2) The secret service agent training:
There are many schools in new agents training but the most important is the German means of training as various great countries used many means of it.
Baden Baden School:
It applied a very strict firm military system; any agent joins it, becomes just a number or a code name, he must forget anything about his previous life & never talk about it. They live in special houses in small rooms, takes a little money, the classes start early at 8 o'clock till a late hours of night.
b) They were learning reading & drawing maps, using the invisible inks, ciphers but the most important part is the security procedures.
The students had to put a mask on their faces during the presence in the institute forum and when they are dismissed at the end of the day the go in couples with time difference 3 minutes between each couple so that they didn't know where the others live.
Miss Schargmuller at about the First World War organized a school to train spies and produces skilled specialized agents, applying her opinions and till now many schools uses her ways in their modern intelligence schools.
The students come to the school in screened cars. Ms. Schargmuller led each student to his place, which is well furnished, contains small library, some maps, studying books and some entertainment stuff.
The place was locked on him from outside, only the door was opened to enter the food only, he spend one week like this, under strict surveillance through double mirror to know his interest direction and test his loneliness tolerance.
After this week, the specialists start to come to him one after another to teach him things he will use during his work, like the language of the country he will work in and its accent, invisible ink, cipher, wireless communications, radio, military planes & ships types, military gowns & branches, taking photos and all what he will encounter during his job.
e) At last he must be tested to prove what he gained from what he studied or read in his room books and that he really can begin working.
Some notes from Miss Schargmuller's reference books:
1-When you search for a place to stay in; you must take in consideration your escaping ways like floor or building have more than 1 entrance.
2-Don't ever talk with your native language in foreign countries or show that you know other languages to make people speak freely infront of you.
3-Always be sure that you are not followed, and when you want to meet someone who is a source of information, do this in a place far from his or your places and make him come through indirect ways and preferred at night.
4-During getting information from someone, listen normally and not ask or show your interest in certain subject you want to know about.
5-The new pieces of information you gather must not be written under any circumstances and if you have to you must write it as innocent items like some financial calculations or something but counter-intelligence usually put this in mind and so many spies get into dangerous or deadful situations because of this (a spy know some pieces of information about certain type of planes. Because he is not specialized in planes, he write the pieces of information, not to forget it, then he sleep with some woman that inspected his clothes when he slept & he was arrested.
6-When you burn some paper it could be read if it is consistent enough under microscope, so you must convert it to ash dust, also cutting papers isn't safe enough & used carbon papers.
7-Don't accept anything as it is or accept a by chance relation as really by chance, you must evaluate every event happened and its normality in life, as suspicion will not hurt even the person is innocent but if he isn’t, it could be dangerous.
make a friendship with the women you trust in (don't panic, just if you are a
spy or agent!!)& don't drink a lot till you lose your consciousness.
*It is very important part because the agent must evaluate people he dealing with and their properties correctly and can predict their responses against certain reactions.
*In the other hand, he himself must react naturally to all life events, becomes happy in the situations needs so, angry in another in order not to arouse any suspicion.
*It helps the agent to control his mind when he is arrested because he may feel panic then he can't withstand any possible torture, so he must control himself, the time before torture is the most critical time as the spy doesn't know if he could tolerate the physical torture or not, but once he withstand the torture for some hours, he tried himself that he can do it and after certain hours he becomes careless and doesn't feel any pain, so in the other times he can set himself to be in the state of not feeling pain.
*Torture is not a good way of getting confession because any innocent man can confess about anything he didn't really make to escape the moment's pains and the well trained spy who has much mind power for self possession under this state can tell a prepared confession as a proof of cooperation and gain further benefits. Other means are used like psychological means, ways of interrogations & well proven evidences but we can't deny that it is important in some cases that time is a critical factor.
Now let's see the basics training in Mossad as Ostrovsky mentions in his book
BY THE WAY OF DECEPTION:
The basic thing was that the trainees are going to learn from a currently working officers not a full time training officers, everything must be practically demonstrated so they acquire the memory & the updated experiences of the in duty officers who just cut some of his work time to the trainees. So he treats his trainee as a partner who will bear the responsibility after them. I think that this is a very good system as the trainee acquire years of experience in a short time so in the working field it is the time for progress & creativity.
They spent the first months dealing with about 4 basic topics which are:
How to write a report, as all the reports must be written by one definite system. They gave them a large number of newspapers with square marked news & they specify a topic for everyone to write a report about.
2) Personal security & the intelligence operation's security: as this lecture begins, the door opened with a bang, two men get in one holds a gun & the other holds cannon. They shot the lecturer & one of the candidate officers that they fell in their bloods. In few moments the 2 guys got into a car & left quickly. The candidates were in great shock of what had just happened. The lecturer standup & said
"Now I was shot, can you describe who killed me & remember the number of bullets shot on me & any informations can help tracking the killers"
The lecturer got out to get the killers, the candidates' descriptions were very different of that of the killers! But even they didn't recognize them.
#Also they learned how to follow somebody in groups then by themselves & how to take suitable places & where to hide. They learned how to measure the distance somebody takes in definite time so that when somebody disappeared after some corner, you know if he entered a building so you have to wait for him or he continued to the next corner.
#Also they learned how to know if they are followed by making procedures called "the way routines"
They have to make their way on the map, go to their destination by indirect way, taking in consideration the places where they can stop without arousing suspicion & they can watch the way from which they came without being detected to see who is following him if any (in his way he can enter the building of the dentist in the third floor & look from the window to check if anyone has followed him).
So they specify points to the candidate officers to move from to specific other point & the candidate has to tell if anyone had followed him or not & who & when & why he has been sure that he was followed or not followed (nothing for the chance).They give the report at the next morning & it is very important to inform the candidate if he was really followed or not.
They were told that their houses are safe houses & the Mossad academy is the station so they have to be sure that no one is following them.
#Now if he is getting out of a hotel & he is followed by a group then he'll be surrounded by the followers so he must walk straight for 5 minutes to deceive his followers then he goes to a building through indirect way & enters it. Then he watch his followers rearrange themselves then he take the bus to other part of the town to break any possibility of chance & repeat what he has done but slowly to make sure that they don't miss him (missing him is the last thing the officer wants as if they missed him how can he be sure that they was following him). When he gets sure that they are following him he must change his plans (he can even go to the cinema) & stop all his activity & if he is working in other country this may cause their intelligence station to stop its activity for month or two to know who & why he was followed, no kidding in this matters!
3) The general military stuff: from the tanks, the air forces & the navy & the bases building. The neighbor countries & their political, religious & social skeleton.
4) The cover: [it is different for the officer & the spy] [also see this section] they learned about various cities from the files in the library & learned how to talk about a certain city as if you have spent all your life there. They also learned how to build a personality & how to acquire new career in one day. Also they learned how to eat & choose from the actual menus from the best restaurants in the world. This part involved a meeting with experienced information gathering officers who examine their covering stories.
The most important note here is that the person must not mention a lot of informations quickly than that supposed to be.
Everyone had to tell his covering story infront of a camera so the other candidates can see him. Then the candidate officers must criticize him, they even may rewind the tape to proof some stupid point, it is inhuman awful criticizing, everyone wants to catch the others faults!
They perform this training 2 or 3 times a week. During this test, suddenly the teacher behind him could ask him about his name, or other small question to test his observation and attention.
@In one corner was a TV shows a tapes from Canadian, American ,Britannia & European TV stations so they can know the a program & from where it is just from its melody & also can talk about it.
The Second stage of training
1] They have acquired reasonable knowledge to make practical exercises. They make a meeting with a candidate agent & everyone was tested for about hour & half after the meeting. He was asked about every little act he made (did he make enough traps? why he ask the candidate agent this question & why this question exactly? why he told him that his suite is nice, generally everything is questioned) the other candidate officers saw him also to enjoy criticizing him as usual. Here the embarrassing mistake is nothing but in the real world it is deadly & they wanted to be in the real world, I think this is best way for training.
2] Shooting guns: they receive a gun from the second month of training. They trained to shoot in restaurants, fall backward with the chair during drawing & shooting the gun under the table or threw it with his leg infront of him, all of this in one movement. Also in the hotel, at any time a wood skeleton can get out of a door in the pass or might not, so they learned how to throw anything in their hands & shoot their guns fast...
3] Documentation: passports, IDs, Credit cards, car driving licenses & all this stuff.
The most important issue was passports; there are 4 types of passports:
a) High standard passports: it contains a covering story & a person who can proof the cover & it can withstand official investigation in the original country.
b) Second class passports: it is really a complete passport but not depend on real persons but it is for the Mossad officers depending on their own covering stories.
c) Field operations passports: used for quick work in other country but not used in getting out of the boarders.
d) Temporarily passports: it is found or stolen passports only used when the passport is needed very quickly; they just change the photo or the name. It can't stand against accurate examination.
i)For every passport there is a folded paper tells the name & diagram of the part of the city includes the address in the passport & a map & a photo to the house of the address with a description of the surrounding so he won't uncovered easily if anyone knows the place meets him.
ii) Every temporarily passport contain also where this passport was used so if it was used in certain Hotel you must not use it there. And also he must have a story for every visa in the passport.
iii) They favors the Canadian passports in Mossad, even a short time ago I heard that Mossad stolen a large number of Canadian passports (about 150) that makes the Canadian authority got mad!! Also Mossad is very proud about their accurate forged passports with true dates and even the real officer who was in duty at the exact time?!!
4]Then they started the Islam lectures for better understanding for their victims, what is forbidden & what is allowed. They had 1 or 2 hours lecture a day continued for 2 months.
5] They studied about the carrier between the safe houses & the embassy. He basically concerned with the intelligence operations security & he makes sure that everything about the safe houses is OK from the renting money to the food in the refrigerator. This is his basic duty & he takes money only for so that at any circumstances it's ready.
6] Leaving & taking thing between the officer & his agent. The first rule that they must not exchange closed cases between them because it could be trapped with a bomb. Leaving the thing must take the least time, the thing must not attract anyone's attention during placing & taking it from the dead drop & the place must be explained in the simplest way.
7] They were taken to a hotel(each one had his passport & cover)and was asked to make a conversation with certain person & extract maximum information about him & took an appointment with him. The way of initiating the communication must be in the simplest way. This person might be ordinary person or imposed one. As usual they have to write all the conversations & what happened in a detailed report.
8] The first half an hour of the morning, they had to make a detailed resolution about recent news subjects & they were obligated to read the newspapers everyday because in their complicated trainings they became isolated from the world which is really deadly for them!! Because they must be able to chat in any subject.
9] They learned how to instruct an agent who will be sent to the target country.
10] They learned about the secret communications (receiving & transmitting) by radio & the other various ways of communication with the agent.
They have to practice all they have learned continuously in order to master it so their days became too busy & full...
The Third & final stage, it concerned the following:
1] Communication officers: they are the officers responsible for giving & getting informations with other intelligence organization (like Mossad & CIA). You can call it secret channel or contact & it gives continues contact between countries regardless the political situations. The officer informs the other organization's officer with the informations his bosses wanted him to deliver & the other organization officer does so. But they learned that the personal relations & friendship with the other's comm. Officer are very important as the comm. Officer of the other organization could tell him very important information in the personal level because the other knows that he won't reveal the secret or hurt him. This kind of informations is very important that it is called JUMBO. For this purpose the communication officer may be changed several times till they got the one who match with the other's comm. Officer! The Mossad's officer could tell untrue JUMBO information but never tell true info to his friend-the communication officer-
They learned that when they are with a friend, they are not with a friend...
2] Knowing if they are followed with a car & they must be sure that they are not followed while they are going to their Mossad School.
3] The Supports: who are not Israelians but Jewish, they are thousands allover the world & could do various missions like: one manage an agency for renting cars can rent a car for Mossad without completing the ordinary documents, others could rent them apartments without arousing any suspicion, other who work in a bank can manage getting money in the middle of the night & others are doctors who could treat a bullet wound without informing the police. Every country not only Israel do this.
The other advantage of the supports or the assistants that they are used to support the cover stories, as the support can ensure that the officer or the agent was really working in his company & he even could supply him with large quantity of goods to proof the officer's profession in some mission. There are address supports & telephone supports, so if the officer is working in Europe, his work address must be away may be in North America where there are address & phone supports knows what to say if someone asked about the officer or the agent!
Besides, Mossad really has a large amount of companies act as cover & there are a large amount of fake companies with their documents ready to initiate its activity at any time serving as a cover…
4] Israel doesn't have intelligence stations in distinct target countries (Arabian), because most of (–us-) the Arabs don't produce their weapons by themselves but they bring it from America or Europe & also the training on these weapons held in foreign countries where they can recruit the targets more safely. So if they want information about Saudi Arabia's weapon, they can get the information from the original country from where the weapon was taken as they get more information than if they spy on Saudi Arabia! Or any other Arabian country. For this reason we have to distinguish between the White & Black agents:
White agents: are any non Arabian agents, they are safer & the white agents usually have more technological information than the Arabs.
Black agents: they are the Arabian agents, they are mostly recruited in foreign country (like European countries) & it is very dangerous for both the Mossad officer & the Arabian agent because the Arabian could be followed by some Arabian intelligence service. Also the Arab agents are very important in the first steps of recruiting the new Arabians (acts as mediator) in the foreign countries as they are longing for anyone who are talking Arabic & can talk with him in this cold cruel foreign country.
(My comment: Recruiting is a very creative art depending on psychological forcing of the target in certain way till a moment the target is completely prepared to do anything, here he(she) enters the trap by himself(herself) & believe me no matter what you are, you will fall but the point is –you will inform your country's secret service with your obvious suspicion or you will continue the betraying road by yourself?!)
5] The Recruiting Details: As we mentioned usually an Arabian act as a mediator between the Mossad & the Arabian target.
Everything in the recruiting process must come in a natural sequence, let's see this example:
First they must have details about the target plans for that night that he will be in certain Parisian restaurant. The Mossad's officer (in this example called Gel) sits near the target & the Arabian mediator sits near the bar. Then the mediator acts as if he noticed Gel then they start to talk in Arabic! & of course after short time the target must enter the conversation! They guide the conversation for his sake as they know everything about his background. Gel may ask the mediator "Will you gonna meet your girlfriend afterward?" "Yes, she will bring her friend with her, why don't you come with me to take our freedom?" "Sorry, I'm busy"
Here it is very possible that the target will say that he could come as he is not busy & enter the first step in his recruiting!!
6] The candidate officers could be arrested by the secret department in the Tel-Aviv Police as a mutual training with the Mossad, it is really like a competition between them so the candidate officers learned to take care from being followed & if they are arrested they must talk & tell anything to avoid being hit by the secret police, who hit really hard that some Mossad candidates really hurt (they slapped & hit one's head to the wall that he got a cracked head?!!)
Now they ended their training and graduated. They divided into 3 groups each one hired for different department in Tel-Aviv as trainee officers:
1] They had missions within Tel-Aviv to practice all they had learned from securing their home, hiding the documents & secret operations security. They have to plan for their missions & implement it with the aid of the support of Mossad to their covers. After doing these missions they had the graduation party.
2] Now they not became full Mossad officers but they also are not trainees! They had to spend one year moving from one circle within the Mossad to another in order to know how the work is going in different departments as a preparation for their last course.
3] The last course was the intelligence officers' course:
i) They took an intense course about the international commercial activity, management, stocks, contracts & all they need to know to use companies as a cover and it took 2 hours every week.
ii) Also exercises on how to manage & direct the agents in the very details & how to get rid of him if (assassin him of course) by himself (if there is no external assistance) and how to make it appears as an accident.
iii) Their weekly sports changed as they had to run up & down over graded
stairs while shooting live ammos & they were shot with cannons releasing wooden bullets. The idea of this excise was the body fitness, learn how to avoid being shot, shooting & generally get used to the weapon.
iiii) They watched a video produced by Mossad about the assassination of Kennedy with detailed study about it.
iiiii) Somebody who participated in the assassination of the manager of the Palestinian liberty organization in Athena & his assistant, told them about this assassin operation how they planned & the details of implementing it.
iiiii) They attended intense course in the art of photography, how to make photos from the raw films, the different types of cameras & lenses.(OSTROVSKY invented a method to keep the distance constant between the camera & the document using ordinary books as we mentioned before)
iiiiii) As they mostly work in hotels, they spent sometime talking with hotels' security officers to know their opinions & how to avoid the things that attract their attention (say you were talking in your room then the room service entered & so you stopped talking, this could arouse suspicion that the room service could inform the security that there is something unusual, they just has to continue talking naturally without any different.
iiiiiii) They attended lectures about the European police of every country separately, their organization & each one's strength & weak points.
iiiiiiii) They visited the nuclear reactor of Dimona & lastly they learned the international communication system.
Now they were ready for the final exam & within two weeks, they will be real officers!!
They had their field training or lets say exam(real one):
they had to take bag of some agent's car infront of the hotel & copy its
documents in a room in the hotel then remove the finger prints & get the small
bag into its original place as if there is nothing(one of them talked with the
target agent till copying the documents & they dismissed the doorman for while
by a little trick from OSTROVSKY(who
is really talented in this field) then OSTROVSKY had his own missions:
a) He had to contact specific diplomacy man from Britannia in Tel-Aviv (they suspect that he is a spy), just contact & left the door open for future contact...
b) The second mission was to contact a man from the Palestinian liberty organization as they want to know more about him & they became friends!
c) They took him to a building in Tel-Aviv and asked him to make a chat with a guest at this moment in the third floor within 20 minutes... & he made it.
Lastly he became officer in the center inside Israel & he was going to be a recruiting officer in Belgium (great honor)
VICTOR OSTROVSKY's book is the best book I ever read, I just wrote here parts & the ideas but his writing style in the original book & some bad things about Mossad that this is not its place as we must be objective enough to understand not to concentrate on criticizing the Mossad because they are enemies. It is not shame to learn from your enemy & know about him but the shame is in wasting your time in useless emotions of hatred & bias.