*t-w- “to forge, strike”

PMA tud “to strike, hit” Sanskrit SIG, VISW, IESSG *d-p- pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic *t-w- “push, strike” Proto-IndoEuropean to:-mara “spear” Sanskrit *t-w-p- túpto: “beat, hit” Greek túmpanon “hand drum, tambourine” Greek *t-w-d- tudá-ti “pushes” Sanskrit tudes “hammer” Latin present with n-infix (Indo-European *tunéd-, *tund-) tundo: “beat, hit” Latin o-grade (*towd- from *tw-d) with s-preformative *st-wd- Proto-IndoEuropean stautan “push” Gothic stauta “push” Old Norse sto:zan “push” Old High German *t-w-bh- , with s-preformative stuphelízo: “beat, hit, drive, push away, scold” Greek *d-p- single reduplication *d-p-p- Semitic daffa “(a bird) beat its sides (with its wings)” Arabic daffun, duffun “thing with which one beats, tambourine” Arabic *d-p-Y.- dafaY.a “he pushed, impelled, drove” Arabic *d-p-i- do:phi: “(push >) hurt, insult” Hebrew (pausal form) extended with -G.- or -k- *t-wg- “push” Proto-IndoEuropean tujá-ti, tunákti “pushes, drives” Sanskrit *d-p-k.- Semitic da:phak. “knock on the door, driving (the cattle) too hard” Hebrew d-f-k- “pour forth with vehemence” Arabic EIEC *(s)teud- “push, thrust” do-tuit “makes to fall” Old Irish tu(n)d- “push, strike” Latin stude- “strive, study” Latin studium “zeal” Latin stauta “thrust” Old Norse sto:zan “thrust” Old High German *stu:dnye/o- shtyj “push” Albanian túdati/tundate “pushes, strikes, stings” Sanskrit IELL tund- “to push, to knock” Thracian SSIRG 1.4.b: tudáti (arch. vb-type) “hit” Vedic Sanskrit tódas “stab” Vedic Greek þót “draught of air, impetuousity, violence” Old Norse tundo: “pound” Latin stautan “hit” Gothic stossen German *stu:dnyo: > shtynj 1sg, phon [s^tüñ] id. Albanian studium “hitting at” > “striving” Latin studeo: “be hitting” > “strive” Latin HSED 2358: *takoc- “trample, pound” Proto-AfroAsiatic *tVkVs- “trample” Senitic tks id. Aramaic (Judaic) *takac- “pound” West Chadic takwsu id. Ngizim Derived from HSED 2416 *tuk- “beat, press”. HSED 2358: *tak.ar- “stick, pole” Proto-AfroAsiatic *tak.r- “stick, sceptre” Semitic taqr- id. Aramaic (Syrian) *tak.ar- “long bamboo pole” West Chadic takarwa id. Ngizim HSED 2370: *taq.-/*tiq.- “strike” Proto-AfroAsiatic *ti:h_- “strike (with a stick)” Semitic tyh_ [-i-] id. Arabic Based on *tVh_-. *taq.-/*tiq.- “strike, kick)” West Chadic ti:k.a id. Hausa t&ku id. Ngizim HSED 2388: *tek- “take” Proto-AfroAsiatic tkk- “grasp, seize” Egyptian (Middle Kingdom) partial reduplication *tyak- “take” West Chadic t&k “take” Sha tyek “take” Dafo-Butura *tyak- “take” Central Chadic taka, tega “take” Musgum HSED 2399: *tuk.- “strike, break” Proto-AfroAsiatic *tVk.-tVk.- “break, be broken” Berber t&Gt&G id. Ahaggar reduplication *tuk.- “strike” Lowland East Chadic tuq- id. Oromo HSED 2410: *tok- “speak, ask” Proto-AfroAsiatic *tVk- “inquire” Berber s&-t&kk-&t id. Ayr s&-t&kk-&t id. Tawlemmet *twak- West Chadic tok “talk” Angas taku “ask” Paa HSED 2414: *tug- “strike” Proto-AfroAsiatic tug- “pound, thresh” West Chadic tuge id. Tangale *twagVy- “strike” Central Chadic togiya id. BM toia id. Masa *twaga- “strike” East Chadic tagi id. Nanchere togoi- id. Gabri *tug- “strike” Omotic tuug, tuuge id. Kaffa TP: It seems to me that *-wa- in some of the reconstructed forms were posited to explain what would otherwise be an -a-/-u- alternation. HSED 2416: *tuk- “beat, press” Proto-AfroAsiatic *tuk- Semitic taka:ku- “press” Akkadian tkk [-u-] “destroy, cut” Arabic *tVk- “knock” Berber t&g-&t- id. Ahaggar *tak-/*tuk- West Chadic ta:ka “trample, step on” Hausa tako “beat” Ngamo tuk “push” Bokkos tuk “push” Dafo-Butura tak-du “trample, step on” Ngizim *tukwa- Central Chadic tukwa- “clap” Gisiga tku “strike” Logone *tak-/*tok- “strike” Saho-Afar tak-, -ootok- id. Afar *tuk- “hit, strike” Omotic tuk- id. Kaffa HSED 2434: *tVk-tVk- “trample, knock” Proto-AfroAsiatic *tVk-tVk- “trample” Semitic tktk- id. Arabic *tVk-tVk- “knock slightly” Berber t&kt&k id. Ahaggar tktk “trample (enemies)” Egyptian reduplication of HSED 2416 “beat, press” HSED 2455: *t.ah.an- “grind, forge” Proto-AfroAsiatic *t.Vh.an- “grind corn, pound” Semitic t.h.n id. Hebrew t.h.n [-a-] id. Arabic t.ah.an id. Jibbali t.ah.an id. Soqotri t.eh.a:n id. Mehri t.h.a:n id. S^h.eri *t.aHan- West Chadic ten- “press down” Anaggar toni- “forge” Tangale Contractiom. TP: Or the two don't belong together, and one should reconstruct WCh *tan- instead. HSED 2468: *t.i?uh.-/*tiwuh.- “kill, destroy” Proto-AfroAsiatic *t.uh.- “perish” Semitic t.wh. id. Arabic t3h. “kill” Egyptian (Greek papyri) *t.i?uh.- “kill” West Chadic tu id. Sura tu id. Angas to id. Chip t&G id. Warji t&:G- id. Kariya tu id. Diri t&u id. Miya tiyu id. Cagu t&G id. Siri t&G id. Mburku tiy- id. Jimbin tuge id. Burma Consonantal alternation *-?- ~*-w-. TP: Or the Semitic/Egyptian and the WCh roots don't belong together and the latter should be *tiG-/*tuG- with vowel alternation? EBAE 6.26: *stunkwa Proto-Vasconic > *zunkwa > zunka “Stoss mit dem Kopf, den die Kälber beim Saugen geben” Basque sunka “Schlag, Stoss” Basque sunkatu “stossen” Basque loaned as *stugqan > stigqan “stossen” Gothic TP: (s)tuk- Proto-Vasconic > EWBS: sunka “Schlag, Stoss” Basque junka id. Basque unki n. “emotion, touch, feel, Stoss, Ruck” Basque ünkhüde, ünküde, ünküdü, ingure “smith's anvil” Basque ingude id., “ring in oxen-yoke” Basque TP: -nk- gives it away as a loan; native words have -ng- WORDS: incus, -cudes “anvil” Latin FTIG 20: *tukk-, *tu:k- *tuk- ? “mistreat” Nordwestblock tu:kian (tukian ?) id. Old English tuck, touk id. Middle English zoche “club” Middle High German FTIG 21: *tuk-, *tukk- “pull, tug at, shake, torment” Nordwestblock zochen “tug at, shake” Middle High German tucken id. Middle English tucken id. Middle Dutch tucken id. Middle Low German zucken, zücken? id. German FTIG 22: *twakk-, *twikk- Nordwestblock zwacken “pinch; annoy” German zwicken “pinch; torment” German zweck, zwick “pin, small nail” Middle High German TP: a-, i-infix? FTIG 23: *tak-, *takk-, *te:k- “touch, grasp, take” Nordwestblock te:kan “touch” Gothic taka “take” Old Norse tacan “grasp, take” Old English taken “take, grasp” Middle Dutch tacken “touch, grasp”, also “take” Kiliaen tetsen “touch” Kiliaen takken “touch” Flemish Dutch tacken “touch” Middle Low German ticken “touch” Low German tocken “touch” Kiliaen tucken “touch” Kiliaen toccare “touch” Italian tocar “touch” Spanish toucher “touch” French touch Italian toetsen “touch” Dutch tek-/tak- “touch” Tocharian B ta:g- “touch” Old Turkish tak- “fetch” Ainu þaccian “touch lightly, stroke” Old English thakolon “touch” Old Saxon *þegjan “accept, get”, also “ask” Proto-Germanic þiggia Old Norse þicgan Old English tagha “take” Old Swedish taga “take” Swedish tangere, tagere, pf. te-tigi “touch” Latin in-teger “untouched” Latin contagium “touch” n. Latin te-tago:n “grasping” Greek FTIG 24: *tang- “reaching to smt., touching it” Nordwestblock ge-tang Old English ge-tenge also “oppressing” Old English gader-tang, -teng Old English ge-tang Old English bi-tengi also “oppressing” Old Saxon gi-zengi Old English adv.: ge-tangr Old English sam-tenges (-tinges) Old English gi-zengo Old High German con-tiguus (< *-taguus) Latin tengia “get in touch and then join” Old Norse sibbeon bitengi “related by family” Old Saxon ge-tengan “join and defeat” Old English *ge-tingan “join in battle” Old English (Andreas V. 138) Zange “tongs, pliers” German *ad-taccare > attacare “attack” Italian attaquer “attack” French cf. an-greifen “attack” German FTIG 25: *twang-, *tweng- “force, press” Nordwestblock twingan, twengan id. Old English zwingan id. Old High German thwingan id. Old English dwingan id. Old High German twingan id. Middle High German þwingan id. Old Norse (< Low German?) þwengr “strap (for fixating)” Old Norse dwenge id. Middle Low German dwang id. Old High German þwang, þweng id. Old Norse TP: i-infix? DEE: thwack “to beat” English variant of þakken “to stroke” Middle English þaccian “to stroke (a horse)” Old English þjökka “to thwack, thump” Icelandic TP: I'm not convinced. I'd say 'thwack" is FTIG 21 with an a-infix; the rest not directly related DSDE: *twe(:)y- “hew, strike” Proto-IndoEuropean > ? þwi:tan “cut” Old English þveit “small piece of land” Old Norse > (loan) þwait “clearing” English -tved (in placenames) thwet n. “cut (off)” Old Danish tveit “chip; clearing” English tvet, tveit n. “cut in wood” Swedish dial. TP: Or from *tud- with i-infix? DSDE: *tong- “think, feel” Proto-IndoEuropean tonge:re “know” Latin *þankian “discover, recognize, understand” Proto-Germanic þagkjan “think” Gothic þencan “think” Old English thenkian “think” Old Saxon denken “think” Old High German, German denken “think” Middle Low German > tænke “think” Danish thænkia “think” Old Danish tenke “think” Norwegian tænke “think” Danish þænkia “think” Old Swedish tänka “think” Swedish þenkia “think” Icelandic TP: Or perhaps 'me thinks' < 'it strikes me' DSDE: þekkr “pleasant” Old Norse thæck “pleasant” Danish tekk “pleasant” Norwegian täck “pleasant” Swedish þekkja “make pleasant” Old Norse tekke “seem, appear, please” Old Danish þækkia “seem, appear, please” Old Swedish tækkes “please” Danish thæckes “please” Old Danish tekkes “please” Norwegian täckas “please” Danish þekkjast “please” Old Norse þinga “hold assembly; negotiate” Old Norse tinge “hold assembly; negotiate, agree; bargain; rent; buy” Danish tinghe id. Old Danish tinge id. Norwegian tinga id. Swedish dingen “hold trial; negotiate; bargain” Middle Low German dingo:n id. Old High German dingen id. German þingian id. Old German TP: Cf. FTIG 24. PKMa: takoa “to forge” Finnish *TukTuk “hammer, hit with a hammer” Proto-Austronesian (Blust) *dakdak Proto-Austronesian (Dempwolff) EHWL: tund “to hit, run into” Etruscan G: -tind- “to push” Proto-Bantu -túd- “to forge” Proto-Bantu M: -tudi- “log, mortar” Proto-Bantu -tu “pestle” Proto-Bantu -tunt- “palpitate (heart), beat against” Proto-Bantu -tuut- “strike, beat” Proto-Bantu -td- “forge” Proto-Bantu PMS: tud “to strike, beat” Sumerian PMA: tut- Hiw, Toga, Lehali, Mota, Mosina, Tam, Vetumboso tutu- Lakona duki- Sesake tuki- Anutan tu- common Polynesian tuk-tok- “to knock at door” Tagalog tug-tug- “to play instrument, ring bell, strike gong” Tagalog tukain- “to peck” Tagalog TP: Forging means taking or touching the thing (- ? object) with tongs with one hand while thwacking it with the other. Thence the seemingly disparate semantics of all these words, which after so long time and erosion of possible suffixes are difficult to disentangle. Probably from the high status of the new craft the word for “forge” came to be used in all kinds of transferred senses until it meant just “strike” Back