`  Cipher & codes  `
```1)Substitution Methods
2)Vigenere Cipher
3)Playfair Types
4)Bifid & Trifid methods
5)Columnar Transposition
6)Codes
7)Rail Fence Cipher
8)Some Other Used Ways
1)Substitution of letters by:
a)Symbols: each letter is substituted with a letter or symbol or number.
Letter:   a   b    c   d   e   f   g   h   i    j    k   l   m   n   o   p   q    r   s   t   u   v    w    x    y     z
Subs.:    8  %   j    )   k  4  +   \$   g   5   d   9    !    d   #  r    2   i    =   f   7  *    h    6    @   c
MSG: I    will      return    tomorrow.
Subs: g    hg99   ikf7id     f#!#ii#h           (easy isn't it??)
so when your friend got the message , he(she) rewrite it with the substitution.
b)Julius Caesar sub.: each letter is substituted with the letter next to it or few letters later.
Letter:   a    b    c    d    e    f    g     h     i      j      k      l      m     n    o     p    q    r    s    t      u    v     w    x    y    z
Subs.:    D   E    F   G    H   I    J     K    L    M     N     O     P     Q   R   S    T   U   V   W    X   Y    Z    A   B   C
MSG:      the         mission          is           done
Subs:     WKH    PLVVLRQ     LV          GRQH
but for the security we group letters in units of 5 or more units because known letters like e & words like is, are, the,... make
it easier to break the cipher so let?s see the last example:
Subs:    WKHPL VVLRQ  LVGRQ  H
the last unit isn't full , you can insert any letters for better security
Subs:     WKHPL VVLRQ  LVGRQ  HSJBR
so when your friend got the message ,he rewrites it in the original form and read every meaningful word regardless the spaces present
using reversed form of the cipher substitution(decipher)
Letter:    A   B   C   D   E    F    G   H    I    J      K    L    M    N    O     P     Q    R    S     T   U   V   W   X    Y     Z
Subs.:      x    y    z    a    b    c     d    e    f     g      h    i      j      k     l      m     n     o     p     q    r    s    t      u     v     w
MSG:  themi ssion  isdon  epgyo   (you see pgyo is meaningless)
the mission is done
Another forms:
i)Julius Caesar with a keyword: here you start the subs. letters with a known word between you and your friend
Let?s choose keyword (JULIUSCAESAR)
first : we remove the repeated letters so it will be (JULISCAER)
second : start the subs. letters with the keyword
third : complete the substitution with the rest of letters in order which is not present in the keyword(lets see)
Letter:a    b    c    d    e    f    g     h     i      j      k     l      m     n      o       p      q      r      s      t      u     v      w     x     y    z
Subs.: J    U    L    I    S    C   A    E    R    B     D    F     G     H     K      M     N     O     P     Q    T    V    W    X    Y   Z
here we observe that the last letters really match each other so we reverse the last matched letters with taking 1 or 2  previous letters.
Letter:a    b    c    d    e    f    g     h     i      j      k      l      m     n     o      p      q      r      s      t      u     v      w     x     y    z
Subs.:J    U    L    I    S    C   A    E    R    B     D     F     G     H    K     M     N     O     P     Q     Z    Y     X    W   V    T
ii)Equivalent letters substitution: 2 letters are equivalent to each other.
A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M		EXAMPLE:  how   are    you
Z   Y   X   W  V  U   T   S   R  Q  P    O   N			 SLD   ZIV   BLF
or
A   B   C   D   E    F   G   H   I   J    K   L   M
N   O   P    Q   R   S   T   U  V  W  X   Y    Z
or
A   B   C   D   E      L   M  N       F      S   T    U   V
K    J    I    H   G     R   Q   P     O      Z   Y   X   W
you can use any combination as you agreed with your  friend.
Break substituted message:
The principle is that knowing the most frequent letters used in the
language & substitute the frequent used letters in the message
with it and try to find a known word then substitute with other letter
has the same frequency.
1)The most frequent letters in English : E then T then A then O then N almost equals I
then S then H,R,D,L(may slightly differ from text to other),rare letters may represent
X or J or Q or Z
2)you get the most frequent letters in message: say W ,G,H equal number as K,C
3)you can get E & T substitution mostly but the next frequent letters you have to try &
guess till you find good meaningful words, its like Scrabble somehow.(so W may represent E & G may represent T)
Note: so even if you substitute the letters with graphs, only you and your friend know can be
broken as it is a matter of statistics & try &some guess .
2)Vigenere cipher:
Here you have large no.s of substitutions for every letter but if anyone has this table can use it also to decipher your message so you
can randomize each alphabet in every row & you keep copy & your friend keep typical copy of it so you can use it safely.
Example: M could be AM or OY or HF or ........................```
```
3)Playfair types:
a)Simple playfair: it consists of  5 by 5 table and
i) removing one letter may be QU represented as KW or
ii) 1 letter represent 2 letters as U&V,I&J, we use U or V to represent both U&V
so the 25 cell table can represent the alphabet
1   2   3   4   5
1  W G  R   E   V
2   K  U  A  H   D
3   P  C  X   L  Y	Here we substitute every 2 letters with other 2 from the table as follow
4   T  O   I   B  S
5   F  N  M  J   Z
There are three cases:
1]The 2 letters aren't in the same row or column, we substitute as example:
W--------------> E     V       How:1)make triangle with your eye between the 2 letters
|     U       A      |      D	            2)subs. every letter with the letter at the corner of the
|     C       X      |      Y	                triangle at the moving clockwise to it.
T < ------------- B     S          Examples: WB becomes ET
F     N      M      J     Z         	     UX becomes AC
EF becomes  JW
2]The 2 letters at the same row:
W    G     R     E    V      How:1)each letter becomes as the next letter to the right.
K-->U     A    H-->D         Examples: KH becomes UD
P      C    X     L    Y                             WG becomes GR
--->T      O-->I      B    S---                          NJ becomes  MZ
F      N    M     J     Z              2)if the letter is at the end of the row, you recycle to
the first letter  of the same row
Examples: OS becomes IT
RV becomes EW
3] The 2 letters at the same column:
W     G     R     E     V        How: 1) each letter becomes as the letter under it
K      U     A    H      D            Examples: UO becomes CN
P      C     X     L     Y                               VS becomes  DZ
T      O     I      B     S                  2) if the letter is at the end of the column, you recycle to
F      N     M    J      Z	                 the first letter of the same column
Examples: RM becomes AR
PF becomes  TW
4] Special case :if you want to use the same letter twice:
How: the letter becomes the letter under & to the right of the letter
Example: UU becomes XX
OO becomes MM
or  insert a  pre-agreed letter between the 2 same letters so each of the same letter
becomes with other letter &  processed as usual.
b)4 square playfair:
i)has improved security as the letter is redirected to another square.
ii)solve the problem of using double same letters.
iii)here only the first rule is applied as we take letters from different squares.

Notes:1)you may use a keyword as
previously used ,complete with
the rest of the alphabet, so you may
have up to 4 keywords!!
2) you can use only 2 squares, beside
each others in the same way, lets
work on the 2 upper squares:
Example: GF becomes UO, we use G from the
1st square and F from the 2nd
and subs. as the first rule in simple Playfair.

```
` `
```Examples:
UC becomes CP
RB  becomes DR
BR  becomes  FF

```
` `
```4)Bifid , trifid cipher: It is somehow safe cipher as it causes the fractionation of every letter
to 2 or more fractions.
i)Bifid: Each letter is represented by 2 digits determine its location in the square.
1      2       3     4      5	   How: you start from the left column numbers then go to  the letter then to its
1 W    G      R     E     V 	             upper number.
2  K     U      A    H      D	      Examples:  G   1     2
3  P      C     X     L     Y		     A   2     3
4  T      O     I      B     S  		      I    4     3
5  F      N     M    J      Z
Message:  THE   TARGET   IS   UNDER   FULL   CONTROL
1)    THETA   RGETI   SUNDE   RFULL   CONTR   OL   (each letter is represented by 2no.s 1st in the 1st row
2)      42142   11144     42521    15233      34541      43	,2nd in the 2nd row just under the 1st)
14413    32413     52254    31244      22213      24
Note[ T =  4  1  , H = 2  4  , E = 1  4  , T = 4  1 , ..........]
3)take each 2 horizontal no.s and write their corresponding letter:
42 = O , 14 = E , 21 = K , 44 = B , 13 = R..........and so on
4214214413       1114432413       4252152254      1523331244      3454122213         4324
Ciphered:    O  E  K  B  R        W E  I   H   R       O  N  V U  J         V A  X  G B        L  J  G  U   R          I   H
ii)Trifid: each letter is represented by 3 digits(each range from 1 to 3)
Q 111	B 121	X 131	S 211	K 221	U 231	D 311	Z 321	H 331
Y 112	M 122	 I 132	A 212	V 222	J 232	O 312	G 322	P 332
F 113	R 123	W 133	L 213	E 223	? 233	T 313	C 323	N 333
Notes:1)"?"can be any symbol as you want.
2)In any cipher you make random letter number association that only you and
Message:  HELP  WE    LOST   THE    TARGET (by the same way as bifid)
HELPW       ELOST  THETA     RGET
32231	     22323	33232        1323
32133	     21111     13211        2221
13323	     33213     31332        3233
322  313  213  313  323	223  232  111 133  213	          332  321  321  131  332	 132  322  312  233
Ciphered:     G      T       L      T     C	                       E      J       Q     W     L	            P      Z      Z       X      P 	    I      G      O      ?
5)Columnar transposition:
1)you make a keyword
2)numerate the letters from the nearest letter from the start of alphabet to the end
& if you find repeated letters ,the first take the least number.
Let?s see:
we take espionage as our keyword:
Message: THE MISSION IS OVER STOP ACTIVITY
e     s     p    o    i    n    a    g    e
2     9    8    7   5    6    1    4    3
----------------------------------------       WE GET:   SRV  TNOY   OTT  ISI   IVT  SEI   MOC   ESA  HIP
T     H    E   M   I    S    S    I    O
N      I    S   O   V   E    R   S    T
O     P   A   C    T   I     V   I     T
Y
To increase the security you can follow this:
i)Double transposition:
e     s     p    o    i    n    a    g    e		e     s     p    o    i    n    a    g    e
2     9    8    7   5    6    1    4    3		2     9    8    7   5    6    1    4    3
----------------------------------------		----------------------------------------
T     H    E   M   I    S    S    I    O		S     R   V   T   N   O   Y   O    T
N      I    S   O   V   E    R   S    T		T      I    S    I    I    V    T   S    E
O     P   A   C    T   I     V   I     T		 I      M  O   C   E   S    A   H    I
Y				 P
WE GET:   YTA  STIP  TEI  OSH  NIE  OVS  TIC  VSO  RIM
ii)Different length transposition:
e     s     p    o    i    n    a    g    e
2     9    8    7   5    6    1    4    3	Note: you write the letters of the message till
----------------------------------------	         reach the numbers from 1 till the message
T    H    E    M   I    S    S		         ends (we wrote THEMISS till we reached 1
I			         & I reached 2,...)
O    N    I     S   O   V   E    R   S
T    O    P    A   C   T    I    V
I     T    Y
WE GET: SEI  TIOTI  S  RV  IOC  SVT  MSA  EIPY  HNOT
iii)Leaving certain places never used in the square(only your friend know it)
6)Codes:
i)Here we can increase the security of any cipher by giving code for certain word
or expression or names & the better that every word got more than one code to express
it(even you break the cipher you don't know what it is talking about!)
ii)This codes are saved by the spy in a book, always it is very small(can be hidden inside
a concealment coin!!) to ease its concealment & the codes are well organized alphabetically
for rapid coding & decoding.
Example:
i)Neutral codes:
plaintext		code group
cab		YABC
cabal		YBCD
cabin		YCDE
cable		YDEF
cache		YEFG
ii)One-sided codes:
plaintext		code group
cab		JGRD
cabal		BCFD
cabin		LVDH
cable		MFHY
cache		NFES
decode
code group		plaintext
APGR		London
APND		minister
APTD		however
APMC		100 km
APVD		money
7)Railfence cipher:
here you write the words in certain ways to be readable
Example:
1	r		       n
2	    a		e	c
3	         i	         f		       e
4	                   l
so the ciphered will appear like  rnaec  ifel
you can use any shape you want in definite rows W or N or S anything.
8)Some other used ways:
i)Newspaper & a pin:
anyone can point this is not a spy?!),then other innocent guy come & sit at the same seat, wow, really
comfortable seat, then he by accident find a newspaper , his favorite one, nice, here start the trick, he search
for a tiny pin orifice appear infront of light under certain letters of the newspaper, following this holes form
words and message.
Note: it also used in dictionaries as you know where is the message but any other guy must search the whole
dictionary in front of light.
ii)Books:
1)you must get 2 identical books, the same edition ,identical from cover to cover, every word.
2)you want to make a secret message to your friend, you take your book, find a cool page ,write its number in the start
of the message, you may cipher it or apply  a mathematical equation to ensure that even someone got the message & try
it to the books you have, can't extract it.
3)start from the first line of this page or certain line (you & your friend agreed to it), you write the number which represent
your first letter in the first letter, then go to the next line and write the number which represent your second letter, you
count the spaces also, comma's, every thing.
4)If you get to line where you didn't find the letter you want ,you write certain letter (you both know), so your friend skips
this line & proceed to the next one , it is very secure and really simple.
Note:
The presence of an original script of a ciphered messages or codes is of great importance to the code breakers in
cryptanalysis, so they  have to reform the message in other words ,for this reason that the secret services always try
to steal the cipher and code books.
Cipher Clerk nice site java applet makes different ciphers types and deciphering  , you can use it to cipher and decipher
messages with your friends just with copy  and  paste.
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