/*bwal- West Chadic bel “come” Gerka bol “follow” Bolewa bol “come” Sha *bol- “run” Central Chadic mbule “run” Higi Nkafa mbule “run” Higi Ghye mb&lo “run” Higi Futu HSED 314: *bolan- “rain, cloud” *bVlan- East Chadic belani “rain” Sumray b&lan “rain, sky” Tumak b&la:n “sky” Ndam *bolan- “cloud” Lowland East Cushitic boolan “cloud” Arbore Related to HSED 260: *belal- “rivulet” HSED 329: *bul- “lake, river” related to HSED 312 and HSED 260 Proto-Semitic status of this words subject to doubt *bal “lake” Semitic bal “lake” Gurage HS *l > Egyptian *n Initial w- stands for a rounded root vowel wbn “spring, source” Egyptian (new) with ?-infix *bul-/*bu?ul- “river” West Chadic b.wula?yi “river” Zul bullai “river” Zul b.ul “river” Boghom *bul-ay- “sea, lake” Central Chadic bulay “sea, lake” Gisiga b&lay “sea, lake” Mofu redupl. bilabila “lake” Buduma HSED 331: redupl. of HSED 329 or HSED 332 *bul-bul- “pour, flow” bnbn “let flow, pour” Egyptian (gr) *bul-bul- “pour out” West Chadic bulbula: “pour out” Hausa HSED 332: *bul-/*bulal “pit, well” partial redupl. *bVlVl- “breach, opening in the rock” Berber e-b&l&l “breach. opening in the rock” Ahaggar *bul- “hole” Central Chadic bulu “hole” Logone *bul- “hole” East Chadic bullo “hole” Bidiya bu:le “hole” Migama HSED 336: *bur “boat” br “kind of Nubian ship” Egyptian (new) *bur- “boat” East Chadic buro: “boat” Ndam HSED 338: *bur “boil” redupl. brbr “boil” Egyptian (n) *berber “boil” Coptic berber “boil” Bohairian *bVr- “boil” Berber ab&r “boil” Mzab ab&r “boil” Nefusa with prefix *mV- *mV-bur- “boil” Central Chadic mbur “boil” Mandara HSED 343: *buram- “(be) particolored, (be) yellow” *barm “particolored” Semitic barmu “particolored” Akkadian *bVram- “yellow straw” Berber i-bram “yellow straw” Ayr *burum “yellow” West Chadic burum “yellow” Dafo-Butura Assimilaton of vowels. HSED 344: *b[u]ray- “grain, corn” *bVray- Berber b&rri “pounded grain” Baamrani i-bri-n “flour” Semlal i-brai-n “flour” Segrushen a-br&i “pounded barley” Senhaja *r > *3 b3y “kind of pastry” Egyptian (Middle Kingdom) HSED 359: *bür- “fortified place, building” *bi:r- “fortress, palace” Semitic bir-t- “fortress, palace” Akkadian bi:ra: “fortress, palace” Hebrew byrt` “fortress, palace” Aramaic (Emp, Nap) bi:rta: “fortress, palace” Aramaic (Palest) *bur- West Chadic mbura “place” Paa b&ri “place” Siri ib&ri “place” Buli bur “hut” Fyer *bur- “town” Central Chadic b&re “town” Mandara vura-c^i “town” Gudu v&ra-c^i “town” Nzangi vura “town” Mwulyen vura-to “town” Bachama HSED 791: *fedik.- “split” *fdk. “divide, split” Egyptian (Middle Kingdom) *fedik.- > fed.ig- “split, separate” Beja HSED 794: *ferik.- “dig, divide” *pVrik.- Semitic para:qu “split” Akkadian prq “break” Ugaritic prq “divide” Syrian Aramaic frq [-i-, -u-] “split, divide” Arabic frq “divide” Geez Secondary *u as a variant of *i in Arabic *pVrVg- “dig” East Chadic f&rgi “dig” Kera -g- may continue -k.- in the intervocalic position ferik. “dig” Beja cf. HSED 791: *fedik.- “split” HSED 830: *ful- “bore a hole” deverbative *pul- “big hole” East Chadic pu:l “big hole” Tumak *ful- “break through, pierce through” Lowland East Cushitic ful-a'a “break through, pierce through” Oromo *ful- “bore a hole” Rift ful- “bore a hole” Iraqw HSED 833: *furVh- “fear” v. *pVrVh- “fear” Semitic frh “fear” Geez färra “fear” Amharic An Ethio-Sem archaism? metathesis *fuHVr- > *fu:r- “fear” Lowland East Cushitic fu:r “fear” Konso hu:r “fear” Gidar HSED 845: *fVl- “divide, pierce” *pVl- Semitic extended with -y- ply “divide” Hebrew ply “divide” Jewish Aramaic fly “divide, (be) split” Geez fa:la “(be) split” Tigre fly “(be) split” Tigray extended with -l- fälläl “(be) split” Amharic *fVlVw- “pierce” Berber flu “pierce” Kabyle HSED 846: *fVr- “boil” *pu:r- “boil” Semitic fwr [-u-] “boil” Arabic 3fr “boil” Egyptian (Greek papyri) Both in Semitic and Egyptian derivatives of *fVr- are presented . Probably, the original root should be reconstructed *fVwVr-/*fV´Vr- or *´VfVr-/wVfVr- HSED 1915: *pa`us “axe” *pa`s~- “axe” Semitic pa:s^u id. Akkadian fa´s id. Arabic fo´s id. Soqotri fu´s id. S^h.eri fos id. Mehri *pa´as “axe” East Chadic fas id. Jegu pas id. Sokoro bas id. Sumray Borrowed from Semitic? *fa´as “axe” Highland East Cushitic faase id. Sidamo Borrowed from Semitic? fat'so “axe” Daholo Phonological details are not quite clear. HSED 1936: *pal- “fall” with prefix *nV- *nVpVl- “fall” Semitic napa:lu “fall” Akkadian npl “fall” Ugaritic npl “fall” Hebrew nfl “fall” Aramaic (Syrian) *pal- “fall” West Chadic pal “fall” Sura pal “fall” Chip with prefix *yu- yupele “fall” Dera HSED 1937: *pal- “break” *pVl- “break, crush” Semitic pll “break, crush” Aramaic (Syrian) *pal- “break stone” Central Chadic pal “break stone” Mafa Connected with HSED 1938 *pal- ? HSED 1938: *pal- “cut, divide” *pVl- Semitic fly “strike with a sword, behead, wean” Arabic flw “strike with a sword, behead, wean” Arabic fly “divide, separate” Geez fälläl “cut, split” Amharic *pal- “cut off” West Chadic pal “cut off” Hausa *pal- “cut” Central Chadic fal “cut” Zime *pal- “carve, cut, peel” East Chadic pa:l “carve, cut, peel” Tumak fal “carve, cut, peel” Sokoro *fVl- “separate” Saho-Afar -ifli- “separate” Saho *fil- “separate, comb” Lowland East Cushitic fil- “separate, comb” Arbore Vocalism is not clear. *fal- “divide” Agaw fa:l- “divide” Bilin fa:l- “divide” Kwara fäl- “divide” Dembea HSED 1949: *par- “house, enclosure” *far(r)- “enclosure” Berber a-farra “enclosure” Ahaggar a-farra “enclosure” Tawlemmet pr “house” Egyptian (Old Kingdom) *par- “hangar” East Chadic para “hangar” Migama HSED 1951: *par- “break, thresh” *pVr- “break” Semitic para:ru “break” Akkadian prr “break” Hebrew pwr “break” Hebrew prr “break” Jewish Aramaic fry [-i-] “break” Arabic redupl. färäfärä “crumble” Amharic firäfära “crumble” Harari *fVr- “thresh, be threshed” Berber fruri: “thresh, be threshed” Snus fruri “thresh, be threshed” Semlal *par- West Chadic par-p “smash” Angas pwure “break into pieces” Tangale HSED 1952: *par- “jump” *par(ya)- “jump” Central Chadic fer “jump” Buduma p&r “jump” Musgum bara “jump” Musgum far “jump” Beja *pVr- “jump” Agaw p&rr-ing “jump” Aungi *pVr- “jump” Saho-Afar p&rr “jump” Saho p&rr “jump” Afar HSED 1955: *par-/*pir- “go out” pry “go out” Egyptian (Middle Kingdom) Infinitive in -y- fira “go out” Beja *far- “go out” Saho-Afar far “go out” Saho *fir- “go out” Highland East Cushitic fir “go out” Hadiya HSED 1956: *para´- “knife, axe” *para:´- “axe” Semitic farra:´-at- “axe” Arabic Secondary formation *fVr- “dagger, sharp tool, sword” Berber te-feri “dagger, sharp tool, sword” Zenaga ta-f&ru-t “dagger, sharp tool, sword” Figig *paHar- “knife” East Chadic pe:ru “knife” Migama HSED 1957: *parVm- “cut, split” *pVrim- “cut” Semitic frm [-i-] “cut” Arabic deverbative *param- “sickle” East Chadic pa:ram “sickle” Kera *param- “split (wood)” Rift param-es- “split (wood)” Asa HSED 1959: *paruc.- “cut, break through” *pVrus.- Semitic para:s.u “make a hole” Akkadian prs. “break through (a wall)” Hebrew prs. “break through (a wall)” Jewish Aramaic frs. “cut, pierce” Arabic *pVrVc.- “cut” Central Chadic p&rc^- “cut” Mofu HSED 1971: *per- “bird” *pirr- “quail” Semitic firr-at- “quail” Arabic redupl. f&rf&r-t “quail” Geez *pyar- “small bird” West Chadic fe:ru: “small bird” Hausa HSED 1979: *pilak.- Semitic pilaqqu “dagger” Akkadian pelq- “axe, hoe” Syrian Aramaic irregular Proto-AfroAsiatic *p > *b *bVlVk.- “blade” Berber ta-bl&q “blade” Ahaggar HSED 1980: *pilic.- “divide” *pVlVs.- “divide, split” Semitic fls. “divide, split” Geez fls. “divide, split” Tigre fls. “divide, split” Tigray fls. “divide, split” Amharic *filic.- “divide” Agaw felec- “divide” Aungi HSED 1983: *pir- “fruit, corn” *pir- “fruit” Semitic pr “fruit” Phoenician pr “fruit” Ugaritic p&ri: “fruit” Hebrew pe:ra: “fruit” Syrian Aramaic f&re “fruit” Geez cf. ferra:t “unripe fruit” Harsusi ferra:t “unripe fruit” Mehri ferrot “unripe fruit” S^h.eri *far- “corn” Berber a-faro “corn” Guanche The vocalisation may reflect a different alternation grade. pr.t “fruit, crop, seed” Egyptian (Old Kingdom) *fir- Agaw fir “fruit” Bilin fira “fruit” Xamir fira “fruit” Kwara fira “fruit” Demben fir “corn” Kemant *fir- “fireworm, fruit” Saho-Afar fire “fireworm, fruit” Saho *fir- “fruit” Lowland East Cushitic firi “fruit” Oromo HSED 1984: HSED 1983 *pir- “fruit, corn” > *pirah^- “sprout, flower” *pirah^- Semitic per´u “sprout” Akkadian prh^ “sprout” Ugaritic perah^ “sprout” Hebrew parh.o: “flower” Syrian Aramaic farh^- “sprout” Arabic farh^a “sprout” Geez prh^ “flower” n. Egyptian (new) HSED 1985: *pirat.- “break, split” *pVrVt.- “break” Semitic färrät.ä “break” Amharic *pirVt.- “split (firewood)” West Chadic irregular *-rt.- > *-rd.- fird.e “split (firewood)” Hausa cf. fard.a: “crack (nuts)” Hausa fard.o “crack (nuts)” Hausa furd.a “crack (nuts)” Hausa *pirat- > *pyarVt- “break, crack” East Chadic perte “break, crack” Kera *fir(V)t.- “cut, prune” Highland East Cushitic firt. “cut, prune” Bambala HSED 1986: *piric- “break, grind” *pVris- Semitic prs “break” Syrian Aramaic frs [-i-] “break, tear” Arabic *pVrVc- “grind” Central Chadic pîrs “grind” Mofu *pirVs- “crush (grain)” East Chadic pirza “crush (grain)” Mokilko *firis “be destroyed” Agaw feres-&ng “be destroyed” Aungi HSED 1987: *pirig- “separate” *pVrig- “open, enlarge, separate” Semitic frg [-i-] “open, enlarge, separate” Arabic *pirVg- “separate” East Chadic pirgay “separate” Bidiya HSED 1999: HSED 1938: *pal- “cut, divide” > *polik.- “split” *pVlik.- Semitic pala:qu “kill, slaughter” Akkadian flq [-i-] “cut” Arabic *folVk.- “break off” Lowland East Cushitic folloqa “break off” Oromo HSED 2009: *pur- “cut” *pVrVy- “cut” Semitic parû “cut” Akkadian fry [-i-] “cut” Arabic redupl. frfr “cut, split” Arabic *fVr- “shave, cut hair” Berber &fr-&n “shave, cut hair” Ahaggar *pur- “prepare field by cutting trees” West Chadic pure “prepare field by cutting trees” Tangale HSED 2011: *pur- “tear” extended *fVrVy- “tear” Berber fri “tear” Kabyle *pur- “tear” Central Chadic pur “tear” Daba with secondary laryngeal *puru`- “strip off” Rift puru`-us- “strip off” Iraqw puru`- “strip off” Alagwa HSED 2012: *pur- “flower, grass” *fVr- “kind of grass” Berber a-f&r “kind of grass” Semlal friw “kind of grass” Friw *pur- West Chadic fure: “tobacco flower” Hausa pure “flower” Paa p&re “flower” Cagu pure “grass” Pero *fwar- “flower” Central Chadic f&ra “flower” Dghwede pho:rio “flower” Buduma far pl. “flower” Beja Note the modified vocalism of pl. *fur- “kind of grass” Lowland East Cushitic fura “kind of grass” Oromo *pur- “flower” Omotic furaa “flower” Yamma Connected with HSED 1983: *pir- “fruit, corn” HSED 2014: *purVs- “cut, separate” *pVrVs^- “separate” Semitic prs^ “separate” Syrian Aramaic *fVrVs- Berber f&rs “separate, cut” Semlal &fr&s “cut” Tawlemmet &fr&s “cut” Ahaggar *purVs- “split” East Chadic purse “split” Sokoro HSED 2025: HSED 1938: *pal- “cut, divide” > *pVlah.- “split, cut” *pVlah.- Semitic plh. “split” Hebrew plh. “till, cultivate” Aramaic flh. [-a-] “split, till, cultivate” Arabic *fVlVh- “cut, split” Berber &-fl&h “cut, split” Arabic Irregular laryngeal HSED 2026: *pVlVs- “split, pierce” *pVlVs^- “pierce” Semitic pala:s^u “pierce” Akkadian Proto-AfroAsiatic *-l- > -n- pns “cut” Egyptian (pyramids) HSED 2027: *pVriz^- “cut, separate” *pVriz- “separate” Semitic frz [-i-] “separate” Arabic fero:z “separate” Mehri *fVrVz^- “cut” Berber &fr&z “cut” Snus IEIE: *ber- “blow, inflate” Kartvelian ber- “blow; have gas” Georgian bar- id. Mingrelian bar- id. Laz be:l- id. Svan *bHel- “blow, inflate” Proto-IndoEuropean IEIE: pari “go on campaign, march” Elamite NMNW: bêlah “split, gap (n.); split, cleft” Malayan bêlah doewa “split in two” badjoe bêlah dada “jacket split, open in the front” bêlah boeloeh “striped, as colored cotton” bêlah loseng tjêkak. êmpat “a special way to split bamboo” kadoewa bêlah “both sides” kadoewa bêlah mata “both eyes” and so on of all paired body parts barang barang pêtjah bêlah “fragile wares, glass and pottery” sabêlah “one of the sides” mata sabêlah “one of the eyes” and so on of all paired body parts orang sabêlah “neighbor (opposite)” sa'orang sabêlah “everybody on one side” sabêlah sana “on yon side” disabêlah “on one side, on the other side” kasabêlah “to (that side)” sabêlah mak. “from mother's side” mêmbêlah “split, cleave” doewit sakêping dibêlah toedjoeh “a coin split in seven (for the smallest amount)” mêmbêlahkan badjoenja “tear one's clothes deliberately” mêmbêlah bêhagi “distribute unevenly, give one a bit more, and the other a bit less” halilintar mêmbêlah “the splitting, cleaving lightning, before a powerful thunderclap” sabêlah-mênjabêlah “from both sides” but if there is a water between then sabêrang-mênjabêrang bêrsabêlahan “on the same side, each on his own side” têrbêlah “split, to split, able to split” sa'orang pon tidak. têrbêlah “no one was able to split it” bêlahan “split, cleft, crack” pêmbêlah kajoe “wood-cleaver” pêmbêlah intan “diamond cleaver” pêmbêlahan “splitting, cleaving” mênjabêlahkan “put someone or something to one side” boelar “with whitish discoloratation of the iris, of eye, whether blind or not” Malayan boeloes “naked, without antlers, leafless, childless” Malayan bolos “broken (of battle line), hit (when defending)” Malayan bolong “black, dark blue, everything black, i.a. coal tar” Malayan beler “extremely, superfluous, incessantly” Malayan bilis, beles “red, inflamed of eyes with excretion of fluid” Malayan bilah “chip, thin piece of split bamboo, of flat and sharp objects, such as swords, knives, daggers, arrows, lance points, (bamboo) needles etc” Malayan bêras “husked rice and further any grain or seed with husk” Malayan bêras majang pinang “kernels from the blossom of the pinang” Malayan bêras boenga nijoer “the same of the coco blossom” Malayan NPMPPD *hipaR “opposite side of a river” dipag “other side, opposite side” Mansaka dehipag “the opposite side of a canyon or valley” Manobo difar “the other side, in the sense of the side facing the speaker” Tiruray 'ifar “to cross over to the other side (as of a river or street)” se'ifar tamuk “to negotiate formally the terms of a brideprice” dipah “opposite bank of a river” Mukah dipah “opposite bank of a river” Kayan (Baluy) dipar “opposite side” Kelabit dipah “either of the sides of a river” Uma Juman “It thus seems likely that the dual divisions of Proto-Malayo-Polynesian society were at least traditionally, if not physically, associated with settlements on either side of a river” (R. Blust) ILN: With N-ablaut of the second consonant (Nb > m): **(?-)Nb-l h.aml “portage, gestation, foetus, fruit (of a tree)” Arabic h.amala “carry, bear” Arabic h.amli “vegetables” Tigrinya, Tigre ham&l “garden” Amharic With H-ablaut of the third consonant (lH > r): **(?-)p-lH- farya “bear fruit” Geez With H-ablaut of the second and third consonant (pH > p?, lH > r): p?eryonin “exile, emigration” Geez Geez -p?- is said to be used only for loanwords, primarily from Greek. TP: But this is not Greek FV: aeppel “apple” Old English appel id. Dutch apful id. Old High German epli id. Old Norse ubull id. Old Irish afal id. Welsh abluko id. Old Slavonic obuolas id. Lithuanian abuols id. Latvian woble id. Old Prussian jablko id. Polish malus id. Latin Abella town, called malifera 'apple-bearing' by Virgil (Aen VII 740) Umbrian(?) CEA: *ablu- “apple” Proto-Celtic aballo id. Gallic ubull id. O.Irish afal id. Welsh aval id. British *ablu- id. Proto-Slavic ablu-ko id. Old Church Slavonic jablo id. Old Polish jablu-ko id. Old Russian *a:bl- id. Proto-Baltic woble id. Prussian obuolas, obuolys id. Lithuanian abuols id. Latvian *aplu- id. Proto-Germanic apel id. Gothic (=Crimean Goth.) *aplya- > id. Proto-Germanic epli id. Old Norse aeppel id. Old English apful, afful id. Old High German *ablo- id. Proto-Italic *ablo-na > abella id. Oscan *Saml- id. Proto-Anatolian sam(a)lu- id. Hittite sawat- (t < l) id. Hattic *aml- id. Proto-IndoIranian a:mra “mango” Sanskrit am'&r “pomegranate” Askun, Kafir (u)mar “apple” Mordvinian (< Iranian) umar id. Livonian marja “berry” Finnish Avalon Island of the Blessed Irish Avallon centre of Avallonais (pagus Avalensis) in Low Bourgogne (Yonne) Gallic Aballo a town of the Haedui in Gallia Lugodunensis Gallic Aballava a castle Latin Abalus an island Latin Abellinum a town near Abella Latin Abellio a god Latin HB: sagar id. Basque W:, Quince: supurgillu “quince” Akkadian safarjal “quinces” Arabic ayva “quince” Turkish IEIE: *alma- “apple” Proto-Turkic mé:lon “apple” Greek (Homer) méléa “apple tree” Greek (Homer) mâ:lon “apple; pear, fruit (of tree)” Doric Greek móllë “apple” Albanian ma:lum “apple” Latin ma:lus “apple tree” Latin IEIE posits two roots for “apple”: *s^amlu- and *maHlo-, possibly to preserve their claim that their phoneme disappears outside of Anatolian, I think they are too similar not to be related. s^amaluwanza “apple tree” Hittite *marna- “apple” Proto-Pamirian mu:n id. Shugni ma:wn id. Rushan mawn id. Yasgulami mend. id. Ishkashmi mel. id. Sanglechi aming´a id. Munjan man.a id. Pashto *amru- amru;d “pear” Persian a:mrá- Sanskrit a:mráh. m. “mango tree” Sanskrit a:mrám n. “mango” Sanskrit Kafir: am´&r “pomegranate” Ashkun am´¨ar, amrä~ id. Kati am´&r id. Prasun umàr “apple” Livonian umar´, mar´ id. Mordvin *s^amlu- “apple” Proto-IndoEuropean *was^l.- id. Proto-Kartvelian was^l- id. Georgian us^kur- id. Mingrelian os^kur, us^kur- id. Laz wisk'w/usk'w id. Svan NS 1: *bal'ka “shine, gleam” Proto-Nostratic *Põk “white” Sino-Tibetan NS 3: bor´a “grayish-brown” Proto-Nostratic bHu:rV id. North Caucasian NS 4: *bulV “mix, stir up” Proto-Nostratic *pual\ id. Sino-Tibetan NS 126: *moLV “break, crush” Proto-Nostratic *mial id. Sino-Tibetan NS 127: *murV “crush, pound, break” Proto-Nostratic *muar “bite, gnaw” Sino-Tibetan NS 138: *palGV “a fortified dwelling” Proto-Nostratic *bU_ll'V “house, home” Sino-Caucasian */p/u:k Sino-Tibetan *bu_ll'V North Caucasian NS 143: *p'är´/a/ “split, break” Proto-Nostratic *phraj “split, divide” Sino-Tibetan NS 145: *p'erV “bear, produce” Proto-Nostratic *p(h)ria-n, id. Sino-Tibetan NS 152: *p'arV “fly” Proto-Nostratic *pUrV id. Sino-Caucasian *phur (/*bh-) Sino-Tibetan *purV North Caucasian NS 156: *p'a/rj/ “spread, scatter” Proto-Nostratic *phra id. Sino-Tibetan NS 159: *p'alV “many; full” Proto-Nostratic *p-lai-n, “full” Sino-Tibetan CAAA 4: pe “water” Ainu *piak “damp, wet” Proto-Tai *(ma/)payak “wet” Proto-Austronesian (Formosa) PMS: bul, bil “to sprout” Sumerian PMA: mula “to plant” Ilokano bira “to sprout, grow” Lau piro “to shoot, sprout” Are'are bila “to sprout” Kwaio bila'o “to grow” Kwaio pariri “to shoot up, grow” Maori pula-pula “to sprout, shoot” Hawai'i bora “to grow, sprout” Efate vara “to grow” Motu biri “to grow” Oba vora “to grow stout” Fiji PMS buru “fruit” Sumerian PMA vulu- “fruit” Paiwan puru- “bundle of fruit” Selepet para- “to blossom, to flower” Tuamotu pele, peli- “fruit” Malay phle- “fruit” Khmer plei- “fruit” Bahnar felan “to blossom” Malagasy fola- “to spread out like vegetation” Tonga bluak- “flower” Tai blook- “flower” thai bula-k “flower” Indonesia, Malay bulak-lak- “flower” Philippines fua- “fruit” Polynesia pua- “flower” Polynesia bua, vua- “fruit” Melanesia, Indonesia PMA balu-balu “strength” Lau pola-pola “to grow strong” Hawai'i pula-wa “strong” Hawai'i pori “fat, bulky” Tahiti vora “to grow stout, bulky, fat” Fiji bora-bora “fleshy” New Georgia pula-pula “to multiply, to procreate” Hawai'i para “bravery, spirit, talent” Maori pori “abundance” Maori pariri “to shoot up, grow” Maori balue “enormous” Kapingamarangi val-ak “to swell, rise” Paiwan bulia “a corpulent person” Efate barua “fat, large” Efate bari-bari, bari “large, full, well-built” Malagasy balebale-a “bellied, large” Efate bora “to grow” Efate pele “fat stomach, to grow fat” Hawai'i pura “protruding fat” Anutan porapora “spread out” Anutan PMA: pulu “wet, wash, bathe” Hawai'i, Samoa, Tonga fufulu “wash hands” Fiji pari-pari “wet” Hanuabada apre “to bathe” Isabi abri su “to bathe” Emerum pra “to bathe” Paynamar piram “to wash” Madang PMA: palwa “small boat” Philippines parao “canoe” Tagalog folau “canoe” Polynesia barau “canoe” Efate farau “canoe” Tahiti volau “canoe” Fiji poruku “canoe” Futuna palahu “canoe” Indonesia prau “canoe” Indonesia broa “canoe” Formosa Back