*A-n- “wind, breath, god, spirit”; “man”

PMA an “to breathe, blow, live” Sanskrit, also anila “wind” PMA asu “life” Sanskrit asu “five vital breaths” Sanskrit PMA nara “human (homo sapiens)” Sanskrit IENH 369: *?[a|ë]n-ah “to breathe, respire, live” Proto-Nostratic > *?h[e|a]nHh- “to breathe, respire, live” Proto-IndoEuropean 'nh “to live; life, living persons” Egyptian, AfroAsiatic 'nhy “a living being” Egyptian, AfroAsiatic *anëR “to breathe out” Proto-Eskimo IENH 558: *n[i|e]r- “to be strong, manly, virile” Proto-Nostratic > *ner- “to be strong, manly, virile; (n.) man, hero” Proto-IndoEuropean nr “to be strong, mighty” Egyptian, AfroAsiatic nrw “power, strength, victory” Egyptian, AfroAsiatic ner “prince” Sumerian SIG, IESSG, VISW *A-n- “breathe” Proto-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *an- “to breathe, blow” Proto-IndoEuropean uz-anan “breathe one's last” Gothic anemos part. “wind” Greek anima “breath, wind, life, soul” Latin animus “soul” Latin animal “animate being, animal” Latin ond “breath, soul” Old Norse anda “breathe” Old Norse andi “breath, spirit” Old Norse extended with -H- or, half redupl., -A- ána: (= Proto-Semitictic A-n-H- ?) áni-ti “breathes” Sanskrit ánila- “wind” Sanskrit extended with -p- or -w- > PIE -w- *A-n-p (probably) *Aánap intr. ánu “man” Sanskrit *Aanáp *n-w- nó(w)os Greek extended with -d- and s-preformative snutrs “wise” Gothic snutrei “wisdom” Gothic snùki-s “snout” Lithuanian with broken redupl. *n-p-n-p- > *p-n-p- Pre-IndoEuropean *pn-w- IndoEuropeam pnéwo: Greek pneûma “spirit” Greek with -n- > -l- between labials pleúmo:n Greek extended with -s- *pn-ws- Pre-IndoEuropean fnéosan “sneeze” Old English fniezen “sneeze” Dutch extended with -H- *pn-wH- Pre-IndoEuropean pe-pno:-mai “am wise” Greek extended with -H- and with s-preformative *sn-wH- > *snu:- Proto-IndoEuropean extended with -d- snu:te “snout” Middle Low German snu:den “pant, snore” Old High German snu:den “pant, snore” Middle High German sny:ta “blow one's nose” Old Norse snu:zen “blow one's nose” Old High German extended with -s- *nw-s- niosan “sneeze” Old High German with s-preformative sne:sen “sneeze” Old English sneeze English nyuxa-ti “snuffle, smell” Russian sniuchac´ “snuffle” Polish njus^iti “snuffle” Serbian nuster “(snuffling) nostrils” Low German nusteren “(snuffling) nostrils” Middle Low German nüstern “(snuffling) nostrils” German nüstern “stick your nose into something, snuffle” German extended with -ks- bi-niuhsjan “investigate” Gothic ny:sa “snuffle, investigate” Old Norse ne:osan “investigate etc.” Old English njo:sn “investigatio, information” Old Norse nys “information” Swedish, Danish *n-w- Semitic extended with -y- nawa: “he intended, purposed, aimed at (-hu it)” Arabic nawa:n “intention” Arabic extended with -s- *A-n-s- Pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic *'anás- Proto-IndoEuropean násate: med. “associates himself with” Sanskrit with sam + instr. “come together in friendship, come together in love (with... espec. of man and wife)” Sanskrit whence perhaps ásta-m “abode, home” Sanskrit 'anisa perf. intr. “he was (became) sociable, inclined to company, friendly or familiar (bi-hi, by his company or presence)” Arabic III “entered or maintained friendship, was courteous, urbane” Arabic *'a'nasa > 'a:nasa IV “he gladdened (-hu him) by his company or presence, he behaved in a sociable or familiar manner (with him)” Arabic 'unsun “sociableness, inclination to company, friendliness, socialness, familiarity”, “companionship or familiarity with women, amatory conversation and conduct” Arabic 'insun “a chosen or particular friend or companion” Arabic 'anasun “a tribe staying, residing, dwelling, the people of a place of alighting or abode, a numerous company of men”, “one with whom one is sociable” Arabic 'ani:sun “a sociable, companionable, familiar person, one with whom one is sociable” Arabic al-'ani:satun “the fire” (= “the familiar element of the hearth”) Arabic *an-s- extended with l *ansl- (h)a:la:re “emit vapor, be fragrant” Latin an(h)e:la:re “pant, gasp” Latin *n-s- nosu “nose” Old English nose “nose” Old Friesian *A-n-s- Semitic extended with fourth consonant > *n-s- Semitic extended with -m- nasama “breathed lightly” Arabic V “breathed out, died” Arabic II caus “brought back to life” Arabic “breathe forcefully” Hebrew na:s^am “breathe” New Hebrew nEs^am “breathed, blew, lived, exhaled” Syrian nEs^am pa. “breathe deeply” Jewish Aramaic nasamun “breath, soul” Arabic nasamatun “soul” Arabic nEs^a:ma: “breath of life” Hebrew nEs^amþå: “soul” Syrian nis^ma: “breath of life” Biblical Aramaic nasi:mun “light wind” Arabic nås^omå: “(dog's) mouth” Syrian ma(s^)s^omiþå: “nostrils” Syrian extended with -p- : -P.- > Semitic -p- : -b- na:s^aP “breathed, blew” Hebrew nEs^aP “breathed, blew” Jewish Aramaic na:s^aB “blow” Hebrew nEs^aB “blow” Jewish Aramaic nas^abu “blow (away)” Assyrian nEs^aBå: “breath, breeze” Syrian mas^(s^E)Bå “breath, wind” Syrian 'a-nsaba “blew forcefully” Arabic metathesis *n-A-s- >? *na:s- “nose” Pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic ná:sa: dual “nose” Sanskrit na:h “nose” Avestan na:h “nose” Old Persian na:sus “nose” Latin na:res pl. “nostrils, nose” Latin no:sis “nose” Lithuanian nasá: “nose” Sanskrit nasa “nose” Old High German nasu “nose” Old English nosu “nose” Old Church Slavonian Alternative forms *A.-n-S.- Pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic extended with r (relativity = comparative) suffix anthr-(o:pos) Greek *s.r-, *s.-r > *dhr-, *dh-r- Proto-IndoEuropean [ compare (*-s- : *-S.-) *-dhr- < *-s.r- in *lewdhero-s > Proto-IndoEuropean (e)leutheros Greek *lowdhero-s > Proto-IndoEuropean *lowfero > Italic li:ber “free person, child” Latin versus *-s- in *lw-s- > -liusan, laus Gothic and *kadhEró-s > Proto-IndoEuropean katharó-s “pure” Greek versus *kas- > Proto-IndoEuropean castus “pure” Latin ] *A.anáS.- Pre-IndoEuropean *nr- na:, nom. naram, acc. “man” Sanskrit *A.ánaS.- Pre-IndoEuropean *anr- ané:r, andr- “man” Greek : *A-n-s- Pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic *A-n-s- Proto-Semittic 'ana:s^im pl. “men” Hebrew 'æno:s^ “humanity” Biblical Aramaic (')nås^å “man”, coll. “men” Syrian na:sun “man”, coll. “men” Arabic 'insun “human race” Arabic nis^e:, pl. “people” Assyrian te:nis^e:t, stat. constr. “men, humanity” Assyrian extended with th (< feminine -t-) *A-n-th- Pre-IndoEuropean-Semitic 'untha: “woman” Arabic 'anst “woman” Ethiopian as^s^atu “woman” Assyrian altu (< as^tu) “woman” Assyrian 'is^s^a: “woman” Hebrew 'ittetha: “woman” Aramaic 'at(t)tå: “woman” Syrian *'-n- “breathe” Proto-Semitic single redupl. *'-n-n- “breathe loudly > sigh” Proto-Semitic 'anna “he uttered a moan or prolonged voice of complaint, (the bow) made a gentle and prolonged sound” Arabic extended with -H- *A-n-H- (= Proto-IndoEuropean ána- ?) 'anaHa “he breathed hard or violently, uttered a long or violent sigh” Arabic 'a:niHun “breathing hard or violently” Arabic 'unu:Hun “a sound that is heard from a man's inside with breathing, shortness of breath or panting for breath” Arabic '-n-H niph. “moaned, groaned” Hebrew 'enaH “moaned, groaned” Syrian 'ana:Ha: “moan, groan” Hebrew 'enaHþå: “moan, groan” Syrian extended with -X- a:naX “coughed, sobbed” Assyrian (pret. 1st sing.) extended with -k.- *A-n-k.- Pre-Semitic 'a:nak. “pant” Hebrew 'enak.þå: “a groan” Syriac metathesis *n-A-k.- Pre-Semitic na:'ak. “pant, groan” Hebrew extended with -p- *A-n-p- Pre-Semitic *'anp- Semitic 'anfun “nose, sense of smelling” Arabic dual. “nostrils” Arabic 'anf “nose” Ethiopian plur. “nostrils” Ethiopian appu “nose” Assyrian 'app-, aP- “nose” Hebrew dual. “nostrils” Hebrew 'appu “nose” Jewish Aramaic n-f- “breath” Egyptian nif “breath” Coptic extended with -y- n-f-y- “breathe” Egyptian nife “breathe” Coptic extended with -s- *A-n-p-s- > *nàps- Semitic nafasun “spirit” Arabic nafsun “spirit, soul > self” Arabic nafs “wind, spirit, soul, character” Ethiopian nafsa “breathe, blow” Ethiopian napa:s^u “breathe” Assyrian næ`Pæs^ “breath, soul, living creature, self” Hebrew naps^å: “breath, soul, living creature, self” Syrian napis^tu “breath, life, living creature, person” Assyrian extended with -X- *n-p-X- “breathe, blow” Semitic napa:Xu “blow (on fire), kindle” Assyrian whence nappaXu “smith” Assyrian nafaXa “blew, inflated” Arabic nafXa “breathed, blew” Ethiopian extended with -H- nafHatun “breath, odor” Arabic nafaHa “gave off an odor” Arabic extended with -t- : -t.- nafata “(the pot) bubbled, boiled vehemently” Arabic nafat.a “sneezed, boiled, seethed” Arabic extended with -T- nafaTa “blew, puffed, inspired” Arabic VISW: *A-n-k- Pre-IndoEuropean-AfroAsiatic *ang- Proto-IndoEuropean angelos “messenger, emissary” Greek angéllo: “am messenger, bring a message, announce” Greek angaros “Persian messenger on horseback” Persian, in Greek angaron pûr “signal fire” Greek ángira:s pl. “beings between Gods and humans as mediators between both” Sanskrit *A-l-k- (n > l before k as in Proto-AfroAsiatic h-l-k- vs Proto-IndoEuropean k-ng- “walk”) Proto-AfroAsiatic 'alaka “he acted as a messenger (bayna-l-kawni, between the people), he conveyed, communicated a message (-hu, to him), he sent” Arabic 'alu:kun “a message or communication, a messenger” Arabic 'alu:katun, ma'lakatun, ma'lukun, ma'lukatun “a message, mission, dispatch” Arabic *l-A-k- with metathesis la'aka perf. “send as an envoy, send a message” Ethiopian la:'k “minister, attencant” Ethiopian mal'a:kh “messenger, messenger from God (angel, prophet)” Hebrew mel'a:kha: “work, profession” Hebrew ml'kt “work, profession” Phoenician EIEC *H2énH1mi “breathe” uz-anan “breathe one's last” Gothic ániti “breathes” Sanskrit ana:sk- “breathe, inhale” TokharianB *H1eH1tmén- “breath” æ:ðm “breath” Old English a:tum “breath” Old High German a:tmán- “breath, soul” Sanskrit a:ñcám “self, soul” TokharianA a:ñme “self, soul” TokharianB both < *antmen- from this and the next etymon *H2énH1mos “breath” animus “spirit, wind” Latin anemos “wind” Greek *honm > holm “wind” Armenian perhaps *anila- anila “wind” Sanskrit *H2enH1-tlo- (Celt.) ana:l “breath” Old Irish anadl “breath” Welsh IEW *ansu-, *nsu- “ghost, demon” ásu- “breath, world” Sanskrit anghu- “breath, world” Avestan ásu-ra- “ruler” Sanskrit ahura “ruler” Avestan ahsu- (= a:su) “cult image” Venetic *ansuz “god” Germanic a:ss “god” Old Norse a[n]suz “god” Runes o:s “god” Old English anses “demigods” Gothic Latin from an- “breathe”? EIEC *H2énr “(manly) strength, vitality” Proto-IndoEuropean derivatives na:r “noble, great-hearted” Old Irish nóras “will” Lithuanian *H1en-H2noró- “having (manly) strength within” Proto-IndoEuropean innara: “violently” Hittite innarahh- “make strong” Hittite innarawant- “strong, forceful; sexually potent” Hittite annara/i- “forceful, virile” Luvian *H2nér (gen. *H2nrós) “man, person” Proto-IndoEuropean ne:r “hero” Welsh ner- “chief” Umbrian ner- “chief” Oscan njeri “person” Albanian anér (gen. andrós) “man” Greek ayr (gen. arn) “man, person” Armenian anar “man” Phrygian nar- “man, person” Avestan næl “man” Ossetic nár- “man, person” Sanskrit derivatives: nert “strength, power” Old Indic nerth “manliness, courage, army” Welsh nerio:sus “firm” Latin nertien “anger” Old Prussian nóras “will” Latvian nrtú- “hero” Sanskrit *su-H2nr-tós “provided with vital energy” > sonairt (so + nert) “brave, strong” Old Irish hynerth “brave, strong” Welsh su:nrta:- “exultation” Sanskrit HSED 1865: *nif- “smell, breathe” *nVpah.- “smell”(intr.) Semitic nfh.[-a-] “smell”(intr.) Arabic nifx “smell”(intr.) Jibbali nafah. “smell”(intr.) Soqotri Secondary formation based on *nap-? nfy “breathe” Egyptian (new) *nif- “breathe, smell” Central Chadic nip “breathe, smell” Daba nëp “breathe, smell” Musgoy For the semantic development, cf. c'houez “smell” and “breath” Breton HSED 1828: *naf- “breath” nf “breath” Egyptian (New Kingdom) *naf- Saho-Afar naf “breath, soul” Saho neef “face” Afar *naf- Lowland East Cushitic naf, neef “breath, soul” Somali nafa “body” Arbore Related to HSED 1865 *nif- “smell, breathe”. HSED 1830: *nafus- “breath” *naps^- “breath, soul” Semitic napis^tu “breath, soul” Akkadian nps^ “breath, soul” Ugaritic nepes^ “breath, soul” Hebrew naps^a: “breath, soul” Aramaic(Syrian) nafs- “breath, soul” Arabic nafs “breath, soul” Ge'ez nefeset “breath, soul” Harsusi nefese:t “breath, soul” Mehri nefset “breath, soul” S^h.eri *nVfas- “breath” Berber u-nfas “breath” Ahaggar Metathesis of vowels. *nufas- “breath” West Chadic numfa:s^i:, lumfa:s^i: “breath” Hausa lafwos, lufwos “breath” Sha Secondary nasal infix in Hausa and dissimilation of *n- in Sha. Metathesis of vowels. *na[f]us- “soul” Central Chadic nawusë “soul” Logone A widely attested semantic pattern, cf. anima “breath” and “soul” Latin *nafVs- “breathing” Saho-Afar nafse “breathing” Saho Metathesis of vowels explained by the influence of verbal forms. Derived from HSED 1828 *naf- “breath”. Related to HSED 1882 *nufas-. Cf. also *nVs^Vp- “blow” Semitic nas^a:pu “blow” Akkadian ns^p “blow” Hebrew ns^p “blow” Aramaic ns^p “breathe” Egytian (Greek papyri) if these are not derived from *sip- “blow”. HSED 1882: *nufas- “blow, breathe” *nVpVs^ “blow, breathe” Semitic napa:s^u “blow, breathe” Akkadian nefos^ “blow, breathe” Soqotri *nufas- “breathe” West Chadic numfa:sa, lumfasa: “breathe” Hausa nafos “breathe” Dafo-Butura nos “breathe” Kulere lufwos “breathe” Sha *nVfVs- “blow” Agaw nefes-ëng “blow” Aungi HSED 1829: *nafar- “man” *napr- “man, group of men” Semitic nafr- “man, group of men” Arabic *nafar- “man” West Chadic naafara “man” Dafo-Butura Derived from *naf- “man, person” West Chadic na:f “man, person” Dafo-Butura na:fu “man, person” Gulfey preserve only in West Chadic. Cf. also neepe “first born child” Pero TP: anore “wind” Greenlandic anorak “wind jacket” Greenlandic EHWL ase “breath, wind, soul” Etruscan asi “inspiration, spirit, wind” Etruscan ais “god” Etruscan NS 37: *Hinx.V “breathe” Proto-Nostratic *?inV “live, life” Proto-Altaic *HwEnHV “blood; breath, soul” Sino-Caucasian *(s)-CWij “blood, breath” Sino-Tibetan hwenHV “blood” North Caucasian CAD: *asug “transvestite shaman” Proto-Hesperonesian *qanito “spirit” Proto-Austronesian *hán,es “breathe, gasp” Proto-MalayoPolynesian *hán,in “wind, air” Proto-MalayoPolynesian PMA ani “gentle breeze” Hawai'i ani-ani “blow gently” Hawai'i angi “breeze” Mangar. angi “to blow” Samoa, Tonga, Maori angi “air” Nias anin “air” Teor. anghin “air, wind” Malagasy ani-ani “spirit” Igorot ani-to “spirit” common Western Austronesian h-angin “air” Philippines h-ingin- “breath” Philippines aniangi- “to live” E. Tanna PMA es- “to live, life” Mota, Vatrata, Sasar Nume, Koro, Lakona aho-roa- “long-lived” Tuamotu aho- “breath, spirit” Hawai'i, Tahiti, Marquesas aho- “to breathe” Tuamotu ao- “breath” Rarotonga osi- “breath” Arosi PMA naren- “man” Avok naeren- “man” Axamb nrenman- “man” Maxbaxa ner-ner- “man” Mae nat-u “child, offspring” Oceanic ka-naka- “man, people” Hawai'i ta-nata- “man, people” Polynesia a-nak- “child, offspring” common Malay za-nak- “child” Malagasy nitu- “spirit” Proto-Austronesian anito- “spirit, soul, particularly spirit of deceased ancestor, god” Philippines mera- “man” Tutuba naru- “child, offspring” Nul, Fila Koara nera- “child” Lenakel nare- “child” Kwamera narmang- “person” Yimes noranan- “person” Chambr nur- “person” Murik naura- “person” N. Halmehera VMPSIE: (h)âti “heart” Malay, Javanese ati “heart” Bugis âtma(n) “soul” Sanskrit ate, aten, atine “liver” Madagascar atine cacazou “le coeur d'un arbre” Madagascar (Challan) aten atouli “moyen d'oeuf” Madagascar (Flacourt) aen “heart” Madagascar PMA atman “self, soul, intelligence, a person” Sanskrit atta “atman, conscience” Pali atamai “mind” Anutan atamai “intelligence, wisdom” Samoa atamai “skill, ability” Nanumea ataman “man, person” Vowa etmen “person” N. Tanna atmen “man” Mosina ateman “person” Mae-Morae ata “person” Ngad'a, Li'o, Sika, Solor ata “reflected image, outline, spirit” Samoa atam? “head, intelligence” Japanese aken “intelligence” Buru ata “shadow, reflection, representation of self” Nanumea aka “shadow, figure, outline” Hawai'i ako,aku “I” common Austronesian atin/akin “our/my” Philippines, Indonesia In decorations on Hallstatt artefacts, you often find images of a duck. Because of the similarity of the words, I thought this might stand for the (released) soul. Strangely enough, this simlarity exists in Austronesian too. CAD xanaxana “duck” Tsou ganagana id. Malagasy Merina gain,gwan, id. Yabem l-ainema “water hen” Mekeo aran,a “duck” Lau a?alan,a id. Kwaio iaren, id. Kwamera ãõt “wild duck” Nemi w.ôni “duck” Cèmuhî niã “wild duck” Xârâcùù n,o:n,o: “duck” Woleaian n,a: id. Eastern Fijian n,a: id. Western Fijian DSDE and “duck” Danish, Norwegian, Swedish o,nd f. id. Old Norse ant id. Middle Low German anut, anat, anit id. Old High German Ente f. id. German ænid, ened id. Old English *anuð, *anað, *anið id. Proto-Germanic an&t id. Proto-IndoEuropean anas f. , ana:tis gen. id. Latin ántis id. Lithuanian utovI acc. id. Old Rusian a:tih. “waterfowl” Sanskrit ne~:ssa f. “duck” Greek Many are feminines. Any connection with this root? WORD an-us “old (of feminine persons and things), aged” Latin or this? CELR VIII 301: *'an- “swim” East Chadic h_ny id. Egyptian cf. ECIUS 23: *g^han-, *g^hanad-, *g^hanud- Proto-IndoEuropean *ganat-, *ganut- Proto-Germanic ganazzo, ganizo, ganezo, ganzo “gander” Old High German gante id. Middle High German *g^hans- “goose” Proto-IndoEuropean loaned into d'z´ad'z´eg, d'z´az´eg id. Votyak d'z´od'z´eg id. Zyryan *z^ansi- id. Proto-Baltic loaned into *s^ans^e > hanhi id. Finnish Ducks in the other direction: PCALLE 71: gal\ge “duck” Proto-ChukchiKoryakan Almosan-Keresiouan: kelok “goose” Yurok *wa:pi- ki:la:hkwa “snow goose” Proto-Algonquian Salishan: s-kwl-kwél-c “loon; long-necked diver” Squamish Back