Note: Turner Classic Movies had a marathon showing of all of "The Whistler" movies followed by Red Skelton's "Whistling In" movie trilogy and even a Lum & Abner movieJanuary-February 2017 Sunday 1-1-17 The Frontier Gentlemen "Aces and Eights" 4/20/1958 Gunsmoke "Letter of the Law" 7/15/1956 Monday 1-2 Danny Kaye Show "Flying To DC" 1/27/1945 Burns & Allen, guest Paul Henreid, Part 1, 1/25/1944 Tuesday 1-3 Burns & Allen, guest Paul Henreid - Part 2 Crime Classics "Final Day of Gen Ketchum & How He…" 7/27/1953 Wednesday 1-4 Wild Bill Hickok "Forge Fire" 1/16/1952 Adv. of Superman "The Phony Restaurant Racket" Part 5, 1/3/1947 Thursday 1-5 Behind The Mike: Character Actors, 2/16/1941 Night Editor "Point of Honor" Friday 1-6 Mystery Is My Hobby "Blue Jay Dude Ranch" Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar "Silent Queen Matter" Pt 3, 10/31/56 Saturday 1-7 The Halls of Ivy "Audition: Gale Gordon" 6/23/1949 Jimmy Durante Show, guest Dorothy Lamour - Part 1, 4/7/1948 Sunday 1-8 Jimmy Durante Show, guest Dorothy Lamour - Part 2 Escape "Dead of Night" (Audition Show) 3/21/1947 Monday 1-9 Our Miss Brooks "Taxidermists" 6/19/1949 The Life of Riley "The Civil Servant" Part 1, 4/13/1951 Tuesday 1-10 The Life of Riley "The Civil Servant" Part 2 The Weird Circle "The Doll" 10/24/1944 Wednesday 1-11 The Third Man, 4/25/1952 "Harry Joins the Circus" Adv. of Superman 1/6/1947 "The Phony Restaurant Racket" Part 6 Thursday 1-12 Screen Director's Playhouse "She Wouldn't Say Yes" 6/2/1950 Baby Snooks "Hiccups" 1/22/1942 Friday 1-13 Gangbusters "Case of the Metropolitan Motor Mob" 7/2/1949 Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar "Silent Queen Matter" Pt 4, 11/1/56 Saturday 1-14 Kraft Music Hall, guest Dennis Day, 5/5/1949 Phil Harris & Alice Faye Show: Babysitter - Part 1, 12/12/48 Sunday 1-15 The Phil Harris & Alice Faye Show: Babysitter - Part 2 Academy Award Theatre "The Maltese Falcon" 7/3/1946 Monday 1-16 Duffys Tavern: Tonsils Out, 2/8/1946 Jack Benny Show "Nightmare Alley" Part 1, 2/8/1948 Tuesday 1-17 Jack Benny Show "Nightmare Alley" Part 2 The Line Up: Grieving Families Cheated, 7/15/1952 Wednesday 1-18 The Shadow "Murder With Music" 2/3/1946 The Adv. of Superman "Phony Restaurant Racket" Part 7, 1/7/47 Thursday 1-19 Alan Young Show: Third Try To Get A Trip To Canada, 9/11/1945 Lum 'n' Abner To Join the Army, 10/8/1942 Friday 1-20 Inner Sanctum "I Walk In The Night" 2/26/1946 Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar "Silent Queen Matter" Pt 5, 11/2/56 Saturday 1-21 Red Skelton: Town Hall Tax Meeting, 3/19/1950 Fibber McGee & Molly: Fibber Gets Drafted, Part 1, 3/18/1941 Sunday 1-22 Fibber McGee & Molly: Fibber Gets Drafted, Part 2 The Falcon "Case of the Grand Gamble" 3/13/1952 Monday 1-23 Charlie McCarthy Show, 2/11/1945 guest Dorothy Lamour Great Gildersleeve, 4/23/1947 "Joanne Meets Leila" Part 1 Tuesday 1-24 Great Gildersleeve, 4/23/1947 "Joanne Meets Leila" Part 2 The Whistler, 6/19/1949 "That Physical Fact" Wednesday 1-25 Mr. and Mrs. North, 3/2/1954 "Cross My Heart" Adv. of Superman 1/8/1947 "The Phony Restaurant Racket" Part 8 Thursday 1-26 CBS Radio Workshop "The Joe Miller Joke Book" 11/4/1956 The Couple Next Door "Ice Carnival" 1/31/1958 Friday 1-27 Nick Carter, Master Detective "Death By Ricochet" 1/21/1945 Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar "The Star of Capetown Matter" Part 1, 7/16/56 Saturday 1-28 Suspense "Return To Dust" 2/1/1959 X Minus One "The Merchant of Venus" 7/18/1957 Sunday 1-29 Frontier Gentleman "Belljoy's Prisoner" 6/8/1958 Scout About Town, guests Martin and Lewis, 8/5/1947 Monday 1-30 Burns & Allen, 9/25/1949 "George Proposes Again" Life of Riley: Riley's Mash Note At Night School, Pt 1, 12/10/44 Tuesday 1-31 Life of Riley: Riley's Mash Note At Night School - Part 2 Broadway is My Beat, 5/12/1950 "Marcia Dean" Wednesday 2-1 Have Gun, Will Travel, 9/6/59 "All That Glitters" (Treasure Hunt) Adv. of Superman, 1/9/47 "The Phony Inheritance Racket" Part 1 Thursday 2-2 Meet The Meeks: New Neighbors, 12/27/1947 Night Editor "Homecoming For Two" Friday 2-3 Mr. Keen, Tracer of Lost Persons "Country Club Murder" 4/20/1950 Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar "Star of Capetown Matter" Pt 2, 7/17/56 Saturday 2-4 A Date With Judy: Oogie Pringle & His High School Hot Licks, 11/3/49 The Bickersons: The Mink Coat - Part 1, 6/12/1951 Sunday 2-5 The Bickersons: The Mink Coat - Part 2 Barry Craig, Confidential Investigator "Blood Money" 8/24/1954 Monday 2-6 Our Miss Brooks "Poetry Mix-Up" 3/20/1949 Fibber McGee & Molly: Five Tons Of Coal, Part 1, 12/3/1940 Tuesday 2-7 Fibber McGee & Molly: Five Tons Of Coal - Part 2 Boston Blackie "The Rockwell Diamond' 6/23/1944 Wednesday 2-8 Wild Bill Hickok "Cave-In At Careful Smith's Mine" 7/1/1951 The Adv. of Superman "The Phony Inheritance Racket" Part 2, 1/12/47 Thursday 2-9 Columbia Workshop "Alice and the Echo" 12/14/1946 Baby Snooks: Christening A Ship, 10/8/1942 Friday 2-10 Murder At Midnight "The Man Who Died Yesterday" 12/2/1946 Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar "The Star of Capetown Matter" Part 3, 7/18/56 Saturday 2-11 Aldrich Family "Cross Country Race" 1/1/1940 My Friend Irma: Dinner Date - Part 1, 4/19/1948 Sunday 2-12 My Friend Irma: Dinner Date - Part 2, 4/19/1948 The Witch's Tale "The Hairy Monster" Monday 2-13 Judy Canova: Valentines Flashback To Cactus Junct, 2/9/1946 The Jack Benny Program: Dennis is Quitting, Part 1, 9/26/1954 Tuesday 2-14 The Jack Benny Program: Dennis is Quitting - Part 2 Dimension X "The Lost Race" 5/20/1950 Wednesday 2-15 The Shadow "The Caverns of Death" 9/11/1938 The Adv. of Superman "The Phony Inheritance Racket" Part 3, 1/13/47 Thursday 2-16 Duffys Tavern, guest Alan Ladd, 1/4/1946 Lum & Abner: Cedric Will Pick Up Telescope, 10/12/1942 Friday 2-17 The Third Man "Clay Pigeon" 8/17/1951 Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar "The Star of Capetown Matter" Pt 4, 7/19/56 Saturday 2-18 Mail Call: Wedding Night with Laurel & Hardy, 11/24/1943 My Favorite Husband: Liz Learns to Swim - Part 1, 6/11/1950 Sunday 2-19 My Favorite Husband: Liz Learns to Swim - Part 2 Molle Mystery Theater "Murder Without Crime" 5/3/1946 Monday 2-20 Phil Harris-Alice Faye Show: Fundraising for the March of Dimes, 1/20/52 The Great Gildersleeve: Engagement Notices - Part 1, 1/4/1950 Tuesday 2-21 The Great Gildersleeve: Engagement Notices - Part 2 The Sealed Book "The Man With The Stolen Face" 7/15/1945 Wednesday 2-22 Hopalong Cassidy "The Red Death" 4/16/1950 The Adv. of Superman "The Phony Inheritance Racket" Part 4, 1/14/1947 Thursday 2-23 CBS Radio Workshop "The Heart of Man" 8/4/1957 The Couple Next Door: Mr. Piper's Day in Court, 12/8/1958 Friday 2-24 The Falcon "Case of the Worried Champion" 9/10/1950 Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar "The Star of Capetown Matter" Part 5, 7/20/56 Saturday 2-25 A Day in the Life of Dennis Day: An Old Shipmate Visits, 6/16/1948 The Red Skelton Show: No Work on Sundays - Part 1, 12/12/1951 Sunday 2-26 The Red Skelton Show: No Work on Sundays - Part 2 Jeff Regan "There's Nothing Like A Pork Chop" 8/6/1950 Monday 2-27 Alan Young Show, 1/31/1947 "New Checking Account" Burns & Allen: George for School Board of Beverly Hills, Part 1, 5/25/43 Tuesday 2-28 Burns & Allen: George for School Board of Beverly Hills - Part 2 The Weird Circle "The Knightsbridge Mystery" 10/17/1943 Wednesday 3-1 Mr. and Mrs. North "The Last Escape" 4/1/1952 Adv. of Superman "The Phony Inheritance Racket" Part 5, 1/15/1947 Thursday 3-2 Suspense "Three O'Clock" 3/10/1949 Night Editor "The Big House on the Hill" Friday 3-3 The Adv. of Frank Race "The House Divided" 1/8/1950 Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar "The Plantagent Matter" Part 1, 3/5/56 Saturday 3-4 Gunsmoke "The Photographer" 5/6/1956 Have Gun, Will Travel "Birds of a Feather" 4/19/1959 Sunday 3-5 Lights Out "Rocket From Manhattan" 7/28/1945 Vic and Sade "Sacred Stars of the Milky Way" Monday 3-6 The Life of Riley: Riley Meets Peg, 7/24/1944 The Great Gildersleeve: Smitten By An Unknown Lady, Part 1, 11/13/46 Tuesday 3-7 The Great Gildersleeve: Smitten By An Unknown Lady - Part 2 The Whistler "Night Melody" 1/27/1947 Wednesday 3-8 Nick Carter, Master Detective "Death Goes To The Post" 3/18/1945 The Adv. of Superman "The Phony Inheritance Racket" Part 6, 1/16/47 Thursday 3-9 Behind The Mike: Weird Prospective Guest Interview, 1/5/1941 Baby Snooks: Birth of Twins, 6/11/1942 Friday 3-10 Dark Fantasy "A Delicate Case of Murder" 2/20/1942 Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar "The Plantagent Matter" Part 2, 3/6/1956 Saturday 3-11 The Charlie McCarthy Show, guest Lana Turner, 11/16/1947 Family Theater "Gentlemen be Seated" 1/12/1949 Sunday 3-12 Wild Bill Hickok "Trail Head Trouble" 9/16/1951 Frontier Fighters: Steven Austin Monday 3-13 The Jack Benny Program (Dennis Returns) St. Patrick's Day, 3/17/1946 Fibber McGee & Molly: Early Wedding Anniversary, Part 1, 3/6/1945 Tuesday 3-14 Fibber McGee & Molly: Early Golden Wedding Anniversary - Part 2 Fort Laramie "The Buffalo Hunters" 9/9/1956 Wednesday 3-15 The Shadow "The Vengeance of Angela Nolan" 6/27/1954 The Adv. of Superman "The Phony Inheritance Racket" Part 7, 1/17/47 Thursday 3-16 Our Miss Brooks "Rumors" 9/10/1950 Lum & Abner: Necessity is the Mother of Invention, 10/13/1942 Friday 3-17 Sherlock Holmes "Adv. of the Veiled Lodger" 6/20/1948 Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar "The Plantagent Matter" Part 3, 3/7/1956 Saturday 3-18 Red Skelton: The Golf Course, 6/11/1950 Phil Harris & Alice Faye Show: Red Paint on Poodle, Part 1, 1/8/50 Sunday 3-19 Phil Harris & Alice Faye Show: Red Paint on Poodle - Part 2 The Saint "The Horrible Hamburger" 9/10/1950 Monday 3-20 Academy Award Theater "My Man Godfrey" 10/2/1946 X Minus One "Open Warfare" Part 1, 1/23/1957 Tuesday 3-21 X Minus One "Open Warfare" Part 2 Mysterious Traveler "Murder In 2952" 4/29/1952 Wednesday 3-22 Frontier Gentleman "Last of Belle Siddon" 9/7/1958 The Adv. of Superman "The Phony Inheritance Racket" Part 8, 1/18/47 Thursday 2-23 Thursday 3-23 CBS Radio Workshop "Seven Hills of Rome" 6/9/1957 The Couple Next Door: Lost Coat At Restaurant, 2/3/1958 Friday 3-24 Gangbusters "Case of the Counterfeit Combine" 1/29/1949 Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar "The Plantagent Matter" Part 4, 3/8/1956 Saturday 3-25 Hopalong Cassidy "Death Paints a Picture" 6/4/1950 Frontier Fighters "General S.W. Kearney" Sunday 3-26 Father Knows Best "Income Tax" 3/9/1950 Baby Snooks: Quizzing Snooks, 4/30/1942 No further broadcasts on the Radio Spirits schedule at this time
Note: Your local radio station may forget and run a When Radio Was hour from a previous week or month
Lux Radio Theater version of Casablanca with original cast members
If clips above will not play, Click here and access the entire old time radio library as a subscriber. If you cannot hear programs because your computer does not have the latest Flash Player, you can get it free from get.Adobe.com/flashplayer
32 page American Flyer Trains by A.C. Gilbert for 1948 presented by Superman!
Fred Foy 1-hour interview (Lone Ranger, Sgt. Preston, Green Hornet)
Note: radio episodes of Chandu The Magician had no relation to the Boris Karloff movie of the same name, in which Karloff plays Chandu as a villain
Have a suggestion for a radio program you'd like to hear? Email: whenradiowas@gmail
Paul Harvey...stand by for news!
Paul Harvey delved into the forgotten or little-known facts behind stories of famous people and events. Harvey's widely known The Rest of the Story has been broadcast since 1946, similar to the weekly story segment of Bill Stern's Sports Newsreel. Substitutes when Paul was away or ill included Mort Crim (1980-84), Gil Gross, Doug Limerick and Paul Harvey, Jr. Paul Harvey 1966 broadcast (more audio on Paul Harvey page). ABC Radio Networks notified affiliates that ABC News Radio's Gil Gross and Doug Limerick will fill the three daily slots of Paul Harvey News & Rest Of The Story but it only lasted about a year after Paul Harvey's passing. Gil Gross also had a 2-hour interview program. Paul Harvey reads a letter from God
Robert L. Ripley's radio series ran from 1930 to his death in 1949. Music was provided by 1930s band leader Ozzie Nelson and vocalist Harriet Hilliard--who later became sitcom stars, believe it or not!
Peg Riley on "The Life of Riley" (ABC Radio: 1944-1945; NBC Radio: 1945-1951) was played by Paula Winslowe (1910-1996), who had previously been the voice of Bambi's mother in the Disney animated movie, and later played Mrs. Conklin in the TV version of Our Miss Brooks (1953-58) as well as reprising her (uncredited) role as Bambi's mother in Disney cartoon short No Hunting (1955)
Want to get away from it all? We offer you Escape
Turner Classic Movies is doing movies based on radio series this year including Fibber McGee, Gildersleeve, I Love A Mystery, The Whistler, Crime Doctor, etc.
Blake Edwards created Richard Diamond for radio, then later the hard-boiled private eye tv-series "Peter Gunn"
Jack Benny Show broadcasting live
Part 2 of Jack Benny broadcast
Jack sneaks onto Groucho's quiz show as a contestant
Beverly Sills died 7-2-07 from cancer complications. Beverly Sills spoofing opera on the Danny Kaye Show
Gracie Allen vs. the Tax Auditor
(he leaves in confusion) Gracie Allen was born in 1895 but her birth certificate was lost in the 1906 San Francisco Fire/Earthquake so she always gave 1906 as her birthdate
Miss a recent broadcast? You may be able to "hear it now" on your computer for up to a week after broadcast, check the archives
This is Wally Ballou reminding you to Hang by your thumbs.
I love a mystery so welcome again through the squeaking door
Note: Stan Freberg hosted "When Radio Was" for 10 years, after previous host Art Fleming passed away suddenly. His final broadcast as host was 10/6/06. The new host from then until June, 2007 was Chuck Schaden. Greg Bell, program director and host of XM Radio’s very popular old-time radio channel, "Radio Classics", has been named as the new host. Chuck Schaden has interviewed some of the radio stars (recorded in the 1970s, see broadcast archive).
Superman 1950s TV intro, now a major motion picture
See banner below for the two radio episodes available to hear today online
The Shadow: Greatest Radio Adventures is available (40 episodes, 20 hours), episode list on Shadow page 2
Also - The Shadow: The Lost Shows (no episode title list available) and The Shadow 3-Hour Collection (18 episodes), plus other Old Time Radio series on tape or CD produced by Radio Spirits in association with the Smithsonian
Jimmy Stewart's The Six Shooter only lasted one season (he wouldn't accept a tobacco company as sponsor), and he made the Hitchcock movie "Rear Window" the same year.
Walter B. Gibson co-created and wrote the Shadow novels. When he left The Shadow magazine after asking for more money, he became head script writer for radio's Nick Carter, Master Detective for awhile.
X Minus One/Dimension X had no big-name guest stars because most of the weekly budgets were used to purchase broadcast rights to the latest sci-fi stories
Morton Downey "The Irish Nightingale" was a popular singer on 1930s radio (and TV host of 1950s Star Of The Family), heard alternate nights on a 5-day a week radio broadcast from his New York nightclub. His son Morton Downey, Jr., went instead into talk radio with a spoof of bombastic Wally George on a California radio station - when he left radio in 1988 to do a TV-version of his show, the Sacramento station replaced him with someone named Rush Limbaugh.
Print version of this page (no background or graphics) for months of:
January-April...May-July... August-October...November-December 2010
December 2002...November...October...August-September...July...June...May...March-April...February...January 2002 (with organ music background) or January 2002 (silent)
December...November 2001, or here for Previous Months before that
Note: in 1943, NBC sold its Blue network, creating the American Broadcasting System (the name was changed to American Broadcasting Company the following year). The Columbia Broadcasting System promptly dropped the call letters of its New York radio station WABC (which ABC snatched up)
Jack Benny vs. the Floor Walker (Frank Nelson)
For those interested in more trivia facts about radio drama, we suggest the book, "On The Air: An Encyclopedia Of Old Time Radio," by John Dunning. The publisher is Oxford Press. It is one of the many books used in radio drama research.
These programs are made available by a guy who's nuts about old time radio and a retired CBS executive: More
1 large roast beef
Possible alternate webcast available:
All programs heard are supplied by & available from Radio Spirits.
The show titles shown on this banner are for a nationally-syndicated version of this program with different radio shows 7 days a week.
Click here for the When Radio Was upcoming national schedule courtesy RadioSpirits
Radio classics are also available on XM and Sirius Satellite Radio
Carl also produces the Twilight Zone radio series based on TV's Twilight Zone
Back to Monstervision.org or ScifansEmail: scifanscom
Ripley's is back on cable TV, believe it or not
Click here to stop the background music from Keytrax. More music from Keytrax
Gracie Allen's Roast Beef Recipe
1 small roast beef
Take the 2 roasts and put them in the oven. Turn oven on. When the little one burns, the big one is done.
In addition to starring in both the radio & TV versions of "Life With Luigi" J. Carrol Naish portrayed Dr. Daka, the first villain to go up against Batman on the silver screen, in "The Batman" (1943 serial). He also appeared in two episodes of Lux Theater after it moved to TV
Life Of Riley was originally co-created by Gummo Marx for his brother Groucho as The Flotsam Family. But the sponsor saw William Bendix in a 1942 movie and cast him instead.
Marcus Brace Beemer (born in 1903) and John Todd (born as Fred McCarthy in 1877) played The Lone Ranger & Tonto on radio. They also both had to lie about their age to serve (separately) in WW1. Beemer was too young (15) to enlist and Todd too old (30). The War Department says Beemer was the youngest U.S. serviceman in WW1; he was wounded while serving in France. By the way, Arthur Godfrey was almost killed in an auto accident in the 1930s, yet learned to walk and fly his own plane. When he was turned down for WW2 enlistment as a Navy flier due to the old injury, he asked friend FDR for help. The President told an Admiral to accept Godfrey since he couldn't walk at all yet was serving as Commander in Chief!
The greeting "How" may not be a Hollywood invention. There is an actual Indian greeting which sounds similar "A-Hau," which means Peace be with you or All is well. The first Texas Rangers used muzzle-loading single-shot rifles. But their first hand guns were actually a 5-shot revolver, not a 6-gun!
Jack Benny was born on Valentine's Day, and Robert L. Ripley was born on Christmas Day, believe it or not! In 1974, Jack Benny & George Burns were cast in The Sunshine Boys but George became ill and was replaced by Walter Matthau, then George got better and Jack suddenly died.
In the 1930s, comic strip Terry & the Pirates had many storylines in which Japan (changed to "the invaders" by nervous newspaper editors) attacked China and then Pearl Harbor. This storyline was also adapted for the radio series Captain Midnight, also before the real attack on Pearl Harbor! Fran Stryker wrote the life output of Shakespeare every 15 weeks: How he did it
NBC/GE chimes were G-E-C musical notes, for General Electric Co. NBC's special alert 4 chimes was used for Hindenberg crash, Pearl Harbor, and WW2 bulletins
When a pitcher, catcher & umpire get into an argument, it's called a "rhubarb." This term dates back to live radio drama when angry crowds would be represented by 5 or 6 actors saying "rhubarb" over and over. Nick Carter, Master Detective predated Sherlock Holmes by a couple of months--the American detective appeared in his own Street & Smith magazine just before the first Holmes appearance in Strand Magazine. Walter B. Gibson, co-creator of The Shadow in print, wrote for radio's Nick Carter during WW2.
Countdown to blast-off X-5,4,3,2,X-1...Fire
It's Sunday night and time for Edgar Bergen & Charlie McCarthy
Who is it? The Fatman or The Falcon...The Green Hornet strikes again
The Shadow knows (old radio script)
The Jack Benny Program, There's always room for Jello...Sold: American!
Welcome to the Hermit's Cave...Duffy ain't here
Welcome to the Black Museum (Orson Welles) That was the end of Harry Lime
I'm the first person they look for and the last they want to meet (Gunsmoke, TV version can be seen on Encore Westerns)
Henry? Henry Aldrich...Hi ya, Baldy...Up, Up and away!
I carry a badge. Hi-Ho Silver. I am The Whistler. Yes King, this case is closed. A tale calculated to keep you in Suspense!
Join the new 1940 Flight Patrol with Captain Midnight. Flash! Ethiopia surrenders to Mussolini
Turn your lights out, everybody. If you are easily frightened, turn your radio off now.
It is I, Digby Odell, the friendly undertaker By golly, I believe that's our ring...don't open that closet. Heavenly days!
Mr. Keen, tracer of lost persons. How do you do? Yours truly, Johnny Dollar. This is your FBI
Suspense radio series history on Wikipedia
Who're you gonna vote for?
I wonder what The Lone Ranger would sound like in Jamaica
There was even a radio version of Doc Savage By Lester Dent
Lester Dent bio on YouTube
Or click here to join Raymond in the Inner Sanctum
Prefer comedy? Check out 1940s radio's Spike Jones Show on YouTube
(guests include Groucho Marx, Peter Lorre, Basil Rathbone & Boris Karloff)
CBS Radio Theater (these are big MP3 audio links so save it to your computer or ipod if you are on a slow dialup) series by Hyman Brown, creator of the original Inner Snctum radio series
Some of the above clips are from archive.org/details/oldtimeradio
Frothingslosh is brought to you by the news
Harry Shearer's LeShow, a little news, a little music, a little satire
Previous Paul Harvey website
© Bill Laidlaw. All rights reserved. That was the President of the U.S., Hoobert Heever. The bees know