8) Counterintelligence & counterespionage:
Counterintelligence is broader concept deals with acting against the foreign intelligence and protecting their own information
Counterespionage operations involve the penetration of the enemies’ intelligence services.
It is interested in:
i) The original home center of the enemies' organization in their country, it is very hard to penetrate but it could happen, here the situation is very hard and the pieces of information will be really true.
ii) The individuals work under legal cover like those who work in their embassy. It has the advantage that if the counter intelligence discovered his activity, he will be rejected out of the country but couldn't be arrested. The secret service agent can take any position in the embassy even cleaning man. Here the awareness of the counter intelligence men that takes surveillance over the embassy members to discover the one who work at intelligence activity. Any new member must be followed for some time to ensure that he doesn't work at secret activities. But the agent might not work for sometime till he gains free movement. But also the counter intelligence men can follow him after sometime as his caution will be less or he could have started his underground activity. The counter intelligence men could let him work under their eyes but if his communications and activity increases to an extend that can't be controlled, they can request his rejection without any big political problems except in some cases it seemed like a race between Washington or London& Moscow in dismissing the diplomacy employees due to the involvement in intelligence activities even if they are not!! It is a matter of pride!!
In the embassy, may be other agent who is dormant and take the action at this point or his country waits for a good time to send new employees.
Note: 1) Now the intelligence organizations may not be restricted to certain specifications at work. For example: the agent must not be a drunken man, must control his women relationships and keep him self from any police arousing situations, so the organization can use a drunken man, knows a lot of women everyday and spend his nights at night clubs and he may quarrel will others there. This really happened with a very smart planning from some Mossad officer who control one who work in foreign country's embassy and as a known cycle of that country he will work someday at Arabian country, so they take control of him and they wait until he is transmitted to work in Egypt they took control of him to work for them. And when the Egyptian counter intelligence officer followed him, of course he found him unqualified to be an agent but he was efficient enough and smart to put him under surveillance at next time and got all the truth that what gives the game its joy wit Vs wit, you will not want to fight some naive, the good enemy is the one that will obligate you to improve your performance. So we must say here that you must take great caution about the unqualified persons as they could turn to be new type of agents who is readily pass from the filter and take more caution about the perfect guys without mistakes, they must arouse suspicion more than any others, many spies are caught because they were ideal although they were out of any slight suspicion during checking the persons to know from where the pieces of information leak.
2) In case of foreign suspected individuals present in any country, the counter intelligence has the right to inspect his room to make sure of him, in this situation the soviet intelligence made a way to deceive them by what is called secret exhibition, the agent leaves some items from the country he was supposed to be from (say England) like wrinkled bus ticket within London, letters that came to his address in London and so on.
iii) The support agents: agents all their rule is support the cover of the other action agents (actual); they can give useful pieces of information to the enemy.
iiii) The double agents are very useful in counter intelligence like:
a) The person can pretend that he agreed to cooperate with the enemy's but he in quit silence go to his county's intelligence agency where he is directed to continue acting on the enemy (if the person is qualified to do this and he agrees) in order to know their ways or passing certain pieces of information to the enemy to deceive them, they may pass true known facts to the enemy mixed with false ones.
b) The enemy can push someone to go to his country's intelligence agency and says that the enemy wants him to cooperate with them -but he really works with the enemy at this moment!- this is done by the enemy to know the ways of the other secret service in dealing with the double agents, know more and as usual deceive them with false information.
c) In a foreign country, someone can go to the enemy's embassy and offers himself to work for them for money or something as a source of information, in this case he could be a bait pushed by the counterintelligence to know the agents of the enemy in the country that he must communicate with them if he becomes their man. But first they must trust him and all his reasons and motives must be cleared. These situations cause fear of deception which leads to lose true good agents as a result of this fear of deception. Really the counter intelligence can make accurate bait that even the most experienced eyes can't pick it as it is weaved as a natural details, you see logical natural response and reasonable causes how can you know if he is real true person or well trained agent, of course you will make tests on him but if he is clever enough he will pass it.
Some activities of counter intelligence already discussed:
--Intercepting letters during wartime.
--Direction finder instruments, combined detectors in one device to monitor different radio shortwave infrared, wireless bugs or cameras or videos transmission waves.
--Now a days the computers entered the game, even there is countries restrict the use of the internet in order to prevent secrets from being transmitted that way others try to make directories of their peoples E-mails so they can watch over it or even make log fills of every chatting you do to be reviewed but of course there is very advanced procedures we don't know any thing about it, the sciences in the intelligence field advanced than ours by may be years.
Note: Detection - Chemicals:
It is used to reveal a possible spy. The chemical powder which is invisible is dusted on certain objects or doors or pieces of furniture. They react when touched by human skin and become visible under ultraviolet light and it could persist for 48 hours even if the person took a shower.
=Here we must mention the great book [SPY CATCHER] by [PETER WRIGHT] which deals with different scientific & technical problems they encountered in their work in MI5 & the case of Kim Philby, Maclean, DeMoncy Burgess & Anthony Blunt.
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