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For thou hast broken the yoke of his burden, and the staff of his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, as in the day of Midian. (Isaiah 9:4)

The Baroque Era spans that period of time between the 1600's to the 1750's. Although the war against the Catholic Church against anything outside the realm of their own understanding began much earlier. The costs of waging war, supporting allies, and maintaining the French army quickly depleted a French bank that was already weakened from royal extravagance. Following a series of wars that depleted Europe of much of it's wealth, the French Revolution (1789–1799) was a period of radical social and political upheaval in French and European history. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years. (See Jeanne de Arc.)

The Bourbon family had ruled France since the 16th century. During this time, there were religious wars. Monarchs (Catholic) fought against Nobles, Protestant (Huguenots). The family history records the way in which the providence of God spared family members in the very courts of the kings. The paternal grandparents of Louis XIII were Joan III aka the Huguenot queen, Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre (7 January 1528 – 9 June 1572) and Antoine de Bourbon, Duc de Vendôme, King of Navarre (22 April 1518 – 17 November 1562).

The family of Jonas and Marie Menton Fortineaux testifies of God's miraculous provision. Jonas Fortineux/Fortinet was born 2 June 1650 in St. Lambrecht, Germany and died 1 June 1709. He married Sara Menton who was born 2 June 1647. The marriage took place before 1675 in Rheinland-Pfalz. She was the daughter of Jacob (Graf de Menton) De Menton/Menthon (Born 1613) Count De Menton - Mayor of Otterberg. Graf de Menton was a French statesman, whose occupation was that of Graf de Menton, Bürgermeister, and he was referred to as Schultheiß von Otterberg (1652) and Count de Menton, Mayor of Otterberg 1652. Among nobility of Continental Europe a "count" was equal to that of an earl in the British peerage. As Mayor of Otterberg, Jacob de Menton was in a position to assist French refugees, at a time when members of his own family were in severe danger. They were ultimately spared the death met by millions in France by the sister in law of King Louis XIV himself.

Nicholas "Claus" Reitenauer, a paternal ancestor through Sarah Jane Ridenour, was born Aug 7 1650 in Tieffenbach, Alsace, France. He died Feb 27 1717 in Tieffenbach, Alsace, France. Nicholas married Susannah Lufidach.

Susannah Windstein Lufidach was born 1652 in Switzerland. She died Mar 28 1713 in Tieffenbach, Alsace, France at age 61. Susannah married Nicholas "Claus" Reitenauer. said the Reidenauer family lived on the Rhine river in the Rugesian mountains near Kob lenz, Germany, in Shadeneck castle, built probably by Pertinax Reidenauer, who was killed, ac cidently by an arrow in 893 A. D.

Early research indicated Susanna's maiden name was Windstein. Nicholas Reitenauer and his family arrived in Philadelpia, Pennsylvania on the ship Robert & Alice 3 September 1739. They came together with 238 other immigrants from the Palatinates, (78 men, 57 women and 88 children).


Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna von Habsburg-Lothringen (French: Marie Antoinette Josèphe Jeanne de Habsbourg was born on November 2, 1755, in Vienna (now in Austria), the capital of the Holy Roman Empire. She was an Archduchess of Austria and the Queen of France and Navarre.

At the age of fourteen, on the day of her marriage to Louis-Auguste, Dauphin of France, she became Dauphine de France. At the death of King Louis XV, in May 1774, her husband ascended the French throne as Louis XVI, and Marie Antoinette assumed the title of Queen of France and Navarre. After seven years of marriage she gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, the first of their four children.


In 1789, the French Revolution was beginning to emerge as the state went bankrupt. In October, Antoinette and the rest of the royal family were moved from Versailles to Paris and kept under guard like prisoners. During the Reign of Terror, at the height of the French Revolution, Marie Antoinette's husband was deposed and the royal family was imprisoned. Marie Antoinette was tried, convicted of treason and executed by guillotine on 16 October 1793, nine months after her husband.

On June 20, 1791, they tried to escape, but their attempt failed, and about a year after, on August 10, 1792, Antoinette and her husband were taken from their home and arrested for treason. On January 21, 1793, her husband was beheaded and she knew her time would come soon.

On October 14, 1793, she stood before the tribunal, the medieval court that would judge her, and even though she knew what the verdict would be, that she too would die by the blade of the guillotine, she was able to stand her ground and demonstrate her tremendous inner strength and seriousness. At 4:30 a.m., on October 16, 1793, her execution day, Antoinette inscribed a letter to her sister-in-law, asking for forgiveness and explaining how she felt about her inevitable death (see the quote below Antoinette's picture). Then, at 10:00 a.m., quietly and bravely, only speaking once to apologize for stepping on the executioner's foot, only 37 years old, without any proof of the crime she was accused, Antoinette was beheaded.

The Reittenaer family was residing in Alsace, France in the days of Marie Antoinette, relates that in the family history, there is a story told that the Reittenaers were close friends of Marie Antoinette and planned to bring her to their home in America when things became difficult for her, but the plan failed and she was executed.

In our lineage, Rabbai Bernhardt Hoppe was the son of Brunhard Hoppe and Sarah Rohan Hoppe, both of German or Prussian origin. Their son Bernhardt Hoppe immigrated to America in 1860 where he married Rhoda Susanna Hanks in 1874. As God moved by His Spirit to save individuals from the ravages of war-torn Europe, France, even those of the royal house were unsafe from the rage of the Catholic queen. Yet God spared many from the holocaust in France. Among the L'Ain lineage, it was the same, although there were those martyred for their faith.


Born on December 14, 1553 in Basses Pyrénées in the southwest of France to parents Antoine de Bourbon and Jeanne d’Albret, Henri was raised a Calvinist. His mother believed in leading a simple life, so as a result, Henri grew up much like any other peasant would have in 16th century France. He was taught to endure hardship and suffering and gained a great love for the outdoors. This love of the outdoors and ability to endure suffering later made him popular with his soldiers, as he would see to their needs and make sure they were as comfortable as possible.

At the age of four he was sent to court to learn how to be a gentleman. When he turned eight he was sent to Paris to attend the College de Navarre. He was brought back home in 1565 to Bearn. There he would continue his outdoor training and strengthen his beliefs in the Huguenot cause as he waited for his opportunity to lead the fight for religious freedom. When Conde died at Jarnac, Jeanne d’Albret brought her young sixteen-year-old son to the Huguenot party. Although too young to lead them in battle, Henri was accepted as the leader of the Huguenots. He learned from Coligny about commanding an army at the battle of Arnay-le-Duc in Burgundy. When his mother died on June 9, 1572, he was now officially the king of Navarre. Later that year he married Margaret of Valois, daughter of Catherine de Medici, queen mother of France. This took place with much festivity on the 18th of August, 1572. Margaret of Valois was Catholic, as was her mother. This marriage was hoped to be a binding tie between Huguenots and Catholics of France and hopefully put an end once and for all to the Wars of Religion.

Most of the Huguenot nobles attended the wedding of their leader, and for many of them this had been their first time back at court since the wars began. With all the leaders of the Huguenots in one place, the royal family of Guise began plotting with Catherine de Medici to get rid of the whole Huguenot movement under the guise of promoting Catholicism, and thereby gain power for themselves. On August 24, 1572, the wholesale massacre of Huguenots in Paris that is known as St. Bartholomew’s Day took place. This act wiped out the Protestant nobility of France and seriously dampened the Huguenot’s chance of survival. All throughout the surrounding French countryside uprisings took place in which mobs killed and destroyed thousands of Huguenots, sparing neither age nor sex. Henri was able to escape this massacre by virtue of his being related to the king through marriage, but he was held captive in the king’s palace in Paris until 1576. On the second of February of that year that he finally made his escape from Paris. During his time in captivity he had feigned a conversion to Catholicism; now that he was back among his followers he reverted to Protestantism.


Catherine de Medici was born Caterina Maria Romola di Lorenzo de' Medicion April13, 1519, in Florence, cradle of the European Renaissance. Catherine was the daughter of Lorenzo Il de Medici, the Duke of Urbino, and Madeleine de la Tour d’Auvergne, a French Bourbon Princess. Catherine was orphaned by both parents before she was a month old. There were no close relatives whom to care for the infant. In the end, her fathers distant relative, Cardinal Guilio de' Medici (the future pope Clement VII), became her guardian, as well the head of the government of Florence.

Catherine’s childhood was spent as a hostage by Florentine rebels, who kept her in convents in both Rome and Florence. During her time in the convents, Catherine received an unparalleled education, making her one of the most intelligent women of the Renaissance. In 1533, at the tender age of fourteen, Catherine was married to the French prince, Henri IV of France, as his second wife. She brought as part of her dowry, 600,000 crowns. During the first ten years of her marriage, Catherine received little, if any attention, her husband preferring his mistress Diane of Poitier. Catherine de' Medici was never able to rule France as its monarch because the Salic Law restricted the succession solely to men.


In 1562 there was a war between Huguenots and Catholics. This was the start of 30 years of civil war. On August 24, 1572 mobs of Parisians killed 1000s of Huguenots at the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre.

In 1572, Catherine de Medici and her son, King Charles IX of France, in league with Pope Gregory XIII, carried out a plan to lure thousands of Protestants to Paris, ostensibly to attend a royal wedding between a Catholic princess and a Protestant nobleman. The wedding was presented as an opportunity to seal the Peace of St. Germain between French Protestants and Catholics, which had ended the Third War of Religion in France. Instead, it amounted to a successful plot to destroy Protestantism in France by murdering a significant percentage of leading Protestant nobles, and a large number of ordinary Protestants as well.

Although the Peace of St. Germain (signed in August 1570) formally brought to an end three-years of warfare between Catholics and Protestants in France, hostility between the two branches of Christianity continued unabated. By 1570 three wars over religion already had been fought in France, leaving lasting enmity in their wake. For their part, French Catholics were violently opposed to the Peace of St. Germain and many refused to accept it despite appeals from the royal family.

In 1571 and into 1572, the French Queen Mother, Catherine de Medici, and her son, King Charles IX, appeared eager to reconcile the two sides by marrying her daughter, Marguerite de Valois, to the Protestant prince, Henry of Navarre. He would also be a strong ruler, something none of her own sons had been. By securing Henri of Navarre in the French succession, Catherine helped save the French monarchy In reality, however, the French monarchy conspired with the Pope in Rome to use the marriage as an opportunity to lure the Protestant nobility to Paris and murder them, in order to stamp out armed Protestantism in France. The royal marriage was arranged to take place on August 15, 1572.

The marriage was concluded successfully, but tensions within fervently Catholic Paris were raised to a fever-pitch by the presence of a large number of Protestants (called Huguenots in France) in the city for the wedding ceremony. For several days after the wedding a group of Huguenots led by Admiral Gaspard de Coligny remained in Paris to discuss complaints they had about the Peace of St. Germain. Then, on August 22, an assassination attempt was made on Coligny's life. Charles IX initially called for the arrest of the assailant, but he soon performed an abrupt about-face and implemented the plan to eliminate Huguenots within the city. Orders were given to arm the populace of Paris and lock the city gates. The royal Swiss Guard was instructed to expel Protestant nobles from the royal palace and to kill the leaders of the Protestant delegation. Coligny was dragged from his sickbed and thrown out of a palace window. Meanwhile, the Protestant nobles expelled from the palace were slaughtered outside. The local populace, now armed, exploded in a wave of anti-Huguenot violence. For three days Protestants were hunted throughout the city, with almost 4,000 people being murdered in the streets, including women and children. As news of events in Paris spread, the massacre of Huguenots by Catholics continued in a number of other French cities, resulting in the killing of tens of thousands of people throughout the land.


Born in Fontainebleau on Sept. 16, 1601, Louis XIII was the eldest of the six children of Henry IV and Marie de Médicis. His father was the first Bourbon King of France, having succeeded his ninth cousin, Henry III of France (1574–1589), in application of Salic law. Louis XIII's paternal grandparents were Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre; his maternal grandparents were Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Johanna, archduchess of Austria, and Eleonora de' Medici, his maternal aunt, was his godmother

The Thirty Years' War broke out in 1618. The French Court was initially unsure what side to support. On the one hand, France's traditional rivalry with the House of Habsburg argued in favour of intervening on behalf of the Protestant powers. On the other hand, Louis XIII had had a strict religious Catholic upbringing, and his natural inclination was therefore to support the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II.

The queen's status at court was greatly enhanced, by the birth of her two sons, the dauphin Louis (the future Louis XIV) in 1638, and Philippe (later duc d'Orléans) in 1640.

As son of the King, he was a Fils de France, and as the eldest son, the Dauphin. His father was the first Bourbon King of France, having succeeded his ninth cousin, Henry III of France (1574–1589), in application of Salic law. Louis XIII's paternal grandparents were Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre; his maternal grandparents were Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Johanna, archduchess of Austria, and Eleonora de' Medici, his maternal aunt, was his godmother.

He spent his early years with his brothers, sisters, and children of the royal court, as well as a governess, doctor, and tutor. But, deprived of maternal tenderness, frequently whipped, and usually in bad health, he was a solitary child, melancholy and fearful but at times suspicious, irritable, haughty, and stubborn.

He was King of France and Navarre from 1610 to 1643. Having ascended the throne at nine years of age, following the assassination of his father in 1610; his mother at once seized the full powers of regent. She determined to reverse the policy of her husband and to bring France into alliance with Spain and the Austrian house, upon which power Henri had been meditating an attack at the time of his death. Two marriages were designed to cement this alliance. Louis was to marry Anne of Austria, daughter of the Spanish king, Philip III, and the Spanish prince, afterwards Philip IV, himself was to marry the Princess Elizabeth, the king's sister. Notwithstanding the opposition of the Protestants and nobles of France, the queen carried through her purpose and the marriages were concluded in 1615.

She was regent until 1614 and ruled until 1617 amidst a continuing political crisis.

Louis married at the age of 14 to Anne of Austria, the Spanish Infanta, (it had been settled as early as 1611 in the Treaty of Fontainbleau) Born at Benavente Palace in Valladolid, Spain, and baptised Ana María Mauricia, she was the daughter of Habsburg parents, Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria. She was styled Infanta of Spain and of Portugal, Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Burgundy and of the Low Countries.

Anne was betrothed at age 10 to Louis XIII. On 24 November 1615, they were married by proxy in Burgos while Louis's sister, Elizabeth, and Anne's brother, Philip IV of Spain, were married by proxy in Bordeaux.

After Richelieu declared war on Anne's brother, King Philip IV of Spain, in 1635, she remained sympathetic to the Spanish cause. Richelieu's spies kept her under surveillance. This aroused strong opposition from Catholic defenders of the independence of the Gallican Church as well as from Protestants. Along with his First Minister Cardinal Richelieu, Louis "the Just" is remembered for the establishment of the Académie française and participation in the Thirty Years' War against the House of Habsburg. France's greatest victory in the war came at the Battle of Rocroi, five days after Louis' death, "marking the end of Spain's military ascendancy in Europe."

Born at the Château de Fontainebleau, Louis XIII was the eldest child of Henri IV of France (1589-1610) and Marie de' Medici (1575-1642). As son of the King, he was a Fils de France, and as the eldest son, the Dauphin. His father was the first Bourbon King of France, having succeeded his ninth cousin, Henry III of France (1574–1589), in application of Salic law. Louis XIII's paternal grandparents were Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre. Jeanne d'Albret was known an the Huguenot Queen, who suffered a great deal for her faith. King Louis XIII's maternal grandparents were Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Johanna, archduchess of Austria, and Eleonora de' Medici, his maternal aunt, was his godmother.

Louis XIII saw the French nobility brought into line with the Crown, rescinded the privileges of the Protestant Huguenots (though their freedom of religion was maintained), modernized the ports and put France on the road to becoming a major naval power again. He also was a great patron of the arts and expanded French influence in North America.


King Louis XIV 5 September 1638 - died 1 September 1715), was known as the Sun King (French: le Roi Soleil) Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. Both his maternal grandparents were Habsburgs—Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria. Through them, Louis was descended from various historical figures, such as Holy Roman Emperors—Charles V and Frederick Barbarossa. Other ancestors included the first monarchs of a united Spain—Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon—and the founder of Russia's first dynasty—Rurik the Viking.

Louis was also a descendant of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy and the poet, Charles d'Orléans, as well as the last of the great Condottieri—Giovanni de' Medici. Most importantly for his and his descendant's rights to the throne, Louis was descended in the direct legitimate male line from Saint Louis, and through him, from Hugh Capet, the first King of France. Tracing Louis's ancestry to the tenth generation, genealogist C. Carretier calculated his ancestry to be approximately 28% French, 26% Spanish, 11% Austro-German and 10% Portuguese, the rest being Italian, Slavic, English, Savoyard and Lorrainer.

His name the Sun King came from his birth on a Sunday, the day of the sun. His birth came after twenty-three years of his estranged parents' childlessness, leading contemporaries to regard him as a divine gift, and his birth, a miracle. Thus, he was named "Louis-Dieudonné" (Louis-God-given) also he bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent—Dauphin. He worked hard to project his authority in the splendid setting of Versailles, to depict it in his arrogant motto: "Nec pluribus impar" ("None his equal"), and in his sun emblem.

Louis was but a child of 4 when his father died. When Louis came to the throne as a five-year-old boy (actually four years, eight months) on 14 May 1643, the Thirty Years' War was still in progress, and Cardinal Richelieu, the French éminent rouge, had died the preceding year. He was not allowed to actually rule until he became 13. The changes made by Louis XIV in the first year of his personal reign amounted to nothing less than a revolution. The young king soon showed himself to be an autocratic “hands-on” ruler.

In 1658 Louis faced the great conflict between love and duty, a familiar one for princes of that period. He struggled with himself for two years over his love for Mazarin's niece, Marie Mancini. In 1660, Louis XIV married his first cousin Maria Theresa of Austria, the Spanish Infanta, in Saint-Jean-de-Luz. Their union reinforced the reconciliation between France and Spain. The King and the Queen had six children. Only one survived, Louis de France. All his life, he worked hard at being king. He believed it was his job to make France great by personal attention to detail - “l’état, c’est moi.”- I am the state. In 1661 Louis XIV, who was particularly hostile to the Huguenots, assumed control of the French government and began to disregard some of the provisions of the Edict.

In 1667 he invaded the Spanish Netherlands, which he regarded as his wife's inheritance, thus beginning a series of wars that lasted for a good part of his reign. Louis himself on his deathbed said, "I have loved war too much," but his subjects, who often complained of his prudence and moderation, would not have understood had he not used force to strengthen the frontiers of France. After a brilliant campaign, the King had to retreat (1668) in the face of English and especially Dutch pressure. He never forgave the Dutch and swore to destroy their Protestant mercantile republic. To this end he allied himself with his cousin Charles II of England and invaded the Netherlands in 1672. The long war that ensued ended in 1678, in the first treaty of Nijmegen with Louis triumphant. The construction of Versailles formed one of Louis XIV's strategies to centralize power. Continuing the work of Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin, Louis XIV worked to create a centralised, and absolutist nation-state. He weakened the nobility by ordering them to serve as members of his court, rather than as regional governors and ministers.

To this end, he built Versailles, an enormous and lavish palace outside Paris. It took about 50 years for completion. More than two thousand people and six thousand horses were used in the course of construction of the Palace by Louis XIV. On May 6, 1682, the court moved to Versailles. Court etiquette compelled noblemen to spend incredible sums of money on their clothes, and to spend most of their time attending the whirlwind of masses, balls, dinners, performances, and celebrations which made up the routine of the court.

Louis was also on his guard against religious dissent. In October 1685, Louis XIV, the grandson of Henry IV, renounced the Edict and declared Protestantism illegal with the Edict of Fontainebleau. This act, commonly called the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, had very damaging results for France.

Louis increasingly imposed religious uniformity. To his traditional enemies Louis now added the entire Protestant world. His mother had inculcated in him a narrow and simplistic religion, and he understood nothing of the Reformation. He viewed French Protestants as potential rebels. After having tried to convert them by force, he revoked the Edict of Nantes, a decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; an edict defining the rights of the French Protestants, and which had guaranteed their freedom of worship, in 1685. The revocation, which was accompanied by a pitiless persecution, drove many artisans from France and caused endless misfortune. The resultant exodus of Protestants, many of whom were merchants and skilled artisans, intensified the kingdom's economic decline and further alienated the Protestant powers. In 1770 he married the Austrian archduchess Marie Antoinette. He ruled for 72 years.


Louis's brother, Philippe de France, was known as “Monsieur." He was sidelined from any political management of the kingdom. He led a military victory in 1677 against William of Orange. Married to the Princess Palatine, their union produced two future regents who governed during the minority of Louis XV in the following century. Though “Monsieur” was the title reserved under the Ancien Regime for the youngest brother of the King, Philippe de France was also called “Petit Monsieur” to distinguish him from the brother of Louis XIII, Gaston d’Orléans the “Grand Monsieur”. On the death of the latter in 1660, he took back the initial title of Monsieur and became, at 20, head of the House of Orléans.

Eleven years later, in 1671, after the death of his first wife, Louis XIV forced his brother to marry the Princess Elisabeth-Charlotte de Bavière, referred to as La Palatine, or Madame, or simply as Liselotte, she was more formally known as the "Princess Palatine," the sister-in-law of Louis XIV of France. She was known as Duchess of Orleans, a commune in north-central France, about southwest of Paris, and capital of the Loiret department and of the Centre region. It is located on the Loire River where the river curves south towards the Massif Central.

They had three children, including Philippe d’Orléans, a future Regent, and Mademoiselle de Chartres, also a Regent during the minority of Louis. Elisabeth Charlotte von der Pfalz was born on 27 May 1652 in the Heidelberg Castle, to Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine of the Simmern branch of the House of Wittelsbach, and Landgravine Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel. She was born at Heidelberg, just three years after her parents had returned from exile to try to rebuild the country that had been ravaged during the Thirty Years War. She was their second child and only daughter; from her childhood, she was called Liselotte, a combined form of her first names.

Elizabeth Charlotte was the second wife of Louis XIV’s brother, Philip I, Duke of Orleans (his first wife, Henrietta, sister of Charles II of England, ended with her death by poison in 1670, presumably on order of her husband Philip), the mother of Philip II d’Orléans, regent to King Louis XV, and the sister of Charles, the Elector Palatine of the Rhine. The marriage was an unhappy one, mainly due to Monsieur's homosexual lifestyle.

After rejecting several proposals from German princes, in 1671 her father arranged Liselotte's marriage to Philippe, Duc d'Orleans, the brother of King Louis XIV of France. Philippe was 18 years older, a widower with two daughters, who needed a male heir. He was also by preference homosexual, and some of his lovers had been rumored to be involved in the death of his first wife the year before. The death of her brother, Elector Charles, provided Louis XIV with an opportunity to use her tenuous claims to part of the Palatinate as a pretext to expand French influence in that area, eventually contributing to the outbreak (1689) of the War of the Grand Alliance. But for Liselotte's father the match seemed to promise the protection of one of Europe's most powerful kings; that promise would turn out to be illusory.

William Penn wrote a memorial to her during his confinement in the Tower of London, where he had received a life sentence for his opposition to Catholic dogma. While composing “Cross and Crown," he added the name of Elizabeth Palatine to his list of benefactors of the Christian faith from all ages, commenting that, “She lived her single life till about 60 years of age, and then departed at her own house at Herwarden[Herford] as much lamented as she had lived – beloved by her people, to whose real worth I do with religious gratitude dedicate this memorial.”

Her mother and siblings called her “La Greque,” for her studious demeanor and unwillingness to engage in the frolics of court life. She refused a crown rather than convert to Rome, corresponded with Descartes, and—contrary to the spirit of the age—offered protection to religious dissidents of every description. When her brother Edward forsakes the Reformed faith to marry the Catholic Anne de Gonzague, Elizabeth becomes physically ill. At times, she labored virtually alone among the descendents of Frederick V to see Heidelberg and the Palatinate restored to the Protestant fold. When her Heidelberg was destroyed by the king's order, she wept. Raised a Protestant herself, and as such, was not fond of lengthy Latin masses. However she remained virtuous and at times outraged by the open infidelity practiced by the aristocracy. Her views were frequently the opposite of those prevalent at the French court. The royal sovereign, Princess Charlotte who held sympathies toward the French Protestants, became "Protectress," of the persecuted French Camisards and Huguenots.

The Reformed Elector of Brandenburg grants Elizabeth rule over the Abbey of Herford, where she lives out the remainder of her days presiding over a city renowned as an island of liberty in a sea of persecution. She opens the city gates to Protestants of every description, granting them shelter and liberty. The notorious Jean Labadie and his followers spend a season of refuge there, much to the consternation of the local Lutheran clergy. Quakers and Anabaptists, Robert Barclay and the relatives of George Fox — even William Penn himself — found the city open and free. In this way, the Reformed abbess of a Lutheran city in a war-torn land founded a city of refuge. Though gracious and warm to her many visitors, she clung to her Reformed faith throughout her life, never wavering from her “only comfort in life and in death.” She had witnessed the horrors of persecution, death and deprivation and her heart was not unimpacted.

Since Louis XIV took over at age five, his mother (Anne of Austria - a Spanish Hapsburg) ruled for him. The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant French Protestants (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a Catholic nation. The Edict aimed primarily to end the long-running, disruptive French Wars of Religion. By the mid-1600s, Western Europe was solidly Roman Catholic. As ruling monarch, he revoked the Edict of Nantes, issuing a new edict which provided for the destruction of Huguenot churches and the closing of their schools. Although they of necessity had to leave France, it is estimated that 200,000 Huguenots left for shelter in England, the United Provinces, and the German states. In the painting on this page, King Louis XIV of France is portrayed Crossing the Rhine on 12 June 1672. In 1688, Louis issued a manifesto setting forth the French demands, and shortly thereafter, a French army under the command of the dauphin (Louis XIV’s eldest son) advanced into and devastated the Palatinate. This contributed to the onset of the War of the Grand Alliance, which pitted an alliance of England, Holland and the Holy Roman Empire against France. This war lasted from 1689 to 1697 and, with no clear victor, ended with the Treaty of Ryswick. Through their exodus, France lost people who had com mercial and industrial skills, although some modern scholars have argued this had only a minor impact on the French economy. Louis XIV died on September 1, 1715, a few days before his seventy-seventh birthday.

"Surely he shall deliver thee from the snare of the fowler, and from the noisome pestilence." (Psalm 91:3)

Nearly a century passed before the population of Germany was able to recover to a level comparable to that before the Thirty Years War. The Lower Palatinate, or Pfalz, was a pleasant land of forests, fertile valleys and hillside vineyards, yet its people suffered for many years at the hands of the French, who regularly invaded from the 1680s into the 1700s, attempting to bring the area under the rule of Louis XIV. In the fourth phase, the Catholic French, who wanted to undermine the Habsburgs, paid subsidies to the Protestant Swedish army to continue fighting. The War of the Palatinate (1687 - 1697) was waged by King Louis XIV of France. French troops also crossed the Rhine into German territories. Many towns and villages were burned to the ground, and crops were destroyed by the invaders. By 1708 French armies had burned and pillaged Palatine homes, crops, fruit trees, churches, libraries, villages and cities. Even the renowned University of Heidelberg and the sacred tombs of the German Emperors at the city of Worms were destroyed. Thousands of inhabitants were driven from their homes and left to face the elements without food or shelter. Many died, many became beggars on the streets of Europe.

Jacob Brown was born: 24 August 1779 in Pennsylvania. He was the son of Henry Brown,born: 1743 in Germany, when the use of compulsory, state-controlled education was viewed as a replacement for the gallows, the rack, the whip, and the prison cell as a way to keep the peasantry was suddenly popular across Germany and Austria. In the 1700's cattle were killed at the beginning of winter when fodder ran out. Meat was salted so that it was preserved during the winter months. Improved seeds from Holland brought new varieties of fruit and vegetables while better transport allowed fish to be brought inland fresh from the sea, and regional foods - such as cheddar cheese - to be enjoyed all over the country. However, with frequent agricultural failures, plagues and disease, as well as unemployment this left approximately a fourth of the population destitute, leading to widespread migration within the empire and flourishing criminal element in many cities. Emigration was an option, and more than 200,000 Germans had left for the Americas by the end of the 18th century. Beginning with a trickle in the 1680s and growing into a virtual flood by the 1720s, immigrants from Germany"s Rhineland area and the German-speaking cantons of Switzerland arrived in southeastern Pennsylvania by the thousands. The earliest immigrants to America from Germany were from the Rhineland Palatinate, or German border towns of France.


Eugene of Savoy 1663-1736, prince of the house of Savoy , general in the service of the Holy Roman Empire. Born in Paris, he was the son of Eugène, comte de Soissons of the line of Savoy-Carignano, and Olympe Mancini, niece of Cardinal Mazarin . After being refused a commission in the French army by King Louis XIV, Eugene entered (1683) the service of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I against the Ottoman Turks. He fought bravely in the relief of Vienna and then in Hungary, where he helped in the capture of Belgrade (1688). By 1697, Eugene had been appointed imperial commander in Hungary, and at Zenta he annihilated the Turkish army. Faced with opposition in Vienna, he began to take a more active part in political affairs. He became (1700) a member of the emperor's privy council and (1703) president of the imperial war council. He is regarded as one of the great military commanders of the modern age. He was a leading participant in the War of the Spanish Succession, and he and the Duke of Marlborough won the great battle of Blenheim (1704). He also fought the Turks and for Austria in the War of the Polish Succession.

He had been born in Paris in 1663 and brought up at the French Court; his mother was the niece of the famous Cardinal Mazarin. As a child and youth, he suffered from a poor physique and it was for this reason that Louis XIV had forced him to enter the Church rather than become a soldier in the French army as he wished. His father was twice exiled from France because of court intrigues. It was his mother's grief at such injustice that had inspired in Eugene his bitter hatred of Louis XIV and the French Monarchy. When his father died young, Eugène left France swearing that he would never return except sword in hand. He and his brother settled in Vienna, and Eugène joined the Imperial Army. He first saw war at the age of twenty, when the Turks were besieging Vienna; and the bare record of his career bespoke his military talent: colonel at twenty, major-general at twenty-one, general of cavalry at twenty-six. A crushing victory over the Turks at the Battle of Zenta in 1697 first established his European reputation.


Plagues, famines, fires, mysterious murders, incurable diseases and so on were blamed on the foreigners, who were suspected of being Un-Christian.

Over one million people, mostly older women, were executed as witches from the time of the Papal Bull concerning witches, issued in 1484, through the 1700s. A witch hunting manual first published in 1486 called Malleus Malificarum ( the Witch’s Hammer) was published, bringing folklore and speculation about witchcraft and magic together with the new view identifying witchcraft with devil-worship. Malleus Maleficarum was written in 1484 or 1485 and the papal bull was included as part of the preface. By 1484, the persecution of witches had become so widespread that Pope Innocent XIII issued a declaration - Summis Desiderantes - that granted two Dominican monk Inquisitors authorization to publish a manual on the proper methods of identifying and prosecuting witches.

Three years later Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger unveiled ‘Malleus Maleficarum’ – Hammer of Witches. For the next two hundred and fifty years, this book would instigate the deaths of thousands of innocent people and make belief in the devil mandatory for Christians. Anyone, by denying the existence of Satan, also denied God. This order would effectively stifle the words of any would-be defender of an accused witch.

Heinrich Kramer entered the Order of St. Dominic as a child. In the following years, his devotion to the Order and his intelligence earned him some of the highest honors of the Dominicans: Preacher-General and Master of Sacred Theology. In 1474 he was appointed Inquisitor for Bohemia and Moravia.

James Sprenger’s career was no less distinguished. As a young man he was admitted to the Dominican house and quickly rose to levels of prominence by his fervent adherence to the strict laws of the Order. He excelled in his appointment as Prior and Regent of Studies of the Cologne Convent and in a few years was appointed Inquisitor Extraordinary for the Provinces of Mainz, Trèves, and Cologne.

Kramer and Sprenger were passionate about their calling to rid the Christian world of witches. When ordered by Pope Innocence XIII to create a book of instructions, they lost no time compiling all the fears and superstitions of the era. For added authenticity, they used the Pope’s Bull – Summis Desiderantes – as the introduction for their manual. The Malleus Maleficarum and the witch craze that ensued took advantage of the increasing intolerance of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation in Europe, where the Protestant and Catholic camps, pitted against one another, each zealously strove to maintain the purity of faith.

The 30,000 to 50,000 casualties of the European witch-hunts were not distributed uniformly through time or space, even within particular jurisdictions. Three-quarters of Europe didn't observe a single trial. The witch hunt started with a few people being accused of and charged with sorcery or devil worship in the 1300s, and it continued into the 1700s. The persecution was the worst during the 1500s and 1600s--the most people were accused of actual witchcraft instead of sorcery in this era, and large groups gathered together to hunt witches.

Witch persecution spread outward from its first center in alpine Italy in the early 15th century, guttering out in Poland, where witchcraft laws were finally repealed in 1788.

By the 1700s, the Witchcraft craze which swept Europe and America was nearly over. In 1717, the last official witchcraft trial in England took place. In Scotland, however, the trials lasted until 1727. In 1736, the Witchcraft Act of James I was repealed, but it was replaced by others in later times.

What does this have to do with our ancestors? This was an era of religious persecution, sponsored by the Catholic Church. One can only imagine what it was like to live under the threat of constant war, economic hardship, plagues, and religious superstitution. The decision to leave was not an easy one, and once made, was beset again and again by a variety of obstacles. The emigrant had to apply for identity papers, visas and medical documents for himself and his family; he had to choose a destination and plan a route of travel on secondhand information from often unreliable sources. If he lived far inland, he would also have to arrange transportation to a port on the Atlantic or Mediterranean.


At the beginning of the 1700s, the English government encouraged residents of the troubled Palatine to leave their homeland and emigrate to America. The English were offering free passage to the New World, on the condition that those who accepted the deal would work for in special camps which produced pine tar for waterproofing English military vessels. After completing the work assignment, the Palatines would receive money, tools and 40 acres of land.

In 1709, 300 Palatine families took them up this offer from the English government, leaving their homes in small boats traveling down the Rhine River to Holland. From Holland, they went to England, where they were housed in tent cities for several months before leaving for the New World.

God sent our families forth like arrows from His bow. Whatever circumstances the journey entailed, or perils would certainly face them as they stepped out in faith, it would certainly be worth it all, when they were in God's will.

For the first 200 years of colonization, growth was small. In 1680 the population was about 200,000; in 1776 it still was only about 2,000,000. Yet by Revolutionary times, when an immigrant stepped off the boat he no longer encountered the same hardships as the early settlers. He found small towns and large cities, judicial and educational systems, churches and businesses, books and newspapers, comfortable homes, and enough of his native countrymen to feel kinship. Much more common and lethal were epidemics. Typhus or "ship fever", spread by lice, produced a frightful mortality rate. During the American and French Revolutionary Wars, immigration was scant. No more than 10,000 people a year came to America.

A diary of one group who left Germany in 1735, gives an account of their own emigration to America:

Many left the German palatinate poorly provided for and camping at times on islands of the Rhine in the wet and cold weather. A conservative estimate of a ship passengers fare by todays standards was $176.00 each. A hefty sum in the 1700's, especially in light of the size families people had then. How could this band of refugees pay their fare? First they sold their belongings, for cash or bartered for items needed for the journey. When this was still insufficient, they "indentured" themselves to the ship's captain. The captain would pay their passage and provide food to eat. When the ship reached port, the captain would auction off their indenture-rights to the highest bidder, assuring that he made a handsome profit for his investment.

Displaced from their land and unable to find work in the cities, many of these people signed contracts of indenture and took passage to the Americas. Europeans, Irish, Scottish, English, and Germans, immigrated to North America in substantial numbers as indentured servants, particularly to the British Thirteen Colonies. Over half of all white emigrants that arrived in the English colonies of North America during the 17th and 18th centuries may have been indentured servants. In the 18th and early 19th century numerous Europeans traveled to the colonies as redemptioners, a form of indenture.

It has been estimated that the redemptioners comprised almost 80% of the total British and continental emigration to America prior to the Revolution.[11]

Indenture certificate signed with an X by Henry Meyer in 1738. An indenture was a legal contract enforced by the courts.

The immigrant, now was now enslaved basically. A voluntary slave, yet required to work without pay for the purchaser to repay the debt. The term of indenture, lasted as long as 2-3 years, The purchaser provided clothes, food and housing during the indenture period, and sometimes requiring a small sum of cash or hand tools at the end of the indenture period. When the indenture period ended, only then was the immigrant free to pursue his or her own trade or to work using the skills learned from the indenture period.

Aboard ship, conditions were so over crowded that there was scarcely room to sit down, much less to lie down when one became weary from the journey. The little ones cried pitifully. They must have attempted to pass in their small scows by night, particularly under cover of mist or fog when need be, as the armies of the French and the Austrians lay on both sides of the Rhine, with their signal fires glowing in the dark. Still they were stopped repeatedly and asked for bribes.

Once on board the ship bound for the American shore, the passengers encountered 3-4 monthes of waves, changable winds and tempestuous storms, with nothing but "Galley Bread" to eat passengers were forced to drink muddy water filled with worms. On a wooden ship, lighted candles and open cooking fires were a constant hazard. It was not unusual for more than 100 people to die of shipboard fires in a single year.

The following is a quote:

After we had left Holland and surrendered ourselves to the wild and tempestuous ocean, its waves and its changeable winds, we reached through Gods great goodness toward us, England. After a lapse of two days we came to the Island of Wight, and there to a little town named Cowes, where our captain supplied himself with provisions for the great ocean trip. We secured medicines for the trip and then with a good East wind we sailed away from there. After a day and a night with the good wind we were buffeted with a terrible storm and the awful raging waves as we came into the Spanish and Portuguese oceans.

More immigrant quotes:

The captains of such vessels were often not the type of men to lodge your complaint with, or you might be thrown overboard. Wouldn't there be a record of you? Historians state: Fewer than one percent of passenger records from 1790 to 1820 survived. In later years, the United States government made the ship companies responsible for returning any unhealthy people back to their homelands, the ship companies had a doctors check passengers before they boarded. They would cut men and boy's hair very short and comb women's hair carefully to prevent the spread of lice.

The ship companies would only allow a certain amount of luggage. The amount a person could bring depended upon the type of fare they paid. Although some people just had bundles tied together, others took cardboard boxes, trunks, suitcases, baskets and leather sacks.


"For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily. (Colossians 2:9)

William Penn was born in 1644, the son of Admiral Sir William Penn and Margaret Jasper, a captain previously widowed and the daughter of a Rotterdam merchant. William Penn, Sr., served in the Commonwealth Navy during the English Civil War and was rewarded by Oliver Cromwell with estates in Ireland. The lands were seized from Irish Catholics, in retaliation for an earlier massacre of Protestants. Admiral Penn took part in the restoration of Charles II and was eventually knighted and served in the Royal Navy. At the time of his son’s birth, Captain Penn was twenty-three and an ambitious naval officer in charge of quelling Irish Catholic unrest and blockading Irish ports.

William Penn grew up during the reign of Oliver Cromwell, who succeeded in leading a Puritan revolt against King Charles I, who was beheaded when Penn was age 5. His father was often at sea. Little William caught the pox at young age, losing all his hair (he wore a wig until he left college), prompting his parents to move to the suburbs to an estate in Essex.

After a failed mission to the Caribbean, Admiral Penn and his family were exiled to his lands in Ireland. It was during this period, when Penn was about fifteen, that he met Thomas Loe, a Quaker missionary, who was maligned by both Catholics and Protestants. Loe was admitted to the Penn household and during his discourses, young Penn recalled later that, “the Lord visited me, and gave me divine Impressions i.e. "revelations" of Himself.”

A year later, Cromwell was dead, the royalists resurging, and the Penn family returned to England. The middle class aligned itself with the royalists and Admiral Penn was sent a secret mission to bring back exiled Prince Charles. For his role in restoring the monarchy, Admiral Penn was knighted and gained a powerful position as Commissioner of the Navy.

In 1660, Penn arrived at Oxford, and enrolled as a gentleman scholar with an assigned servant. The student body was a volatile mix of swashbuckling Cavaliers (aristocratic Protestants), sober Puritans, and nonconforming Quakers. The new government’s discouragement of religious dissent gave the Cavaliers the license to harass the minority groups. Because of his father’s high position and social status, young Penn was firmly a Cavalier but his sympathies lay with the persecuted Quakers. To avoid conflict, he withdrew from the fray and became a reclusive scholar. “I had no relations that inclined to so solitary and spiritual way; I was a child alone. A child given to musing, occasionally feeling the divine presence.”

In Paris, at the court of young Louis XIV, Penn found French manners far more refined than the coarse manners of his countrymen—but the extravagant display of wealth and privilege did not sit well with him. He was uncomfortable with the Catholic ritual. Instead he sought out spiritual direction from French Protestant theologians and other. In 17th century England, a number of Christian believers were becoming dissatisfied with the rigid religious form of the Church of England. Their desire was to find a more inwardly satisfying outlook, not only on worship, but on life as well. George Fox was one of these early seekers.

Penn observed how Quakers on errands of mercy were arrested by the police and demonized by other religions, even accused of causing the plague.

Fox began traveling from home to home and from church to church sharing a message about how to have a more personal relationship with the Lord. As his message spread, more and more people became attracted to Fox's preaching of the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ. These early followers were first called "Friends of Jesus." Their name was later changed to "The Religious Society of Friends." In time, the nickname ''Quaker'' was attached to the Friends groups. Penn became a close friend of George Fox, the founder of the Quakers, whose movement started in the 1650s during the tumult of the Cromwellian revolution.

Penn’s first of many pamphlets, "Truth Exalted", was a "short but sure testimony" against all religions except Quakerism. His strident attack on the Trinity and his branding the Catholic Church as "the Whore of Babylon" and Puritans as "hypocrites and revelers in God" brought him attention from the Anglican Church. He also lambasted all "false prophets, tithemongers, and opposers of perfection". On March 4, 1681, King Charles II of England granted William Penn a New World colony as payment for a debt of 16,000 pounds the King owed to Penn's father, a deceased admiral in the British Navy. It was a shrewd move on the part of Charles. By giving Penn a colony in America, he managed to pay off an outstanding debt and at the same time rid his country of Quakers, a religious sect that constantly challenged English laws and the legitimacy of the Anglican Church, the nation's established church. Penn's tract of land consisted of 45,000 square miles of land, an area almost as large as England itself. King Charles named the new colony, "Penn's woods" in honor of the admiral. Penn called the capital city Philadelphia, meaning the "City of Brotherly Love," to reflect his desire that his colony serve as a haven for Quakers and other oppressed Christians seeking religious freedom.

King Charles II's charter to William Penn, granting him the New World Colony... Credit: Courtesy Pennsylvania State ArchivesPenn guaranteed the settlers of his new "plantation" freedom of religious worship. This rare offer attracted not only Quakers, who had been persecuted in England, but also other Europeans who had suffered because of their religious beliefs. Quakers from the British Isles and Germany, French Huguenots, English and Irish Catholics, Lutherans from Catholic German states, Swiss Amish, German Mennonites and members of other religious sects all headed to Penn's refuge. Settlers of many faiths worshipped in private homes, storehouses and barns until they could erect their own houses of worship.


In the early years, Philadelphia was the major port of entry for immigration into the colonies in the early 1700s, bringing many Germans from Germany and others via England. These Germans were accompanied by both English and Irish immigrants.

Prior to 1855, ships would just leave the passengers at wharves, to fend for themselves. Many were conned or robbed by thieves and thugs who were waiting on the docks to greet them, taking what little money they had left after the journey. An immigrant’s poor understanding of the English language made them an even easier target.

However, when endentured servants were onboard, when a ship arrived at last, in Philadelphia, spectators gathered on the wharf. Some of those who approached the dock,did so in expectation the newly arrived immigrants who were to be exposed for sale." Merchants would come aboard, and sometimes were business partners of the ship owner himself. An official count was taken to determine the passengers who could be sold as indentured servants. Those who had died envoyage were removed The merchant then placed an advertisement in one of the Philadelphia newspapers, advertizing "German Servants For Sale.

Germans liked the midwest, but also were drawn to the hills of Pennsylvania, and here was where our ancestor Hendry Brown is listed as 48 years old in the 1789 Tax List of Woodbury Twp, Bedford Co. PA. and at this time he possessed 110 acres, 3 horses and 2 cows.

Jacob Brown died in Woodbury Twp. in Bedford County, Pennsylvania, where Maria Sallome (Hoerner) Brown/Braun and "Henry Braun/Brown appear in the Woodberry Twp tax list of 1788 and 1789." Henry/Heinrich Brown/Braun and Maria Salome were married in 1775. Maria Salome was the daughter of Friedrich Carl Hoerner born 23 Dec 1703 in Germany and died Woodbury Twp, Bedford Pa and Anna Catharina Schaub born 28 May 1723 in Bayern, Germany and died 19 Dec 1789 in Bayern, Germany.

The labor system in the state of Pennsylvania began to shift away from indentured servants and slaves in the 1700's toward day or wage-type labor. Wages fell and employers began to appreciate the advantages of wage laborers, as more and more immigrants arrived, who did not need to be provided for when they got old or sick, as bond servants or slaves did. By the mid-1700s, endentured servants made up 1/4 of the Philadelphia labor force.


Jacob Brown married: Elizabeth Ulrich Brown, who was born on 8 Apr. 1781. On the 1820 Census, Jacob Brown was more than 45 and his wife Elizabeth 26-45. In 1840 Jacob and Elizabeth Brown were 60-70, and living in South Woodbury Twp. The majority of the Jacob Brown family immigrated to Iowa.

Elizabeth Ulrich Brown was the daughter of Samuel Ulrich who was born: 1744 Frederick Co, Maryland, and died: Bedford CO. PA 1822 and Mary Elizabeth Brumbaughborn: 1767 at Bedford Co. Pa. Jacob Brown died: Feb. 18, 1854 near Libertyville, Iowa at age 74.



Samuel Ulrich was the son of Stephen Waggoner Ulrich Born 1722 in Swabaland, Mannheim, Baden, Germany, and Elizabeth Greib Cripe Sr Born: 1720 in Bedford County, PA and died: 1781 in Washington County, MD. Stephen (Waggoner) Ulrich (Ulery) (II)3 was born about 1710 in Swabaland, Mannheim, Baden, Germany. In 1648, with the Peace of Westphalia, the French-speaking inhabitants of these provinces, known as Walloons (from the ancient Teutonic word wahl which meant "foreigner"), came under the jurisdiction of Spain as part of the Spanish Netherlands (which was part of the empire of the Hapsburgs of Austria who were connected to the Spanish royal family through marriage). Fleeing the ongoing violence and religious persecution (which would have existed under either French or Spanish control), some Huguenots from this region fled to an area around Mannheim, Germany, known as the Palatinate, or in German Die Pfalz, a Protestant region ruled by a hereditary prince known as the Elector. In 1720 the city became the residence of the electors palatine (see Palatinate), who built (1720—60) a large palace and held a brilliant court there.

Stephen Waggoner's first wife was Anna Margretha Makin, the daughter of Ludewick and Anna Eva Makin. She was born 1720 and died 1740. They married on 10 Jan, 1729, in Schriesheim, east of Mannheim, Baden, immigrating to Pennsylvania. Children are as follows:

Stephen and Anna were married some 10 years before her death in 1740, when Stephen remarried Elizabeth Greib Cripe.

Elizabeth Cripe was the daughter of Daniel Grieb, (born 1712; died 1801), who is said to have been a cooper by trade. He married Elisabeth Ulrich (born 1723; died 1801). They were married abt 1742 in York Twp, Lanc. Co, Pa. The children of Jacob Grieb and Elizabeth Ulrich were as follows:

Stephen Waggoner Ulrich was the son of Stephen Ulrich born: 1680 in Swabaland, Mannheim, Germany
Stephen Ulrich was the son of Jacobus Ulrich (Jacob Ulrich) born: 25 Feb 1627 in Munderkingen, Donaukries, Wuerttemburg, Germany
and Anna Frey born: 3 March 1660 in Grenzach, Loerrach, Baden, Germany. Grenzach-Wyhlen is a municipality in the district of Lörrach in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated on the right bank of the Rhine, 7 km east of Basel, and 8 km south of Lörrach.