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l"Ain and David Family History
Vive La France!!!
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The Huguenots were a people of steadfast faith in Jesus Christ. As a group, they did not reflect a particularly distinct religious denomination other than that of "believers in Yeshua haMahiach/Jesus Christ. But they were representative of the body of believers who stood in opposition against a corrupt form of government which stands in opposition to "The Kingdom of God," as seen in the holy scriptures. In this they were viewed as "dissenters" by their enemies. The persecution against them did not cease when they fled their European homeland. But rather was perpetuated on the North American continent.

Roche writes in his book The Days of the Upright, A History of the Huguenots that "Huguenot" is “ a combination of a Flemish and a German word. In the Flemish corner of France, Bible students who gathered in each other's houses to study secretly were called Huis Genooten, or 'house fellows,' while on the Swiss and German borders they were termed Eid Genossen, or 'oath fellows,' that is, persons bound to each other by an oath. Gallicized into 'Huguenot,' often used deprecatingly, the word became, during two and a half centuries of terror and triumph, a badge of enduring honor and courage. ”

Some discredit dual linguistic origins, arguing that for the word to have spread into common use in France, it must have originated in the French language. The "Hugues hypothesis" argues that the name can be accounted for by connection with Hugues Capet king of France,[2] who reigned long before the Reform times, but was regarded by the Gallicans and Protestants as a noble man who respected people's dignity and lives. Frank Puaux suggests, with similar connotations, a clever pun on the old French word for a covenanter (a signatory to a contract). Janet Gray and other supporters of the theory suggest that the name huguenote would be roughly equivalent to little Hugos, or those who want Hugo.

In Tours those termed the prétendus réformés ("these supposedly 'reformed'") habitually gathered at night, both for political purposes, and for prayer and to sing the psalms, hence "those who walk by night." With similar scorn, some even suggest that the name is derived from les guenon de Hus (the monkeys or apes of Jan Hus)

The Huguenots won converts among many nobles and formed a loose national organization. The nobles who remained Roman Catholic feared the growing power of the Huguenots and there began in 1560 a series of wars, lasting more than 30 years. Although religion played a part, they were also partly political wars. Huguenot leaders included Gaspard de Coligny and members of the Condé family, a branch of the House of Bourbon. Other possibilities include the name Besancon Hugues, the mid-1500s Swiss Protestant leader, or "another suggestion is that it is derived from the French word Huguon meaning one who walks by night. In the French Reformed Church of Otterburg, there were "Huguenot "Walloons," after the fact that there were French speaking protestants from France and Wallonia. The Free Dictionary states that the name Walloons was also applied to Huguenot refugees in America by the Dutch, who made no distinction between French and Walloon Protestants. The term "Huguenot" was a broad "umbrella" encompassing in general, a number of reformation groups which arose.

Since the Huguenots of France were in large part artisans, craftsmen, and professional people, they were usually well-received in the countries to which they fled for refuge when religious discrimination or overt persecution caused them to leave France. Most of them went initially to Germany, the Netherlands, and England, although some found their way eventually to places as remote as South Africa. Many turned their eyes to America and sought a home in Virginia. Families took up residence along the Potomac, Rappahannock and James rivers. French Huguenots in Virginia prior and supsequent to the influx of 1700 include names such as Barraud, Bertrand s, Boisseaut t , Bowdoin, Cazenove, Contesse, Cottrell v, Forloines, Flournoy, (Fortney) Fuqua, Ghiselin, Jacquelin, Jouet, Lacy, Mauzy, Michie, Micou, Moncure, Seay, Trezevant and others.


The spelling of surnames and name varients are frequently due to the particular locations in which people resided, even in times of severe persecution. For instance, when those of a nation forsook their homeland or birthplace for a neighboring locale, the spelling of their name took on the characteristics of that new region or nation.

The diaspora with the Fortineau/Fontanieu/Fontanet/Fournaise/Fortin/Fortini/Fortnee/Fortinet/Fortinsky/Fournet/Fourney/Fortney surname and it's multitude of name varients have for centuries lived in locations too numerous to enumerate on them all. The first large scale riot of Catholics against Protestants took place in 1557. Huguenots were viewed as seditious by the government desperately fighting the invading Hapsburgs of Spain. After the end of the Hapsburg-Valois wars, Henri II (now having more time on his hands) escalated the persecution of the Huguenots calling for arrests, executions, and even neighbor-on-neighbor surveillance.

After Henri's death, a period of moderation was established by Catherine d'Medici (regent for Charles IX), allowing for much greater governmental toleration . But the Duke of Guise helped create a climate of Catholic intoleration which led to the Massacres at Vassy and Sens in 1562. One of the earliest of the Fortuneux families Huguenot ancestors was Simon Fortuneux who married Catherine Thiro on 02 Nov 1585, at Frankenthal, Bayern-Pfalz. In the second half of the 16th century, people from the Netherlands, persecuted for their religious beliefs, settled in Frankenthal. They were industrious and artistic and brought economic prosperity to the town. Some of them were important carpet weavers, jewellers and artists whose Frankenthaler Malerschule ("Frankenthal school of painting") acquired some fame. In 1577 the settlement was raised to the status of a town by the Count Palatine Johann Casimir.

In 1600 Frankenthal was converted to a fortress. In 1621 it was besieged by the Spanish during the Thirty Years' War, and then successively occupied by troops of the opposing sides. Trade and industry were ruined and the town was not reconstructed until 1682.

In 1689 the town was burnt to the ground by French troops in the War of the Grand Alliance. The town did not fully recover from this for more than fifty years.

However, in 1750, under the rule of the Elector (Kurst) Charles Theodore, Frankenthal was established as a centre of industry. Numerous factories were opened and mulberry trees were planted for silk production. In 1755 the famous Frankenthal porcelain factory was opened, which remained in production until 1800.

In 1797 the town came under French occupation during the French Revolutionary Wars. It passed into the rule of Bavaria in 1816.

The origins of one branch of the Fortineux family begins in Dept of Ain, France. The Thurmont Scrapbook of the Greater Emmitsburg Historical Society, in their excellent and well-documented article Pioneer Families: The French-Swiss Connection," provides the olde world spelling "Fornev (Fahnev)" - Stating that the family has been traced to Ferney in Depart of Ain. Ferney-Voltaire today is a commune in the Ain department located in eastern France. It lies between the Jura mountains and the Swiss border and forms part of the metropolitan area of Geneva.

Some Fornev/Fahnev/Fahrne family members fled to Protestant cantons of Swizerland, some to Palatine Germany. Adam Furnie purchased land southwest of later Emmitsburg in 1762. Fortnev (Fortineaux) - Jean Henri Fortineau was listed as Fortinee by Pastor Stoever who baptized a daughter at Monocacy Church in 1738.

The Ferney family are said to originate from the small hamlet known as 'Valle' or 'Le Val' and in contemporary times is shortened to "Leval." Situated near the town of Rougemont which was renamed Rogemont-le-Chateau in 1893. Family members remained in this original locality for a considerable time, with the surname found infrequently in nearby Parish registers. After the Franco/Prussian War in 1871 the country was annexed by Germany.

The earliest mention of the surname is that of Etienne Fortin, who was born in 1518 in France. He was the father of Simon Bellafontaine/Fortain/Fortin who was born in the year 1537 at St Cosme-de-Vair, Mans, Sarthe, France. Simon Fortin married Valerie. He died: 10 April 1617 at Notre Dame de Vair, Sarthe, Vosges, France. Simon Fortine II was born 1569 in St-Cosme-De-Vair, Perche, France

Etienne Fortin born 1588 at St Cosme En Vairais. Perche in northern France is located on the border of Normandie, mainly in the east of the Orne¡ departement, with extensions into neighbouring departements. Formerly a county, it was united to the French crown in 1525. It is largely hilly country, the Perche Hills having summits as high as 1,000 feet (300 m). Perche is a district of pastoral farming and dairying, famous for its breed of draft horses.

And Julien Bellafontaine Fortin was born Feb. 9, 1621. At 29 years of age Julien along with his 15 year old sister Marie and several companions traveled to the Port of Dieppe in Normandy and embarked upon a voyage to New France. He spent 3 long monthes at sea because of head winds. The ship arrived in Quebec at end of summer in 1650. He disembarked with passengers Simon Rocheron, his sister Marie,the carpenter Rouillard, the tailor Claude Bouchard, and Simon Lereau. Julien married Genevieve LaMarre Gamache daughter of Nicholas Gamache on November 11, 1652 in Quebec. The following 13 children were born to the Gamache family. Jean Fortineau born 15 June, 1736 died 6 Nov 1797 at St Lumine de Coutais.

He was godfather of grand-daughter Marie Gagnon. He died at Hotel-Dieu in Quebec City, Canada on August 10, 1692 at age 71 years. He is buried: Aou, Sainte Joachim, Quebec, Canada.

Another Simon Fortin was born 1559 at St. Cosme de Vair, Sarthe, France. It's possible that our family lineage comes through him. Spouse: Gervais Lavye Simon Fortin died: 10 April 1617 and is buried: Notre Dame de Vair, Le mans, France.

My family lineage through Barbara Fortney's father, Daniel Fortineaux begins in France, where he stated he was born. Five of Daniel Fortney/Fordeneau/Forteneau's children were born in France. The Preston County History states that the family used the name Fordeneau at first, but later shortened it to "Fortney." In researching the name in France, the spelling is sometimes Forteneau or Fortuneau, or Fortineau/Fortineaux. Jean Fortuneau/dit Laverdure born in 1637 in Pont-L-Abbe-d''Arnoult, (St Pierre) Charente-Maritime, France, occupation was that of soldier at the garrison Du Fort, Quebec. (Source: Marriage: The King's Daughters: Joy Reisinger, p 69. Military Soldier) Jean married Jeanne Lecoq on 27 June 1689 at Notre Dame, Quebec. Filles du Roi records state that she was from Ile de France. Jean Fortuneau died 1 Oct 1698. (The King's Daughters (in French: filles du roi, filles du roy) were similar to mail order brides. They were between 700 and 900 Frenchwomen whose transportation to Canada and settlement in the colony were paid for by the King. They were also occasionally known as the King's Wards, where "wards" meant those under the guardianship of another. Some were given a royal gift of a dowry of 50 livres for their marriage to one of the many unmarried male colonists in Canada. These gifts are reflected in some of the marriage contracts entered into by the Filles du roi at the time of their first marriages.

Jean Fortuneau's father was Andre Fortuneau and his mother Marguerite Beaumont born Paris, Seine, France.

Daniel Fortineau's descends from the progenitor, Johann Jonas Fortineux/Fortineau (Fortune) who was born in 1649 in St. Lambrecht, (Pfaltz) West Palatinate, Germany. Lambrecht is located in the Middle Rhine River Valley, west of Germany. He died in Otterberg, West Palatinate, Germany in the year 1650. The landscape of Rheinland-Pfalz is shaped by the four low mountain ranges of the Eifel, Westerwald, Hunsruck and Taunus, and by the Moselle and Rhine rivers. It borders the Lander of Nordrhein-Westfalen, Saarland, Baden-Wurttemberg and Hessen, and the countries of Luxembourg, Belgium and France. Germans refer to the Rhineland area as "The Rhineland-Pfalz," the river valleys created by the Ahr, Lahn, Moselle (Mosel) and Rhine Rivers. In the Middle Ages the Moselle and Rhine river valleys were controlled by feudal lords who built castles at strategic intervals along the rivers, establishing dozens of "tollbooths."

Elector Friedrich V's acceptance of Bohemia'soffer of it's crown touched off the Thirty Years War, a complicated catastrophe from which the Palatinate Never fully recovered. The Palatinate became a spoil, fought over for centuries. During these years, the weakened Palatinate was no match for France under Sun King Louis XIV, whose forces ravaged the region. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth Charlotte, the region of Holzappel received 700 persons from France or from districts occuppied by French troops. Twenty families were led to this area by Pastor Jean Faucher, and among them was Johann Jonas Fortineux/Fortune (born 2 June 1650)of St Lambrecht and his wife Sarah Menton. Jean Faucher and Elder Louis Roi are listed in records as sponsors at the birth of at least one of their sons.

The Rhine River, whose name comes from a Celtic word renos meaning "A raging flow," begins in the Swiss Alps, flowing north and east for 820 miles.


"And ye shall hear of wars & rumors of wars...For nation shall rise against nation, & kingdom against kingdom:" (Matthew 24:7)

  • In 1635, the Croatian troops of the Austrian emperor's army entered Kaiserslautern near St. Lambrecht and killed 3,000 of the 3,200 residents in three days' plundering. Landstuhl was saved from a similar fate by surrendering without a fight. It took Kaiserslautern about 160 years to repopulate itself.

    The trouble did not end with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The Elector of the Pfalz had difficulty with many of his subjects and ordered all castles, including Nanstein, destroyed. The French repeatedly invaded and occupied the area, residing in Kaiserslautern in 1686-1697. Prior to Johann Jonas Fortineux birth, the area had experienced the 30 Years War between the years of 1618-1648. Many soldiers of the contending armies were mercenaries who could not collect their pay. This threw them on the countryside for their supplies. The armies of both sides plundered, burned and raped as they marched, leaving cities, towns, villages, and farms devastated.

    Before the Thirty Years War the peasants and farmers were prosperous with comfortable houses, capacious barns, horses and cattle. During the war horses and cattle were carried away, houses and barns were burned. Even crops were burned in the fields. The master of the house often tortured to force him to give up any hoard of gold. One Swabian peasant tells us in his diary that he was forced to flee his home thirty times. From the onset this was a religious conflict between Protestant and Catholic, that utilized mercenary forces with little concern for anyones rights or property. The plague epidemics which swept Europe between 1625-1635 killed a quarter of the population here.

    Homes were built in autumn, because in summer the population was out working in the fields.

    During 30 Years' War, the standard military formation became long narrow lines of foot soldiers firing muskets who were called musketeers. Muskets are guns using gunpowder, and capable of penetrating through armor, although unlike modern guns, they took a long time to reload. It was still possible for cavalry to trample the musketeers before they had time to reload, so the musketeers combined this form of warfare with pike-men: Pikes are long poles designed to be carried by a warrier and had a sharp point at one end intended to skewer horses if a cavalry charged. Advantages of new style warfare:

    • - Musketeers excelled at killing the enemy more than any previous type of soldier.
    • - Anyone could learn to shoot a rifle. You did not require extensive training as a knight or as an archer to become an effective soldier.
    • - This made larger armies possible
    Because anyone could fight now, armies could be made larger. European armies grew enormously in size during the Thirty Years War.

    In 1556 the Reformation was introduced in this region, so in nearly 100 years, had opportunity to become firmly established. Cardinal de Richelieu (1585-1642; first minister of Louis XIII) viewed Huguenot wealth and control of major cities as a Trojan horse within the French state. The term "Huguenot" is believed to derive from Hasbrouck: French (Huguenot), habitational name from a place in French Flanders, spelled Hazebrouck in French, Hazebroek in Flemish, meaning hare fen. Bevier: French, from the old French bevier, a measure of land; hence probably a nickname for someone who owned or worked such a piece of land.


    The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant French Protestants (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic. The main concern was civil unity, and the Edict separated civil from religious unity, treated some Protestants for the first time as more than mere schismatics and heretics, and opened a path for secularism and tolerance. In offering general freedom of conscience to individuals, the edict offered many specific concessions to the Protestants, such as amnesty and the reinstatement of their civil rights, including the right to work in any field or for the State and to bring grievances directly to the king.

    When Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes he established Protestantism in 200 towns, proclaimed freedom of worship, and allowed substantial political independence. During the next 50 years, more and more skilled artisans and members of the bourgeoisie became Huguenots, who thus constituted one of the most industrious and economically advanced elements in French society.

    The Edict of Nantes that Henry signed comprised four basic texts, including a principal text made up of 92 articles and largely based on unsuccessful peace treaties signed during the recent wars. The Edict also included 56 "particular" (secret) articles dealing with Protestant rights and obligations. For example, the French state guaranteed to protect French Protestants travelling abroad from the Inquisition. "This crucifies me," protested Pope Clement VIII, upon hearing of the Edict. The final two parts consisted of brevets (letters patent) which contained the military clauses and pastoral clauses. These two brevets were withdrawn in 1629 by Louis XIII, following a final religious civil war.

    The two letters patent supplementing the Edict granted the Protestants places of safety (places de suret), which were military strongholds such as La Rochelle, in support of which the king paid 180,000 a year, along with a further 150 emergency forts (places de refuge), to be maintained at the Huguenots' own expense. Such an act of toleration was unusual in Western Europe,[6] where standard practice forced subjects to follow the religion of their ruler - the application of the principle of cuius regio, eius religio.

    While it granted certain privileges to Protestants, the edict reaffirmed Catholicism as the established religion of France. Protestants gained no exemption from paying the tithe and had to respect Catholic holidays and restrictions regarding marriage. The authorities limited Protestant freedom of worship to specified geographic areas. The Edict dealt only with Protestant and Catholic coexistence; it made no mention of Jews, or of Muslims, who were offered temporary asylum in France when the Moriscos were being expelled from Spain.

    The original Act signed on April 30, promulgating the Edict, has disappeared. The Archives Nationales in Paris preserves only the text of a shorter document modified by concessions extracted from the King by the clergy and the Parlement of Paris, which delayed ten months, before finally signing and setting seals to the document in 1599. A copy of the first edict, sent for safekeeping to Protestant Geneva, survives. The provincial parlements resisted in their turn; the most recalcitrant, the parlement of Rouen, did not unreservedly register the Edict until 1609.

    The Edict granted the Protestants fifty places of safety (places de suret), which were military strongholds such as La Rochelle for which the king paid 180,000 a year, along with a further 150 emergency forts (places de refuge), to be maintained at the Huguenots' own expense. Such an innovative act of toleration stood virtually alone in a Europe, where standard practice forced subjects to follow the religion of their ruler the application of the principle of cuius regio, eius religio.


    The Edict aimed primarily to end the long-running, disruptive French Wars of Religion. Henry IV also had personal reasons for supporting the Edict. Prior to assuming the throne in 1589 he had espoused Protestantism, and he remained sympathetic to the Protestant cause: he had converted only in 1593 in order to secure his position as king, famously allegedly saying "Paris is worth a Mass". The Edict succeeded in restoring peace and internal unity to France for many years. Huguenots conducted the emigration on a regular basis. They had itineraries prepared secretly and distributed in which the safest routes and hiding places were described in detail. It was a sort of underground railroad such as existed in America before the abolition of slavery there.

    Many escaped into the forests of Ardennes into Luxembourg. Others through the Vosges Mountains into Germany. Others through the passes of the Jura into Switzerland, where a number froze to death in the snow. Some were shot by soldiers and peasants. Still a great number were taken prisoner and sent to the galleys. A child of 12 was sent to the galleys for accompanying his parents when they were preaching. Yet many managed their escape. The fugitives cut their hair, disfigured their faces with dyes, assumed the dress of peddlars and lacqueys in order to disarm suspicion. The flight of men was accompanied by women both young and old with children.

    Every Huguenot place of worship was to be destroyed; every minister who refused to conform was to be sent to the Hôpitaux de Forçats at Marseilles and at Valance. If he had been noted for his zeal he was to be considered "obstinate," and sent to slavery for life in such of the West-Indian islands as belonged to the French. This dishonor of the people from the cradle to the aged, is what has been termed "the master-piece of that spirit of falsehood which France has baptized by the name of Jesuitism." It was indeed a fiery trial to which French Protestantism was subjected, but only a remnant survived.

    The children of Huguenot parents were to be taken from them by force, and educated by the Roman Catholic monks or nuns with parents put to grief by their children being torn from their arms to be educated in Catholic convents. It was decreed that Protestant boys might lawfully abjure the faith of their parents at fourteen years and girls at twelve years. This rule was soon made to justify the most shameless kidnapping. Any child who could be coaxed or bribed with trinkets to enter a church while mass was going on, or even to repeat a verse of Ave Maria in the street, was liable to be forthwith claimed as a Catholic and dragged off to some convent, and the courts paid no heed to the protests and entreaties of the outraged parents. Protestant schools were shut up by sovereign decree. Sometimes the buildings which they had erected for the purpose were confiscated and handed over to Jesuits. The dull egotist at Versailles had but to say what should be done, and it was done. Thus the five great Protestant colleges, including that one at Saumur where William Penn had studied, were broken up. Protestant churches were shut up either on slight pretexts or without a word, or were now and then burned by a mob with the connivance of the magistrates. Huguenots, moreover, were excluded from many public offices, and were forbidden to practice law or medicine, or to print or sell books. Huguenot women were not allowed toº be milliners or laundresses.

    William Hanna, in his Wars of the Huguenots describes Queen Jeanne d'Albret as the 'wisest and most enlightened sovereign of her age'. Her life is marked by courage in the face of adversity. She outlived four of her six children; her husband was not faithful to her, nor to the cause of the gospel. Antoine, unhappy that Jeanne would not return to the old religion, took her two surviving children from her to be tutored by Roman Catholic teachers. Yet, she was intractable in refusing to renounce her faith for worldly or domestlc gain. Historians have characterised Queen Jeanne d'Albret of Navarre (1528-1572) as remarkable, grave, saintly, inspiring, brave, ardent and strong-willed. Indeed, she was a woman of distinguished velour. But even more than that, she was faithful to the cause of Christ and his church in an age when faithfulness was very costly.

    Princess Jeanne, the only child of King Henry II of Navarre and Marguerite d'Angouleme, was born to great wealth and privilege. Not only was her father a king, but her uncle, Marguerite's brother, was King Francis I of France. Consequently, Jeanne was an heiress of much of southwestern France on her father's side of the family, and a Princess of the Blood on her mother's side. Of particular interest to Reformation scholars is Jeanne's mother. Marguerite was a woman of exceptional mind, refined manners and, while never officially breaking with the church of Rome, took personal interest in the evangelical religion which was rapidly spreading throughout France. Her private chaplain was Gerard Roussel (d.1555), Bishop of Oloron, critic of the Roman Catholic church and a preacher of the gospel. So much truth did he preach that he and Marguerite enraged the theological faculty of the Sorbonne. Intervention by her brother, the King, helped to defuse the difficult situation. However, at court in Nerac she continued to confer with the Reformers Jacques Lefevre d'Etaples and Clement Marot, and she also provided temporary refuge for William Farel, John Calvin and Theodore Beza.

    Queen Jeanne d'Albret's course was set. She henceforth lived a life of faithfulness to her covenant God. During the next twelve years of her life counter-Reformation forces made earnest efforts to discredit and destroy her. Arrayed against her were many of the great nobles of France, the Papacy, King Philip of Spain and others. The French crown, especially under the influential Catherine de Medici, whom we could identify as Machiavelli's The Prince by her duplicity to play Huguenot against Catholic, once cajoled Jeanne to return to the Roman Catholic church that she might save her kingdom for her son Henry. The Queen of Navarre resolutely declared: 'Madame, if I at this very moment held my son and all the kingdoms of the world together, I would hurl them to the bottom of the sea rather than peril the salvation of my soul'. This faithful Queen was willing to give up the two things most precious to her: her kingdom and her son, and like Abraham with Isaac - she loved God above all things. Many times she found comfort and courage from the thirteenth verse of her favourite psalm, Psalm 31: 'I had fainted, unless I had believed to see the goodness of Jehovah in the land of the living'.

    The remaining years of her life were spent furthering the gospel in her domains and throughout France. Deeply loved by her subjects, this faithful Huguenot Queen reformed the laws of her land, gave aid and assistance to the poor, and established colleges to train theological students in the Reformed faith. Under her personal supervision the Bible was translated into the dialects of southern France. She used her wealth, including the mortgaging of her jewels to bring in and support Reformed pastors to preach the gospel. A college at La Rochelle was founded by Jeanne d'Albret and others of the House of Navarre. She took the gospel with her wherever she went. In Paris' the stronghold of Catholicism, she would have Huguenot preachers declare the Word of God in the royal apartment inviting the court to listen. After the outbreak of the religious wars in France, she advised and lent assistance to the Protestant war effort in administration, nursing, the building of fortifications and composing pamphlets supporting the Protestant cause.

    All over the kingdom troops were quartered upon Huguenot households, as if in an enemy's country, with liberty to commit any outrage short of murder. Huguenot families were forced to quarter of dragoons in their dwellings and they experienced by social atrocities which preceeded as well as followed the Edict of Revocation.

    Vauban, a military engineer just a few years after the revocation, stated that France lost 100,000 inhabitants, 60 million in money, 9000 sailors, 12,000 tried soldiers, 600 officers, and it's most flourishing manufactures.


    King Louis XIV (September 5, 1638 -September 1, 1715) ruled as King of France and of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until he died just prior to his seventy-seventh birthday. Known as The Sun King (in French Le Roi Soleil) or as Louis the Great (in French Louis le Grand, or simply Le Grand Monarque, "the Great Monarch"), he ruled France for seventy-two years, the longest reign of any French or other major European monarch. Born at the Royal chateau in Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1638, just a few brief years before the birth of our family progenitor, Johann Jonas Fortineau, in 1650, the child king was just five when he came to the throne when his father, Louis XIII, died.

    The regency, confided to his mother, Anne of Austria, was marked by a period of rebellion known as the Fronde (1648-1653), led first by the nobility and later by the urban commoners. The boy felt both humiliated by arrogant nobles and threatened by the people of Paris and would never forget it.

    The first twenty years of the king's personal reign were the most brilliant. With his minister Colbert, he carried out the administrative and financial reorganization of the kingdom, as well as the development of trade and manufacturing. With the Marquis de Louvois, he reformed the army and racked up military victories.


    King Louis XIV, with his statement "one king, one law, one religion" did not have the same openness as Henri IV. Neither was the word of the king "his bond." Laws in this instance "were made to be broken." The provisions of the Edict of Nantes were never fully carried out, even during the reign of Henry IV. Its political clauses were abrogated by Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister of King Louis XIII, in 1629. Persecution of the Huguenots resumed during the reign of Louis XIV, particularly after 1681. When the edict was revoked four years later, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots were forced to flee France and take refuge in Protestant countries. The Edict of Nantes was revoked in 1685, and severe persecution of the Huguenots (French Protestants) ensued. The abduction of children put the final seal to the persecution. The edict of revocation had only declared that children subsequently born should be brought up in the Catholic religion. An edict of January, 1686, prescribed that children from five to sixteen years of age should be taken from their heretical relatives and put in the hands of Catholic relatives, or, if they had none, of Catholics designated by the judges! More than half a million of them fled the country. Thousands were martyred, or renounced their faith, but a surviving remnant of them fled to the what became their stronghold in the colorful French Cevennes mountain region, in south-eastern France is an area of volcanic origin, where junipers or rye fields grow, and in winter the snow lies long and deep. In sheltered valleys olive, chestnut, and mulberry trees flourish, but on those heights only a few flocks of mountain sheep graze the herbage and clouds of purple heather.

    Those whose lives weren't consigned to the scaffold, often became galley slaves. The punishment of the galleys was almost worse than the chain. The royal galley was 150 feet long and 40 broad. It had 50 benches for rowers, 25 on each side. The oars were 50 feet long, 37 feet outside of the ship and 13 inside. Six men tugged at each oar, all chained to the same bench. They had to row in unison, or they would be heavily struck by the oars before or behind them. Beside the 300 rowers, the galley carried 200 officers and soldiers. A slave-driver scourged the rowers to their task by a long whip.

    The labor of rowing was from the earliest times often performed by slaves or prisoners of war. It became the custom among the Mediterranean powers to sentence condemned criminals to row in the war galleys of the state. Traces of this in France can be found as early as 1532, but the first legislative enactment is in the Ordonnance d'Orleons of 1561. In 1564 Charles IX of France forbade the sentencing of prisoners to the galleys for less than ten years. The galley-slaves were branded with the letters GAL. At the end of the reign of Louis XIV of France the use of the galley for war purposes had practically ceased, but the corps of the galleys was not incorporated with the navy till 1748. The headquarters of the galleys and of the convict rowers was at Marseilles. The majority of these latter were brought to Toulon, the others were sent to Rochefort and Brest, where they were used for working in the arsenal. At Toulon the convicts remained (in chains) on the galleys, which were moored as hulks in the harbour.

    A vivid account of the life of galley-slaves in France appears in Jean Marteilhes's Memoirs of a Protestant, translated by Oliver Goldsmith, which describes the experiences of one of the Huguenots who suffered after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. Galley-slaves lived in unsavoury conditions, so even though some sentences prescribed a restricted number of years, most rowers would eventually die, even if they survived the conditions, shipwreck and slaughter or torture at the hands of enemies or of pirates. Also, nobody ensured that prisoners were freed after having completed their sentences, so imprisonment for some time could still mean imprisonment for life, and nobody except the prisoner would notice.


    In issuing the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Louis XIV ended religious freedom in France, outlawing the Calvanist Protestantism of the Huguenots. Some five hundred thousand chose to flee the country, including many merchants and textile workers, while those who remained were subjected to oppression; some feigned conversion, some were deported to the colonies, and others fled to the "desert" the wild and isolated hills of the Cevennes. It was here that they staged the Camisard revolt, so-called for the shirts they wore as a sign of recognition (from "chemise," French for "shirt"). In these persecuted believers we see such an intence desire to know the Christ of the Bible, through doctrinal purity, and a willingness to forsake any and all doctrines which were not what the apostles taught. The Book of Acts expressly records the apostles teaching, preaching and church planting methods. And Christ who is the Eternal Word gave to them those biblically accurate truthes presented to the apostles to "build His church." The plumbline was in their hand that "He who laid the foundations of the house could finish it." As the Lord said: Ye shall receive power when the Holy Spirit comes upon you," and they received such an outpouring of the Spirit of the Lord that even their enemies marveled.

    Protestants from the South and the East - Languedoc (Upper and Lower), Cevennes, Vivarais, Provence, Dauphin, those re-attached Piedmont valleys under French domination, Burgundy, Champagne, Ille-de-France and Lorraine - found their way first either to the German Rhineland, sometimes to Switzerland (i.e. the evangelical cantons), the Republic of Geneva, the principality of Neuchatel and the Grey Ligues. They could not all stay there so were taken, for the most part, to Germany, from Basel and Schaffhausen, principal points of exit from Switzerland. Samuel Keimer was a member of the French Prophets of the early 1700s who worked with Ben Frankin to print reformation literature.

    The Fortineau/Fortin family had for centuries been French Catholics in the Loire region of France. The Protestant Reformation cry was "Back To The Bible!" The term Sola scriptura (Latin ablative, "by scripture alone") is the assertion that the Bible as God's written word is self-authenticating, clear (perspicuous) to the rational reader, its own interpreter ("Scripture interprets Scripture"), and sufficient of itself to be the final authority of Christian doctrine. Scriptura was a foundational doctrinal principle of the Protestant Reformation.

    This return to scripturally based religion was not always an easy one, but the Saviour promised that if we have to give up houses, lands, even relatives, for the sake of the gospel we would be rewarded in this life AND the life to come (Heaven) And in Matt. 10:37, "He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me: and he that loveth son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me."

    Bibles were not readily available in those early reformation years. What copies were available were expensive. Secondly, it took the courage of religious conviction to forsake traditions that did not square with the bible, as one might be ostracized by family and friends. This required a heartfelt committment to the truth of God's word.


    During this period, they had no civil rights, unless they abjured their faith. They could not bury their dead, baptize their children or marry. Their priests were forced into exile on pain of death. The recalcitrant were subjected to the infamous dragonnades, which involved the forcible billeting of troops on private homes at the expense of the occupants. As if this were not enough, the soldiers would beat their drums continuously for days and nights in people's bedrooms in order to deprive them of sleep. Protestants were also put to death or sent to the galleys for life and their houses were destroyed.

    The singing of psalms commanded in the scriptures, was prohibited in streets or shops, in private homes, restricted even in Protestant meeting houses. At the end of the 17th century, laws grew more severe banishing Protestant pastors. The severest penalties awaited those who returned, or for anyone who sheltered them: possession of the heretic's property rewarded those who betrayed them. Protestant meetings were pro- scribed ; possessors of a Protestant Bible or Psalter were liable to imprisonment and confiscation. The dragonnades inflicted untold horrors. A brutal soldiery, quartered in the houses of the Huguenots, was encouraged to pillage, and outrage. Nor were the victims suffered to escape. Guards were doubled on the frontiers, and the peasants were armed to assist in arresting fugitives. But Huguenot buried their books, praying for God's intervention, lifting his voice in praise in a cave or forest, though that the sound may betray him to his persecutors or consign him to the galleys. Even among the Alps, liberty of singing psalms was denied.

    What was all this religious suppression all about? What was it that they attempted to silence? The French Camisards like the French Prophets and Irish Quakers of the era, believed strongly in the apostles doctrine as outlined by God's word through the Lord Jesus Christ through the Apostle Peter on the Day of Pentecost, (Acts 8) including salvation and forgiveness of sins through Jesus Christ, water baptism in the name of Jesus Christ, speaking supernaturally in other tongues. (Acts 2:38, Acts 8:16, Acts 10:46-48, Acts 19:5) William Penn frequented meetings of this sort, and was sent to the Tower of London with a life sentence for his writings. Only a miracle of God brought his release. Among this believing remnant, miracles of healing, prophecy and tongues were manifest. They came to be known as the French Camisards after King Louis XIV sent heavily armed troops against them from 1701 until 1710 and they attempted to defend themselves. Some took refuge in England, where they became known as the French Prophets.


    And they went forth, and preached every where, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen.

    William Penn, who had a German mother, made several visits to the Rhine country, beginning in 1677. He was interested in the separatist sects of the Rhine Valley for their disdain of worldliness and war. Penn traveled widely and was in the company of the Quakers and the French Camisards who had the gifts of the Spirit in operation among them, such as prophecy and tongues and interpretation of tongues, (I Corinthians 12) and reformers such as George Fox and other reformation groups. On the day of Pentecost, the Apostle Peter stood and cried: "And in the last days it shall be, God declares, that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh, and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams..."

    14 But Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice, and said unto them, Ye men of Judaea, and all ye that dwell at Jerusalem, be this known unto you, and hearken to my words: 15 For these are not drunken, as ye suppose, seeing it is but the third hour of the day. 16 But this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel; 17 And it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh: and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams: 18 And on my servants and on my handmaidens I will pour out in those days of my Spirit; and they shall prophesy: 19 And I will shew wonders in heaven above, and signs in the earth beneath; blood, and fire, and vapour of smoke: 20 The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before that great and notable day of the Lord come: 21 And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved. 22 Ye men of Israel, hear these words; Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God among you by miracles and wonders and signs, which God did by him in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also know: 23 Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain: 24 Whom God hath raised up, having loosed the pains of death: because it was not possible that he should be holden of it. 25 For David speaketh concerning him, I foresaw the Lord always before my face, for he is on my right hand, that I should not be moved: 26 Therefore did my heart rejoice, and my tongue was glad; moreover also my flesh shall rest in hope: 27 Because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. 28 Thou hast made known to me the ways of life; thou shalt make me full of joy with thy countenance. 29 Men and brethren, let meb freely speak unto you of the patriarch David, that he is both dead and buried, and his sepulchre is with us unto this day. 30 Therefore being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne; 31 He seeing this before spake of the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in hell, neither his flesh did see corruption. 32 This Jesus hath God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses. 33 Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, he hath shed forth this, which ye now see and hear. 34 For David is not ascended into the heavens: but he saith himself, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, 35 Until I make thy foes thy footstool. 36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ. 37 Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their heart, and said unto Peter and to the rest of the apostles, Men and brethren, what shall we do? 38 Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. 39 For the promise is unto you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call. 40 And with many other words did he testify and exhort, saying, Save yourselves from this untoward generation. 41 Then they that gladly received his word were baptized: and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls. 42 And they continued stedfastly in the apostles doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers.

    Acts 2:18-Acts 2:38, Acts 8:16, Acts 10:46-48, Acts 19:5) God has poured, is pouring and will pour out of His Spirit in these last days, exactly as He has prophesied. William Penn prefaced George Fox, journal with these words: "By William Penn, George Fox's dear Friend, Brother in Christ, and admirer." Will Penn like George Fox was an apostolic Christian. They believed God is one, as stated in Deut. 6:4. "Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD."

    Penn had printed several tracts on Pennsylvania, the royal charter of the colony, and advertised the conditions of settlement, 100 acres of land for two English pounds and a low annual rental, popular government, universal suffrage, equal rights to all regardless of race or religion.

    Our ancestor Jonas Fortineau born 2 June 1650 in Lambrecht, Pfalz, Bayern, Germany and his son Jean Fortineau were however, both born in the Pfalz, where the family resided for a century or two as refugees. The Rhineland Pfalz borders France and lies between Belgium and Switzerland. Rhineland-Palatinate [puh-lat'-i-nayt] can today be found in the middle Rhine River valley in the west of Germany, bordering France and the state of Saarland to the south, Luxembourg and Belgium to the west, and the states of Nordrhein-Westfalen [North Rhine-Westphalia], Hessen and Baden-Wurttemberg to the north, east and southeast, respectively. The Fortineux family were members of the French Reformed Church. The spelling "Fortne" was used in the Church Book of the First Reformed Church of Lancaster, PA, for Johann Jonas Fortineau. Major Huguenot sources list both of these men as French Huguenots. Those of this family line are descendants of the Huguenot lineage from the Ain Province in France. The Edict of Nantes required conversion of all French Protestants (Huguenots) and forbidding emigration. The French had also conquered some of the Swiss cantons where there were many Mennonite followers. These French or Swiss Protestants fled to the neighboring non-Catholic countries. The majority crossed the Rhine River to the provinces and city-states of Lutheran Germany.


    The Nine Years' War (1688-97) often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg was a major war of the late 17th century fought primarily on mainland Europe but also encompassed theatres in Ireland and North America. In Ireland it is often called the Williamite War, and in North America is commonly known as King William's War. Older texts may even refer to the Nine Years War as the War of the Palatine Succession, or the War of the English Succession.

    King Louis XIV of France emerged from the Franco-Dutch War in 1678 as the most powerful monarch in Western Europe, but although he had expanded his realm the Sun King remained unsatisfied. Using a combination of aggression, annexation, and quasi-legal means Louis and his ministers immediately set about consolidating and extending his gains in order to stabilize and strengthen his frontiers. The War of the Reunions (1683-84) secured Louis further territory, but the King's revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 began a deterioration of French military and political dominance in Europe. Louis belligerence eventually led to the formation of a European-wide coalition, the Grand Alliance, determined on curtailing French ambition. The Alliance was led principally by the Anglo-Dutch Stadtholder-King William III, the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, King Charles II of Spain, and Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy.

    The war was dominated by siege operations, notably at Mons, Namur, Charleroi and Barcelona; open battles such as Fleurus and Marsaglia were less common. These engagements generally favoured Louis armies, but by 1696 France was in a grip of an economic crisis. The Maritime Powers (England and the Dutch Republic) were also financially exhausted, and when Savoy defected from the alliance in 1696, all parties were keen for a negotiated settlement. The signing of the Treaty of Ryswick in September 1697 brought an end to the Nine Years War, but with the imminent death of the childless and infirm King Charles II, a new conflict over the inheritance of the Spanish Empire would soon embroil France and the Grand Alliance in another major conflict "the War of the Spanish Succession."

    It was within these years that the art and practice of war began to crystallize into the form called " linear " in its strategic 1 The name " Grand Alliance " is applied to the coalition against Louis XIV. begun by the League of Augsburg. This coalition not only waged the war dealt with in the present article, but (with only slight modifications and with practically unbroken continuity) the war of the Spanish Succession that followed.

    In the Dutch wars, and in the minor wars that preceded the formation of the League of Augsburg, there were still survivals of the loose organization, violence and wasteful barbarity typical of the Thirty Years' War; and even in the War of the Grand Alliance (in its earlier years) occasional brutalities and devastations showed that the old spirit died hard. But outrages that would have been borne in dumb misery in the old days now provoked loud indignation, and when the fierce Louvois disappeared from the scene it became generally understood that barbarity was impolitic, not only as alienating popular sympathies, but also as rendering operations a physical impossibility for want of supplies.

    Thus in 1700, so far from terrorizing the country people into submission, armies systematically conciliated them by paying cash and bringing trade into the country.

    Formerly, wars had been fought to compel a people to abjure their faith or to change sides in some personal or dynastic quarrel. But since 1648 this had no longer been the case. The Peace of Westphalia established the general relationship of kings, priests and peoples on a basis that was not really shaken until the French Revolution, and in the intervening hundred and forty years the peoples at large, except at the highest and gravest moments (as in Germany in 1689, France in 1709 and Prussia in 1757) held aloof from active participation in politics and war. This was the beginning of the theory that war was an affair of the regular forces only, and that intervention in it by the civil population was a punishable offence.

    During the War of the Grand Alliance (1689-97), the troops of the French monarch Louis XIV ravaged the Rhenish Palatinate, causing many Germans to emigrate. Many of the early German settlers of America (e.g. the Pennsylvania Dutch) were refugees from the Palatinate. During the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, the Palatinate's lands on the west bank of the Rhine were incorporated into France, while its eastern lands were divided largely between neighbouring Baden and Hesse. Many residents of Otterberg arrived in Grafschaft of Holzappel under the leadership of Paster Charles Faucher following a prolonged period of wandering, having fled Otterberg due to the War of the League of Augsburg which lasted from 1688 to 1697. Historical records list Charles Faucher as "Pfarrer," the German term for "rector" in Nimes Otterburg. He was born in approximately 1651 at Niemes/Frakr. In 1680 he married Anna Marie Bossett in Otterberg, Pfalz, Bayern. Her occupation is recorded as "Hausfrau." Auf der Schaumburg.

    One son was born to the couple on 8 Feb 1683, whom they named Carl Theodor Faucher. He lived to age 60, and died on 4 Nov 1743 at Kassel. He is listed as Pfarrer or rector as his father. He married Elisabeth Florentine Scheffer (born 20 Aug 1694 in Hersfeld) on 4 Mar 1717 and they had one daughter named Charlotte Sophie Faucher/Fauchert born: 21 APR 1727 in Kassel. Rev. Charles Faucher died 14 March 1690 at age 39 while residing at Schaumburg/Holzappel. His wife Anna Maria Bosset/Bossett Faucher died July 1693 when she was 42 years of age, also while residing at Auf der Schaumburg. Others of the Faucher family emigrated to North America, some of whom with their emigration to the North American continent, became known as the Acadien French or French Canadians.


    • Paul Simon/Simoneau-Born 10 April 1662 Otterberg, Rheinland, Pfalz. He was the son of Paul Simon Sr. and he witnessed the baptism of Thomas Menton 5 August 1672. His mother was Marie Menton Simon

      Note: The witnesses at the baptism of Paul Simon were Jacob Menton, Paul Simon, Jean Campús, Elizabeth (-----), Catherine (-----), and Thomas Menton. Lambrecht became a refuge for several members of the Simon family that settled here in substancial numbers. They kept the French language and intermarried almost exclusively with one another, with some of their number residing previously in Belgium among the reformation group there called Walloons. Taxed: 1665 Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany Occupation: Ratsbürgermeister 1677 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany - Occupation: Gemeine Bürgermeister 1669 Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany *Note: 03 DEC 1671 he was listed as Eschevins en ceste ville and on 07 APR 1675 he was listed as Eschevins en ceste ville.

      Sources: Baptismal Records, French Reformed Church, Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany, 1657-1685, FHL Microfilm 0488741, p. 25. Witnessed baptism of Marie Cleuer 27 Mar 1664 Otterberg, Pfalz. Witnessed baptism of Paul Jasper 11 March 1666 in Otterberg, Pfalz along with Marie Lesmunier and Marie Menton. Witnessed baptism of Jean Pourvoyeur 21 July 1667 in Otterberg along with A Schmus. Witnessed baptism of Marie la Croix 18 Mar 1668 in Otterberg, Pfalz along with Paul Baudouin, Marie la Noix and Marie _____ His Occupation: Ratsburgermeister-1677-1669

        1)Paul Simon b: 10 Apr 1662 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
      • Elizabeth Simon b: 30 Nov 1663 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
      • David Samuel Simon b: 29 Jul 1665 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
      • Thomas Simon b: 27 Jan 1667 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
      • Jacob Simon b: 11 Feb 1669 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
      • Jean Simon b: 26 Apr 1670 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
      • Jacob Simon b: 29 Mar 1671 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
      • Marie Simon b: 25 Aug 1672 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany Children of Paul Simon & Marie Menton

    • 2)Jaque Dijon/Dijou was born: 27 APR 1674 1 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany; the son of Pierre Dijon. Note: Pierre Digeion is noted in historical accounts as also having been with Pastor Faucher. Pierre Digeon witnessed the baptism of Jacob Digeon 09 Feb 1662 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany along with Marie Jean, Anne le Haß, and Jacob Mayot. Children of Jacob Dijon
      • Jacob Digeon b: 03 Feb 1662 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
      • Rachel Digeon b: 27 Oct 1664 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
      • Elizabeth Digeon b: 17 Jan 1667 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
      • Isaac Digeon b: 19 Jan 1669 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
      • Anne Digeon b: 12 Sep 1671 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
      • Abraham Digeon b: 05 Feb 1675 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
      The witnesses at the baptism of Pierre Digeon were Margueritte Migeot, Hans Feldten Ollivy, Margueritte Joris, and Guillaume Cordier. Father: Pierre Digeon - (See:Foreign record) Mother: Anne Feldt Ollivier Sources: Baptism Records, French Reformed Church, Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany, 1657-1685, FHL Microfilm 0488741, p. 86.
    • 3) Abram Rosset/Bosset/Rousset/Roussel I Born" 1630 Chalon-Lyon-Frankreich. He married Anne Dardanne. Anne Dardanne witnessed the baptism of Elizabeth la Croix 27 Dec 1663 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany along with Anne (-----), and Pierre Digeon. Abram Rosset Married Elizabeth Hoc on 21 Oct 1662. He died: Nov 1, 1699 at Otterburg, Pfalz, Germany.

      Abram Rosset II was born 01 Jan 1666 in Otterberg, Pfalz. He was the son of Abraham Rousset/Roussel I and Anne Dardanne Rousset/Roussel. He married: Susanne Censier,the daughter of Jean Censier and Marie Baillard. Married 1 Sep 1685 in Otterberg, , Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany Abraham Rosset died 26 APR 1748 in Sickingen Hof, Neukirchen, Pfalz, Germany. Occupation Leinenweber: linen-weaver and Bauer: Farmer His family fled to Holzappel due to the danger of the war and in 1701 returned again to the farm and built a house and barn. Listed as an erbbestander or leaseholder of property or an estate for an undetermined period, but usually 25 years. The lease was transferable to descendants.

    • 4) Louis le Roi Louis leRoi was the son of Nicholas leRoiof Dieppe, Rouen, Haute-Normandie, Seine Maritime and Jeanne Lelievre who was born 1640 in Ste-Therese,Dieppe, Rouen,France. She was the daughter of Guillaume Lelievre and Marie Millet. Both Millet and LeRoy surnames are on a list of French Nobility of Normandy-1688.

      Louis leRoi was born 25 May 1639 at St Remi, DeDieppe, Larochelle, Aunis, France, France. He married Marie Ledran who was born: 27 Jan 1665 in Ville de Québec, Québec, New France. They were married 26 May 1682 in Lauzon, Levis,P.Q.,Canada. She died: 13 NOV 1713 in Beaumont, Bellechasse,Québec,New France. Louis leRoi died: 27 Apr 1690, Chateau Richer, Montmorency, Quebec, and was buried: 27 Apr 1690-Chateau Richer, Montmorency, Quebec, Canada) Louis LeRoi married Anne Lemaitre (born 1618) of St Remi, Dieppe, France in Feb 1658. The wedding date is 27 Apr 1638 in St-Remi, Dieppe, Rouen, Normandy, France.

      (*NOTE) Lemaitre French (Lemaitre): from Old French maistre or master, hence a nickname for someone who behaved in a masterful manner, or an occupational name for someone who was master of his craft.

      Louis leRoi died 5 June 1705 at Hotel Dieu, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, a teaching hospital founded by the Augustinians in 1639 and was the first hospital in Canada and in North America north of Mexico. Married: Marie Ledran born: 27 Jan 1663 in St Remy, Dieppe, Normandy, France. Christened: Notre Dam, Quebec City, Quebec. Married: 26 May 1682 in St Joseph, LAUZAN, Levis, QC. Daughter of Toussaint LeDran and Louise Menacier. She died: Nov 13, 1713 at Beaumont, Bellechasse, Quebec. Louis leRoi is listed in 1666 in Beaupre, Montmorency, Quebec, Canada. Children of Louis LeRoi

      • Élisabeth Leroy b: 17 Aug 1683 in Lauzon, Québec, New France
      • Marie-Anne Leroy b: ABT 1684
      • Marguerite Leroy b: 21 Sep 1688 in Lauzon, Québec, New France
      • Louis Leroy b: 21 Mar 1690 in Lauzon, Québec, New France
      • Geneviève Leroy b: 19 Jan 1692 in Beaumont,Bellechasse,Québec,New France
      • Jean Leroy b: Abt 1694 in Beaumont, Bellechasse, QC, New France
      • Marie Leroy b: Abt 1697
      • Charles Leroy b: 1 Dec 1698 in Beaumont, Québec, New France
      • Marie-Madeleine Leroy b: 30 Apr 1700 in Beaumont,Bellechasse,Québec,New France
      • Marie-Jeanne-Angélique Leroy b: 28 APR 1703 in Beaumont, Québec, New France
      • Élisabeth Leroy b: 23 May 1705 in Beaumont, Québec, New France

    • 5) Jonas Fortineaux/Fortine/ Fortune/Fortineux/Fortinee/Fortineau/Fortni -Born 2 June 1650 at Lambrecht, Rhineland Pfalz, Bayern and died: 1 June 1709 in Otterberg, Pfalz. He married Sara Menton, born: 1647, Otterberg, Rheinland Pfalz.
      • 1674 Was on Otterberg Tax List
      • 1674 Was on Otterberg Tax List
      • 1689 Was on Charlottenberg Tax List
      • 1689 Was on Charlottenberg Tax List
      • 1695 Was on Otterberg Tax List
      • 1695 Was on Otterberg Tax List
      • 1702 Was on Otterberg Tax List
      • 1709 Jonas's widow living there

      *Note: The name FORTNI was used in the Church Book of the First Reformed Church of Lancaster, PA. Some German records spell Johann Jonas Fortineau's name with the Sephardic spelling "Fortni."

      Between 1735-1755 we find Jonas Fortineau/Fortineaux on a list of members of the German Reformed Church with Jacob Simon, and Nocklaus Simon, Isaac Mayer, Jacob Rossel, Johann Henrich Herchelroth, Conrad Goldman and others. (Source: Einwanderer von 1727 to 1776.)

      A historical account states that four of his sons were already in America; Francis, and his wife, Elizabeth Magdalena Wurtz; Michael and Melchior who had come five years before and settled in Lancaster, PA; and (Johann) David, with his wife and family three years before him, arrived in Philadelphia on September 3, 1739. When Jonas Fortineux/Fortinet arrived in America aboard the Loyal Judith on September 23, 1742, the following members of the family accompanied him, according to the ship's manifest: Susanna Rosina, Johann David, Franz, Johann Michael, Maria Rosina, Maria Katherina and Maria Magdalena; and his youngest child, a son, Johann Jonas, who was 14 years. Also with his family came Samuel Fortineux, a nephew, whose brother, Jean Jacob, had arrived in America the previous year. Jonas is listed as 56 years old in travel documents, which repeat this age twice. Parish records state his age as 65.

        Children of Johann Jonas Fortineux/Fortine/Fortineau (Born 1650) And Sarah Menton (born 1647)

        • Jean Henri Fordney Fortineux born: 2 Apr 1675 in Gundersweiler, Otterberg, West Palatinate,Germany c: 7 Apr 1675 in Reformed Church, Otterberg,West Palatinate, the baptismal record of Jean Henry Fortineux does not list the mother's name, but Henry Menton is listed as the uncle, and Judieth Menton is listed as the aunt. Earlier records identified Jonas Fortineux's wife as Marie Menton.

          Jean Henri Fortineau's godfathers were Sgt. Henry Breil and Jean Louys and the godmothers: "Elizabeth Theil and the wife of Jacob Baudoin." This indicates that the Philippe Thus in this list of 24 families is "Philippe Theis." Jean Henri married: Renarde Spohn was born 1679 in Gundersweiler, Otterberg, Palatinate, Germany. She married Jean Henri on 9 Feb 1702/03 in Otterberg Palatinate. She died 5 Nov 1715 in Otterberg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Bayern, Germany - Burial 9 Nov 1715.

          Marie Louys born 1 MAR 1693/94 in Otterburg Palatinate, Germany married Jean Henri Fortineux on 14 APR 1711 in Otterburg Palatinate, Germany

        • Jonas Peter Fortineux b: 9 Sep 1677 in Otterberg,Germany c: 16 Sep 1677 in Reformed Church,Otterberg, West Palatinate,Germany - Married: Susanne Rosina (Rosa) Spohn on 15 Sept 1701 in Germany - She was born: 18 May 1685 Katzenbach, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany - He died: 1747 in Lancaster, Pennsylvania
        • Jean David Fortineux b: 27 Mar 1681 in ,Otterberg,West Palatinate,Germany c: 4 APR 1681 in Reformed Ch,Otterberg,West Palatinate,Germany - died: Oct 1686 in Otterberg, Germany - Burial: 4 Apr 1681 Otterberg, Germany
        • Marie Judith Fortineux b: 28 FEB 1683 in ,Otterberg,West Palatinate,Germany c: 4 Mar 1685 in Reformed Ch,Otterberg,West Palatinate,Germany-married: Hans Adam Muller 1710- She died: 17 Feb 1739/1740
          Children of Hans Adam Muller & Marie Judith:
          • Marie Elisabeth Muller b: Mar 1709/1710
          • Marie Susanne Muller b: 3 June 1716
          • Marie Marguerite Muller b: 22 NOV 1718 in Otterberg,Germany
          • Johann George Francis Muller b: Unknown
        • Marie Rosine Fortineux b: 5 APR 1685 in Otterberg,Palatinate,Germany c: 15 APR 1685 in Reformed Ch,Otterberg,West Palatinate,Germany - married: Jean Schoumacher in 1707
        • Jean Jacob Sr. Fortineux b: 17 OCT 1690 in Otterberg,Palatinate,Germany c: 18 OCT 1690 in Reformed Ch,Holzappel,Charlottenburg,Germany Married: Maria Elizabeth Weckman on May 7, 1711 in Alesborn. She was the daughter of Samuel Weckman and Marie Madeleine Dech. She was born Jan 1694/95 and died: 31 Mar 1728 in Otterberg, Palatinate, Germany - The following children were born to them:
          • Marie Marguerite Fortineux was born on 4 Aug 1715 in Otterberg, Palatinate, Germany.
          • Marie Rosine Fortineux was born on 7 Dec 1717 in Otterberg, Palatinate, Germany. Died on 15 Mar 1721 in Otterberg, Palatinate, Germany.
          • Jean Jacob Fortineux was born on 2 Nov 1720 in Otterberg, Palatinate, Germany.
          • Samuel Fortineux was born on 24 Jul 1723 in Otterberg, Palatinate, Germany.
          • Jean Pierre Fortineux was born on 31 Mar 1728 in Otterberg, Palatinate, Germany. Died on 31 Mar 1728 in Otterberg, Palatinate, Germany.

          *He married #2 Maria Elizabeth Glas 7 Sept 1728 in Waldfischbach. The following children were born to them:
          • Jean Fortineux was born on 8 Oct 1729 in Otterberg, Palatinate, Germany.
          • Margaret Fortineux was born about 1731 in Palatinate, Germany.

          *He married #3 Marie Susanne Lesoigue 15 June 1732 in Otterberg, Palatinate - He married #4 Elizabeth Culmann 15 Jan 1732
        • Anna Marie Fortineux b: Jan 1695 in, Holzavpel,Charlottenburg,Germany - Died: 24 Nov 1767 in Lancaster County, Pa.

      • 6) Jean Louys married Anne Pouillion.Historical French Reformed church records indicate that they resided in Otterburg as early as 15 OCT 1671. Jean Louis II-(Louys, Louis, Lewis) 13 MAR 1674 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany. Bapt. 15 MAR 1674 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany. He was the son of Jean Louys and Anne Pouillon. The witnesses at the baptism of Jean Louys were Jean Pouillon, and Jeanne Tilly. 1
          Siblings of Jean Louys 'Susanne Sancier' and 'Abraham Roussel' were witnesses at the baptism of a child of the child of Jean Louis and Anne Pouillon


        • Daniel Louys b: 12 NOV 1675 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • Elie Louys b: 16 AUG 1678 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
      • 7) Jean de Buisson/Jean Guyon/Jean Guion Sieur de Buison There are 3 possibilities by this same name: 1) Jean Guyon Buisson born 1620. 2) Born 1660 and died Quebec 3) born 1665 and from Charente, France. Origins in Perche, more precisely at Tourouvre, head town in the Canton, in the Arrondisement of Mortagneau-Perche in Dept. of Orne.

          Children of Jean Guyon/Guion Sieur de Buison/Buisson:
        • Barbe-Marie Guyon born: 19 Apr 1617 in St Jean, Mortagne, Perche,(Orne) France
        • Andree Guyon born: 1622 in La Chaussee, Vienne, France
        • Marie Madeleine de Buisson Guyon born: 18 Mar 1623/24 St Jean, Montagne, Perche (Orne) France
        • Marie Guyon born: 29 Jan 1626/27 in Tourouvre, Montagne, Perche (Orne) France
      • 8) Jean Pierre Hach-Son of Jean Pierre Hach and Marie Desplanques Jean Pierre was born: 22 OCT 1672 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany. Bapt: 27 OCT 1672 Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany Jean Pierre Hach was the son of Jean Pierre Hach born: abt 1652? and Marie Desplanques born: Abt 1643? There was a member of the Hach family living in Otterburg in the late 1700's. Philippina Hach born in 1774 in Otterbach - Georg Nikolaus Hach was born on 30 Jul 1760 in Otterbach. Anna Maria Hach was born on 25 Jul 1765 in Otterbach. He was buried on 4 May 1763 in Otterbach and on into the 1800s. Maria Elisabetha Hach was born on 12 Nov 1778 in Otterbach. Note: The witnesses at the baptism of Jean Hach were Jean Hach, Rachel (-----), Gille Desplanques, and Julianne Desplanques. 1 Married: Marie Desplanques. Witnessed baptism of Anne Marie Viellard 07 Jan 1672 with Gaspard Becker, Anne Eysenbart and Marie Desplanques
          Children of Jean Pierre Hach & Marie Desplanques:
        • Jean Hach born: 22 Oct 1672 in Otterberg, Pfalz
        • Pierre Hach born: 15 Apr 1674 in Otterberg, Pfalz
        • Josue Hach born: 05 Jan 1677 in Otterberg, Pfalz
        • Hans Goerg Hach born: 31 Jan 1679 in Otterberg
        Witnessed the baptism of Jean Hach 27 Oct. 1672 in Otterberg, Rheinland Pfalz.
      • 9)Jean Cherdron-27 MAR 1662 1 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany - Bapt: 31 MAR 1662 1 Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany-The son of: Jean Cherdron b: ABT 1630 in possibly France and Susanne Censier b: Abt 1635. The witnesses were Jacque Darest, Michel Hubert, Elizabeth Cherpentier (Charpentier), and Marie Hemmel. Married: 30 JUN 1683 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany. Following Jean Cherdron's death, Susanne Censier married Abraham Rosset, and with the marriage, he became Erbbeständer of the Sickingischen Hof(Sickingen house/farm)


        • Jean Pierre Cherdron b: 24 SEP 1684 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • Jean Cherdron b: abt 1686
        • Pierre Cherdron b: 19 OCT 1687 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • Francois Jacob Cherdron b: 25 OCT 1690 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • Abraham Cherdron b: 15 SEP 1693 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
      • 10)Jean Chaumont-Born January 09, 1668 in Otterberg, Pfalz. Died: 12 Dec 1705 in Otterberg, Pfalz. Married: Sara Galet born abt 1640 died:24 Apr 1710 in Otterberg, Pfalz

          Children of Jean Chaumont & Sara Galet:
        • Marie Solome Chaumont born: 08 Aug 1665 in Otterberg, Pfalz
        • Judieth Chaumont born: 15 Aug 1666 in Otterberg, Pfalz
        • Jean Chaumont born: 09 Jan 1668 in Otterberg, Pfalz
        • Salome Chaumont born: 05 Nov 1669 in Otterberg,Pfalz
        • Anne Chaumont born: 28 Feb 1673 in Otterberg, Pfalz
        • unreadable Chaumont born: 15 Mar 1676
      • 11)Susanne Censier/Charderson/Bosset/Rosset was the daughter of Jean Censier (born: abt 1615) and Marie Baillard (born: abt 1630) Jean and Susanne's Cherdron's marriage date is 05 Aug 1655 in Holzappel. Jean Pierre Cherdron is listed in tax records or as Johann Peter Cherdron, Peter Cherdron He was taxed: 1772 Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany -Birth: 10 Mar 1741 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany and he died: 07 APR 1781 - Susanne Cherdron died 10 Apr 1689 in Holzappel, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany

        Marriage: Abraham Rosset born: 01 Jan 1666/67 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany.

        Note: von Otterberg entwischen und seitdem verschollen (left Otterberg and never heard from again / presumed dead) Occupation: Schreiner (joiner, woodworker) 1757 Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany

        Baptism: 14 Mar 1741 3 Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany

        Susanne's sibling Marie was listed as the fiance of Pierre Cherdron. The family of Susanne Cherdron, following her husband's decease, was one of 5 families of 20 people residing in Neukirchen.

        The parents of Jean Cherdron were Pierre Cherdron (born: 29 Dec 1639) and Marie Censier (born abt 1641) Jean Cherdron was born 13 Sept 1682 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany. He died: 25 December 1706 in Otterberg. After Jean Cherdrons death Susanne Chardersen/Censier (1615) married Abraham Rosset/Bosset. With the marriage, he became Erbbestander of the Sickingischen Hof (Sickingen House/Farm) She was the daughter of Jean Censier and Marie Baillard.

        *Susanne Censier witnessed the baptism of Daniel Pouillon 24 Aug 1686 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany *She witnessed the baptism of Abraham Cherdron 18 OCT 1686. Abraham Cherdron was born 10 Nov 1671 in Otterberg, Bayern, and who married Anne Margueritte Viellard b: 15 Jul 1672 in Otterberg, Bayern . He was the son of Hans Heinrich Cherdron, born: 8 Jul 1706 in Erlenbach, Bayern. Hans Heinrich was the son of Johann Casper Cherdron b: 31 Mar 1737 in Otterberg, Rhineland, Germany Mother: Eva Elizabeth Brugger. Hans Heinrich married in Otterberg to Anna Maria Herbach b: 5 Jul 1705 in Gehrsweilerhof,Pfalz,Germany.

        Their children were: Johann Leonhard Cherdron born: 10 SEP 1732 in Otterberg,Germany and Catharina Schederon b: 16 Feb 1732.

        Anna Maria (Herbach) Cherdron's brother, Jost Herbach (Yost Harbaugh) of the Gersweilerhof next to the city of Kaiserslautern and his descendants are representatives of those thousands of Palatines who began to pour into Philadelphia in the 1960's (1760's), soon cleared the rich lands of Southeastern Pennsylvania, and eventually settled the upland regions of West Central Maryland and portions of the beautiful Shenandoah Valley of Virginia.' Jost Herbach emigrated to America from the Gersweilerhof, a court midway between the city of Kaiserslautern and the small city of Otterberg (four miles north of the city of Kaiserslautern). This court, on the place of the formerly [sic] village of Gerweiler ... was attached to the political community of Erlenbach, and is now, with Erlenbach, part of Kaiserslautern. Jost's father Peter Herbach, probably born in the Netherlands in 1674, died in 1753 on the Gersweilerhof, where he owned a farm.' Jost emigrated to America about 1737

        Son Jacob Schederon was born in 1742, but the location of his birth is unknown. He is not listed in the records of Otterberg, Germany, and a record of his birth has not been found in America. It is possible that he was born during or shortly after the families emigrated to America, where he is found in the 1800 census of Berwick Township, York Co (now Adams Co), PA. Jacob Schederon witnessed the will of Johann Heinrich Cherdron 28 OCT 1771 in Shrewsbury Township, York Co, PA. Children of Jacob Schederon:

        • Berbery Schederon
        • Mary Schederon
        • Lydia Schederon
        • Wilhelm Scheddron b: 8 APR 1767
        • Catharine Schoddron b: 6 SEP 1770
        • Margretha Scheddron b: 26 NOV 1772
        • Elisabetha Schederon
        • Johannes Schederon
        • Anna Maria Shettron b: 25 JUL 1784
        • Mary Magdalen Schederon b: 25 JUL 1784
        • Johann Jacob Schettron b: 7 JUL 1787 in York Co, Pennsylvania
        • Susannah Schederon b: 26 OCT 1790
        Jacob Schedrone was listed as 'Jacob Shedrone' with 1 male over 45, 1 female over 45, 1 male 16-26, 1 male 10-16, and 1 male under 10 on the census. Anna Maria witnessed the baptism of Pierre Cherdron 28 OCT 1687 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany. Susanne Sancier' and 'Abraham Roussel' were witnesses at the baptism of a child of Jean Louis and Anne Pouillon.


        • 1. Daniel Chadron b: 22 Jun 1657 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • 2. Susanne Cherdron b: 24 May 1658 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • 3. Jean Cherdron b: 09 Sep 1659 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • 4. Pierre Cherdron b: 17 Jan 1661 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • 5. Jean Cherdron b: 27 Mar 1662 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • 6. Madeleine Cherdron b: 17 SEP 1663 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • 7. Daniel Cherdron b: 21 Feb 1665 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • 8. Francois Cherdron b: 25 Mar 1666 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • 9. Abraham Cherdron b: 18 Sep 1667 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • 10. Jacob Cherdron b: 16 Sep 1668 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • 11. Jacque Cherdron b: 20 Feb 1670 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • 12. Abraham Cherdron b: 10 Nov 1671 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • 13. Paul Cherdron b: 30 Jan 1673 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • 14. Anne Cherdron b: 17 Sep 1674 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
        • 15. Judith Cherdron b: 1676 in possibly Neukirchen, Pfalz, Germany

      • 12)Daniel Bouillon/Pouillon was born ABT 1660 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany, and died 27 27 Sep 1724 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany. On 20 Aug 1686 he was Deacon of the French Reformed Church. Married: Susanne Cherdron 29 Jan 1682 in Otterberg, Pfalz. She was the daughter of Jean Cherdron and Susanne Censier born: 24 May 1658 in Otterberg, Pfalz. She died: 10 Apr 1689 in Holzavpel. Daniel married: Marguerite Girard born: 12 Nov 1656 in Mentoulles - Died: 12 Feb 1712 in Holzappel. Daniel Bouillon died: 27 Sept 1724 in Holzappel. The surname Pouillon is used in baptismal records. A Huguenot descendant by this name was also born in 1795 at well-known Huguenot church on Threadneedle Street, London. See also note on Bouillon surname in Belgium.Anne Louys/Ann Pouillon-daughter of Jean Pouillon and Jeane Tilly who married Jean Louys, witnessed baptism of Jean Pouillonin Otterberg, Pfalz - 19 Mar 1671.

        Children of Daniel Bouillon/Pouillon:

          Children of Daniel Pouillon and Susanne Cherdron:
          • Jean Pouillon-born 17 Apr 1682 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany, and died 13 Jan 1741 in Holzappel, Germany.
          • Pierre Pouillon- born 07 Feb 1684 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany, and died 10 Sept 1687 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany.
          • Elie Pouillon- born 03 Feb 1686 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany.
          • Daniel Pouillon- born 20 Aug 1686 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany. He married Elisabeth Charlotte Borel 16 Aug 1708 in Holzappel, Germany.

          Abraham Cherdron/Abraham Schedron was born: 08 MAR 1748 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany His occupation was Metzgermeister (master butcher) He was a Deacon of the French Reformed Congregation Death: He died after 14 SEP 1791 Note: Abraham is mentioned as being a Walloon in the baptism records of his children Elisabet and Jacob

        • 13)Jean Marion/Maiot/Mariot-Born 1645 at Barre des Cevennes, France, the son of Elie Marion. He married Perrine Bategnon/Boutignon in LaRochelle, France. French Prophet Elie Marion was born in 1678 in Bar-of-Cevennes (Lozere) in a family of notable birth. He was 7 years of age when the Edict of Nantes was revoked. The impact of this event upon the French provides a glimpse into the role played by parents in the transmission of an accurate biblical foundation in God's Word from one generation to the next, when he stated: "My education has been such as the difficulty of the time permitted, being from my infancy forced to go to the mass-house." In secret however, I was instructed otherwise by my parents." In 1711 Elie Marion and friends were warmly welcomed in Germany by the German pietists in Halle, Leipzig and Erlangen.


          • Benjamin Marion/Mariot born: abt 1670 in Chaume, Poitou, France-Transactions of the Huguenot Society of South Carolina. This family is related to Elias Marion/Mariot the French Prophet.
          • 14) Henri Collet is listed in the Otterberg census: 03 JAN 1656. He was taxed in Otterberg in 1665, Gemeine Burgermeister 1666 Otterberg, Pfalz. He married Marie Jacque. Marie Collet is also called Marie Pirot/Marie Pirrot/Marie Pirrott/Marie Pierot/Margueritte Collet. Marie Collinet was the grandmother of Marie Profit, but it is unknown if she was the mother of Matthieu Profit or of his wife Marie Libeßar.
            • Jeanne Collet
            • Jean Collet born: abt 1636
            • Henry Collet born abt 1641
            • Marguerite Collet born abt 1641
            • Marie Collet abt 1644
          • 15) Thomas Plunttier/Pluntier Planquier/Plantier/Plantz/Pflantz/LaPlant. Possibly lineage through those in St-Esprit-de-Languedoc, France. The name of Matthius Pflantz is found a list of 1,429 marriages performed by Pastor John Casper Stoever. A Dr De la Plank died 1760. His wife Mary Catherine in 1773. Nobility of Picardy. Der Planks and de Planks were early settlers on the Hudson River and are of the same stock.
          • 16) Pierre Rotart/RolarPossibly Jean Pierre Rolar born: 12 FEB 1670 1 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany. He was the son of Pierre Rolar born 1630 and Madeleine Maquay. Children:
            • Jean Pierre Rolar b: 12 FEB 1670 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
            • Marie Madeleine Rolar b: 18 FEB 1672 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
            • Philippe Rolar b: 08 DEC 1676 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
          • 17) Abram Baudoin Born: 27 Feb 1675 in Otterbein, Pfalz, Ger. Bapt: 03 MAR 1675 Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany. He was the son of Arnolt Baudouin and Marie Menton born 1642. Chr: 3 Mar 1674/1675 Otterberg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany

            • Jean Paul Baudouin b: 20 Sep 1663 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany c: 27 Sep 1663 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany. The witnesses at the baptism of Jean Paul Baudouin were Johannes Reyland, Paul Baudouin, Judieth Menton, and Susanne Reylandt.
            • Jean Jacob Baudouin born: 20 Sep 1665 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany c: 24 Sep 1665 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany. The witnesses at the baptism of Jean Jacob Baudouin were Jacob Menton, Jean Menton, Jeanne Menton, and Jeanne Pasquay
            • Marie Madeleine Baudouin born: 29 Mar 1668 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany c: 1 Apr 1668 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany. She marriage Francois Lucas born: 1663 in Rheinhold Pfalz, Germany. Marriage date: 9 Nov 1688 in Otterburg, Rheinland-Pffalz, Germany. (Marie Baudouin died in 1709 in England or On The Atlantic.)
            • Paul Baudouin born: 24 Oct 1671 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany c: 29 Oct 1671 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany. The witnesses at the baptism of Paul Baudouin were Marie Madeleine Menton, Nicolas Baudouin, Paul Simon, and Margueritte (-----).
            • Abraham Baudouin born: 27 Feb 1674 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany c: 3 Mar 1675 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany
            • Judieth Baudouin born: 29 Jun 1677 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany c: 8 Jul 1677 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany. The witnesses at the baptism of Judieth Baudouin were Henry Menton, Gille Allardin, Unknown (-----), and Catherine Lourbié.
            • Isaac Baudouin born: 19 Mar 1679 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany c: 23 Mar 1679 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany
            • Henri Baudouin born: 9 Jul 1681 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany c: 19 Jul 1681 in Otterberg,Rheinland-Pfalz,Germany
          • 18) Matthias Profite/Profitte-He was the son of Marie Collinet. He married: Marie Libebar. Matthias was taxed in 1665 in Otterberg, Pfalz. Died: 17 June 1692 in Otterberg, Pfalz. (Age 60 years) Marie Colinet (Fabry) (ca. 1560 - ca. 1640), the daughter of a Swiss printer, was born in Geneva, Switzerland. On July 25, 1587, at St. Gervais church in Geneva, she married a surgeon, Wilhelm Fabry (also William Fabry, Guilelmus Fabricius Hildanus, or Fabricius von Hilden, b. June 25, 1560, d. February 15, 1634, often called the "Father of German surgery"). By training, Colinet was a midwife-surgeon who perfected the techniques in Germany of cesarean section delivery (which hadn't changed since the days of Julius Caesar). In addition, she assisted her husband in his surgical practice and took care of his patients while he was travelling. In 1624, after her husband had attempted unsuccessfully to extract metal from a patient's eye, she came up with the idea to use a magnet – a technique which worked then and still is in use today. Her husband wrote a detailed description of the procedure (in his Centuriae), explicitly mentioning his wife as having invented it. However it was he who was given credit for her discovery. She was the mother of eight children, only one of whom (Johannes, later a surgeon himself) outlived her. Documents of her whereabouts after the death of her husband have not yet been found. Elie Profite died 28 FEB 1689 5 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany (Listed in 'Les Fransoy et nouveaux venu' (The French and newly arrived)

            Children of Matthias & Marie Profite

            • Marie Profite born: 25 June 1665 in Otterberg, Pfalz
            • Henry Profite born: 05 Sept 1667 in Otterberg, Pfalz
            • Susanne Profite born: 12 Sept 1669 in Otterberg, Pfalz
            • Jean David Profite born: 05 Mar 1672 in Otterberg, Pfalz
            • Anne Marie Profite born: 15 Nov 1676 in Otterberg, Pfalz

          • 19) Jean Dahl (Thal/Thul)Probably shortened form of Jean Claud Thuillier born 13 Apr 1719 at Silly le Long, Oise, France. He married Marie Jean Lepinasse born 18 Apr 1720 at Sillie le Long, Oise, Fr. The marriage date: 14 Nov 1780. Thuilliers married into the Mercier family, mentioned in this article. Or possibly Johann (Jean in French) Thaal Born 1696. Christened 24 June 1696 Evangelisch-Reformierte, Rieschweiler, Pfalz, son of Johan Adam Thaal and Susanna.

            Philipp Le Thal married Anna Rosset 9 Jan 1687 in Otterburg, Pfalz. Philipp Le Thal died in Otterburg, Pfalz. Anna Rosset was born 8 Feb 1668 in Otterburg, Pfalz. She married: Philipp Salomon.


            • Maria Susanna Le Thal/Maria Susanna d'Arm - Married: David d'Arm abt 1701 in Enkenbach, Pfalz, Germany. Died: 09 DEC 1734 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany - Marriage #2 14 JUN 1723 in Alsenborn, Pfalz, Germany


            • Philipp David d'Arm b: 03 MAY 1723 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
            • Anna Catharina d'Arm b: 02 APR 1727 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
            • Anna Maria d'Arm b: 08 AUG 1729 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany
            • Johann Heinrich Balthasar d'Arm b: 27 NOV 1731 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany

            If the surname Thal is of German origin, A person that lived in a valley or tal. A place name to consider is also the neighboring municipality to Holzappel was Thalern of the Clusone, a town in the province of Bergamo-Lombardy, Italy. Thal was also a silver German coin-so possibly a name describing tradesmen. Hans wilhelm Thal or Dahl resided in Otterbach 1686 -extreme south Rhineland Pfalz-no of French Alsace.

          • 20) Anthoine Thal/Thul/Dahl)
          • 21) Essaie Bougie/Bouquio/Baugeo/Baugio-Possible spelling varient-as a "Martha Baugeo/Martha Dore/Martha le Blanc" born: 15 Mar 1636-died: o6 Mar 1719, whose baptism was witnessed by Matthieu Profite and Elie Profite in Otterberg, Pfalz. Other Baugeo members of French Reformed Church, Otterberg were Louy Baugeo-French Reformed records-Otterberg 1657-1685, Marie Baugeo in Otterberg French Reform records between 1663-1668 and Ester Baugeo born 27 March 1665 in Otterberg.
          • 22) Philippe Thus-Philipp Jacob Theiss' father was Philipp Theiss, born 1713 in Gruendelbach, his mother was Anna Catharina Knapp, born 1708 in Holzappel. Philipp Theiss' father was Johann Friedrich Theiss, born Dec. 18, 1670 in Hungenroth, his mother Elisabeth Gertrud Napp, born Feb. 7, 1679 in Werlau. Johann Friedrich Theiss' father was Philipp Theis, born in 1643 in Bickenbach, mother unknown. Philipp Theis is listed with several other families that left Schoharie in 1728 and settled Tulpehocken.
          • 23) Paul DanielMarried widow of _____Mercier abt 1676. Pierre Mercier's occupation was Marchand, Châtillon sur Loire. Mercier, Jean Le: born at Usez in Languedoc. A famous Hebrew scholar. He married one of the Morell family. His descendants survive in England.

            Daughter Marie Rose Daniel married Pierre Moyse born abt 1696 Port Royal, Nova Scotia. Marriage 8 Jan 1753 Grand Bourg, Guadelupe, Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean before Le Grand Dérangement. Pierre Moyse was baptized at Port-Royal in c1718, age unrecorded. Acadian Moyses who came to Louisiana did so aboard three of the Seven Ships from France that reached New Orleans in 1785. And all of them settled on the Mississippi River above New Orleans.

          • 24) Jean de Bouisson/Boisson - There was a Jean Buisson born abt 1665 in Coulgens, Charente, Poitou, France. He married on 28 Oct 1687 to "Catherine" (born 1688) in Coulgens, Charente,Poitou. (Archives Nationals du Quebec) Perhaps related to Jean Francois Buisson de Saint Cosme (1667-1706) who was a parish priest in Acadia from 1692-1698 and a Canadian missionary of the Catholic church who was born in Quebec, ordained 1690 and murdered while on a mission. His parents had a farm in Quebec at Ile Jesus.

          They fought from heaven; the stars in their courses...(Judges 5)

          There was a sense of urgency for this band of refugees fleeing their wartorn region in 1689. Many witnesses tell of the great Heavenly signs that continued throughout 1687. Angels, thousands of Angels sang the song of deliverance while marching or drumming was heard in the sky. Trumpets were heard to sound and hundreds gathered at night to hear the angelic chorus.49 The hearers speculated that this foretokened of a wonderful thing that God was about to accomplish. Within 3 short years, the present distress would escalate into the French Revolutionary Wars, a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. They are usually divided between the First Coalition (1792-1797) and the Second Coalition (1798-1801), although France was also at war with Great Britain continuously from 1793 to 1802. There was a major freeze in the winter of 1708/09in the Palatinate. On January 10, 1709 the Rhine River froze and was closed for weeks. Wine froze into ice. The grapevines died. Cattle died in their sheds. When the ice thawed sufficiently to travel, a large number in the Palatines traveled down the Rhine to Rottersam in late February and March. In Rotterdam these refugees were housed in shacks covered with reeds. Those who made it to London, were supplied shelter in 1600 tents on the outskirts of the city of London.

          Marked by French revolutionary fervour and military innovations, the campaigns saw the French Revolutionary Armies defeat a number of opposing coalitions and expand French control to the Low Countries, Italy, and the Rhineland. The wars involved enormous numbers of soldiers, mainly due to the application of modern mass conscription. Hostilities ceased with the Treaty of Amiens (1802). For military events afterwards, see the Napoleonic Wars. Both conflicts together constitute what is sometimes referred to as the "Great French War.


          In 1563, Count Georg von Leiningen introduced the Reformation in his Schaumburg lands. The church parish of Cramberg included the villages of Cramberg, Balduinstein, and the Schaumburg houses and castles. The residents of BÃrbach, as well as Biebrich, Steinsberg ,and Wasenbach, belonged to Habenscheid. According to an entry in a war tax list, 25 families lived in Cramberg in 1625, who had to bear 7,990 Gulden in war taxes. Churchbooks for the castle were begun in 1681, for the Habenscheid church in 1701, and for the Cramberg church in 1702. (In 1803 a common church book was begun for Cramberg/Habenscheid. From 1874 on a civil register has been kept in addition to the church books.) In 1699, 91 families of Waldensian and Hugenot refugees from France were welcomed in Schaumburgland and protected from envoys of Louis XIV who appeared and threatened war if they were not released. An enduring relationship existed between believers in Amsterdam where there was a congregation numbering 2700 and the schaumburg Walloons. Several preachers were sent from Amsterdam and the Hague to Holzappel. Princess Charlotte founded the village of Charlottenberg by Holzavpel for them in that present day territory of Prussia. There were ancient ties with Estonia.

          After the death of her mother, Agnes von Effert, gennant Hall, Sovereign Countess Elisabeth Charlotte Melander von Holzavpel-Schaumburg who had been in charge of the government since the death of her father, Count Peter Melander von Holzappel, took over the reigns, with great vigour and intelligence. She allowed Hugenots and Waldenses from France to settle in her territory, abolished the serfdom, gave city and trade-rights to Holzappel and founded the village of Charlottenburg. She married Prince Adolf Nassau-Dillenburg (1629-76), who added Schaumburg to his princely title. After her death, her son-in-law, Lebrecht von Anhalt-Bernburg-Hoym added Schaumburg to his title. He was the widower of her youngest daughter Charlotte von Nassau-Schaumburg (d. 1700), and their son, Victor Amadeus Adolf became Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym, the son of her youngest daughter, and in 1812 his great-granddaughter, Hermine, inherited the Counties of Schaumburg and Holzappel. She was married to Joseph Anton Johann von Habsburg-Lothringen (1776-1847), and died giving birth to twins in 1817. Elisabeth Charlotte lived (1640-1707). Sovereign Countess Elisabeth Charlotte Melander von Holzappel-Schaumburg of Holzavpel and Schaumburg (Germany) was known as Elisabeth Charlotte von Nassau-Schaumburg after her marriage to Prince Adolf von Nassau-Dillenburg (1629-53). In 1688 she raised the village of Esten to the position of City of Holzappel and allowed refugees from France (Hugenottes and Waldenser) and in 1699 she founded the village of Waldenser-Dorf Charlottenberg. ((Prussia))Her 2 sons died and the youngest of 5 daughters, Charlotte, who was married to Prince Lebrecht von Anhalt-Bernburg-Hoym, but she died in 1700, and the territory was inherited by her grandson, Viktor II Amadeus Adolf von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (1693-1772). She lived (1640-1707).

          Holzappel was a county and state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1643 until 1714. It was founded by Peter Melander of Holzappel, an imperial field marshal during the Thirty Years' War. In 1714, it was inherited by Anhalt-Bernburg. Elizabeth Charlotte was born in 1648 and died in 1707. Pastor Faucher, with his group which included the Fortineux family were assisted in time of severe persecution by the reigning monarchy of Holzapfel. Historical records of the era state that "The goal of the Pastor Jean Faucher, the regugee Fortineau's and remainder of the group was, above all, was the County of Grafschaft in Holzavpel on the lower Lahn. Lahn is a municipality in the Emsland district, in Lower Saxony, Germany.

          The Lahn, River of Germany, is a right-bank tributary of the Rhine. Its source is on the Jagdberg, a summit of the Rothaar Mountains, in the cellar of a house (Lahnhof), at an elevation of 1975 ft. It flows at first eastward and then southward to Giessen, then turns south-westward and with a winding course reaches the Rhine between the towns of Oberlahnstein and Niederlahnstein. Its valley, the lower part of which divides the Taunus hills from the Westerwald, is often very narrow and picturesque; among the towns and sites of interest on its banks are Marburg and Giessen with their universities, Wetzlar with its cathedral, Runkel with its castle, Limburg with its cathedral, the castles of Schaumburg, Balduinstein, Laurenburg, Langenau, Burgstein and Nassau, and the well-known health resort of Ems. The Lahn is about 135 m. long; it is navigable from its mouth to Giessen, and is partly canalized. A railway follows the valley practically throughout. In 1796 there were here several encounters between the French under General Jourdan and the troops of the archduke Johan, which resulted in the retreat of the French across the Rhine.

          With the danger of the mercenary troops facing them at every turn, perhaps the group planned to stay under the protection of Elizabeth Charlotte where they could live, and work and save money for transportation. Then embark by boat from the Lahn River, a right-bank tributary of the Rhine River, rising on the Jagd Berg (2,218 feet [676 m]), a summit of the Rothaar Hills in western Germany. The river, which is 152 miles (245 km) long, first flows eastward and then southward to Giessen, before turning southwestward and, with a winding course, reaching the Rhine at Lahnstein.

          The Lahn Valley, the lower part of which divides the Taunus hills from the Westerwald, is at times very narrow and picturesque; among the towns and sites of interest on its banks are Marburg and Giessen with their universities, Wetzlar with its cathedral, Runkel with its castle, Limburg with its cathedral, the castles of Schaumburg, Balduinstein, Laurenburg, Langenau, Burgstein and Nassau, and the well-known health resort of Ems. The Lahn River is about 135 m. long; it is navigable from its mouth by barge to Giessen, and is partly canalized. A railway follows the valley practically throughout. In 1796 there were here several encounters between the French under General Jourdan and the troops of the archduke Johan, which resulted in the retreat of the French across the Rhine.

          Between the years 1687- 1699, Elizabeth Charlotte received about 700 persons from France or from districts occupied by French troops. In 1689, under the leadership of Pastor Jean Faucher, 24 families had arrived there following a long season of wandering having fled Otterberg due to the War of the League of Augsburg that lasted from 1688-1697. As was the custom of the time only the names of men appear in the lists: Paul Simon, Jaque Dijon, Henri Collet, Jonas Fortune with his wife Sara (daughter of Jacob Menton and Judith Louys) and the couple's five children, Jean Henry age 14, Johann Jonas age 12, Jean David age 8, Marie Rosine age 4, and toddler Marie Judith age 2, (with two more children, Jean Jacob (born 17 October 1690) and Anne Marie were born during the sojourne in Holzappel) Louis le Roi, Thomas Plunttier, Jean Thal, Anthoine Thal, Jean Pierre Hach, Matthias Profite, Essaie Bougio, Pierre Rotart, Paul Daniel, Jean Marion (Maiot), Jean de Buisson, Abram Rosset, Pierre Cherdron, Philipp Thus, Jean Chaumont, Daniel Bouillon, Abram Baudoin, (Baudoins were related to the Mentons) Pierre Digoin, Jean Louis, Susanne Charderon. To be sure, only about half of these names are traceable with certainty to Otterberg, namely Paul Simon, Jacque Digon, Henri Collet, Jonas Fortine, Jean Pierre Hach, Pierre Cherdron, Pierre Digeon, Matthias Profit, Jean Louis, Abraham Bosset (listed as Rosset, but Pastor Faucher married Anna Maria Bossett and this was undoubtedly her relative), Jean Dahl (Thal), Anthoine Dahl (Thal)..."

          They were in Charlottenberg for the 1689 tax and returned to Otterberg for the 1695 tax. Jonas was not mentioned in the tax book before 1665. He was mentioned as godfather the first time in 1674. Jonas went to Charlottenberg (Prussia) nearby Holzappel, back to Otterberg about 1695, and died before 1715. Sara Menton was born 1 Jun 1647 in Otterberg, Germany and died 12th of Dec. aged 68 years." She died on 12 Dec 1715 in Otterberg, Palatinate, Germany.


          The Waldegensians of Otterberg possessed wealth and trades so assist and employ the refugees that fled to Otterberg. Heinrich Arnaud is listed among the Waldegensian population. In describing the Rhineland Palatinate where "Jonas Fortineau" was born, the city of St. Lambrecht is located in the Palatine forest. Otterberg, located 7 km north of Kaiserslautern, was founded in the 12th century by French Monks. It contains an ancient Romanesque Gothic abbey that is the largest in the Palatinate. During the Protestant Reformation, Otterberg became predominently Protestant. In 1579 Pfalzgraf Johann Casimir invited religious refugees from the Spanish Netherlands to settle Otterberg and there was active settlement by the Walloons. They used the stones of the monastery complex for the building of their houses, so that today only the abbey church and the chapter hall remain. from 1582 to 1593 Many previous residents of Otterberg were in Frankenthal. Between 1618 to 1648 The Thirty Years' War severely affected the area.

          By 1795 the Huguenot Walloons had settled Otterberg. By the 18th century it was inhabited by Mennonites and contains an old Mennonite cemetery.

          Jonas Fortineux/Fortinet was born 2 June 1650 in St. Lambrecht, Germany and died 1 June 1709. He married Sara Menton who was born 2 June 1647. The marriage took place before 1675 in Rheinland-Pfalz. She was the daughter of Jacob (Graf de Menton) De Menton/Menthon (Born 1613) Count De Menton - Mayor of Otterberg. The children of Jacob Menton/Menthon/Mentopn's and his wife Judith LOUYS are as follows:

          • i. Abraham De Menton was born BET 1639 AND 1653 in Otterburg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany.
          • ii. Jeanne De Menton was born ABT 1640 in Otterburg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. She married Johannes Reyland BEF 3 JAN 1656 in Otterburg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. He was born ABT 1640.
          • iii. Jean De Menton was born ABT 1640 in Otterburg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany.
          • iv. Marie De Menton was born 1642. She married Arnolt Baudouin ABT 1662 in Otterbein, Pfalz, Bayern, Germany. He was born 1638, and died 25 JAN 1681 in Otterburg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany.
          • v. Judieth De Menton was born ABT 1643 in Otterburg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. She married Jean Hubert BEF 1 APR 1660 in Otterburg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. He was born ABT 1641, and died 31 JAN 1705 in Otterburg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany.
          • vi. Sara De Menton was born ABT 1647 in Otterburg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, and died 12 DEC 1715 in Otterburg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. She married Jonas Fortineaux BET 1663 AND 1679. He was born BET 1637 AND 1657, and died BEF 12 DEC 1715 in Otterburg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany.

          Sara De Menton/Menton's father is listed in the Reform Church documents 06 MAY 1679, as Ancien de l'Eglise Francoise (An elder in the French Reform Church.) Her mother was Judieth Louys, born abt 1625, Otterberg, Rhein-land, Pfalz. (Louis/Lewis)She died on 12 December 1715. Judith Louys father was Jean Sieur de Saint Vallier Louys-born: 1590 in Bar le Duc, Lorraine, Meuse, France. Her mother was Jeanne de la Serre Barbier born: 23 Apr 1607 Frankenthal. Father: Simon Barbier Mother: Anna Vander Borre.

          Jacob Menton witnessed the baptism of Thomas Peter 17 JUL 1659 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany along with Madame Seyer, Marie Menton, and Thomas Menton. Jacob Menton witnessed the baptism of Paul Simon 13 Apr 1662 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany along with Paul Simon, Jean Campas, Elizabeth (-----), Catherine (-----), and Thomas Menton. Jacob Menton witnessed the baptism of Jeanne Tordeux 28 Mar 1664 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany along with Jeanne Menton. Jacob Menton witnessed the baptism of Jean Jacob Baudouin 22 SEP 1665 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany along with Jean Menton, Jeanne Menton, and Jeanne Pasquay.

          The children of Jonas Fortineux and Sara Menton of Otterberg, Rheinland-Pfalz are as follows:

          • Jean Henri Fortineau born 21 Apr 1675 in Otterberg, Rheinland-Pfalz
          • Jonas Peter Fortineux born 11 Sept 1677 in Otterberg, Rheinland-Pfalz
          • Jean David Fortineux born 27 Mar 1681 in Otterberg, Rheinland-Pfalz
          • Marie Judieth Fortineux born 28 Feb 1683 Otterberg, Rheinland-Pfalz
          • Marie Rosine Fortineux born 5 Apr 1685 in Otterberg, Rheinland-Pfalz
          • David Fortineux born Oct 1686 probably Otterberg, Rheinland-Pfalz
          • Jean Jacob Fortineux born 17 Oct 1690 in Otterberg, Rheinland-Pfalz
          • Anna Marie Fortineux born Jan 1695 in Holzappel, Rheinland Pfalz


            Jean Henri Fortineux I was born 2 Apr 1675 in Otterberg, West Palatinate, Germany. Christening: 7 Apr 1675, Reformed Church, Otterberg, West Palatinate, Germany. Died: 5 Nov 1715 in West Palatinate, Germany. Burial: 9 Nov 1715 Otterberg, Germany. Witnesses at the baptism of Jean Henry Fortineux were Henry Menton, Jean Philippe Florquin, Marie Menton, and Judieth Menton. (Baptism Records: French Reformed Church, Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany, 1657-1685) The Huguenot Society of Virginia documents his name as as that of a Huguenot.

            • Marriage 1 - Renarde Renata Spohn born: Abt 1679 in Gundersweiler, Otterberg, Palatinate,Germany and christened 14 Sept 1710 in Otterberg, Germany. She married Jean Henri: 9 Feb 1703 in Otterberg,Palatinate,Germany. Renarde died on Sep 1710 in Otterberg, Germany.
            • Marriage 2 Mary Louys b: 7 Mar 1695 christened on 13 Mar 1695 in Otterberg, Palatinate, Germany * They married on 12 Apr 1711 in Otterberg,Palatinate,Germany


            The state borders France (departement of the Moselle) in the south and west, Luxembourg in the west and Rheinland-Pfalz in the north and the east.

            Saarland is named for the Saar River, which is a tributary of the Moselle River (a Rhine tributary) and runs through the state from the south to the northwest. One third of the land area of the Saarland is covered by forest, one of highest percentages in Germany. The state is generally hilly, the highest mountain is the Dollberg with a height of 695.4 m (about 2,280 feet).

            The Saarland possessed little unity before the 20th cent. Until the late 18th cent. it was divided among France (which held the city Saarlouis and the adjacent territory), the county of Saarbrucken (a dependency of Nassau), and the palatine duchy of Zweibrucken. In 1797 it was ceded to France by the Treaty of Campo Formio. Treaty of Campo Formio, settlement concluding the War of the First Coalition (1793-1797), during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1796, Napoleon I became commander of the French forces in Italy. There, against the odds, he defeated a number of Austrian generals, forcing the Austrian government to sign a preliminary peace treaty with France on April 18, 1797, in Leoben, Austria. The final treaty, signed on October 17 of the same year at Campo Formio, had three main provisions, each allowing France to retain recently gained portions of Italian territory. With the first provision, the Austrian Netherlands and the Ionian Islands were ceded to France outright. In the second provision, the Austrian emperor agreed, by a secret clause, to help France secure a great part of the left bank of the Rhine River; a congress of the Holy Roman Empire was to be assembled at Rastatt, Germany, to bring this clause into effect. In the final provision, Austria agreed to recognize the two Italian states recently founded under French sponsorship: the Ligurian Republic and the Cisalpine Republic. The former republic was composed of Genoese territory, and the latter of Milan, Modena, a portion of Venetia, and a strip of papal territory.

            The treaty allowed France to achieve an objective it had been pursuing since the early 17th century: to return to what it considered its natural boundaries. The Rhine and the Scheldt rivers were now its frontiers, and its influence in Italy was paramount. These newly won gains, however, proved far from secure. Britain was not accepting of the new state of affairs, and Austria refused to relinquish hope of regaining its lost possessions and prestige.

            The Moselle (French: Moselle, German: Mosel, Luxembourgish: Musel) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg and Germany. It is a left tributary of the Rhine river, joining it at Koblenz. A small part of Belgium is also watered off by the Mosel through the Our and Syre.

            Its name comes from the Latin Mosella, meaning the "Little Meuse" (Mosa in Latin). The river gave its name to two French departements: Moselle and Meurthe-et-Moselle. Contents

            The source of the Moselle is at the western slope of the Ballon d'Alsace in the Vosges mountains. The Moselle flows through the Lorraine region, west of the Vosges. Further downstream, in Germany, the Moselle valley forms the division between the Eifel and Hunsrack mountain regions. Its total length from source to mouth is approximately 545 km. Research indicates the presence of the Fortineux in south of France, in the Alsace-Lorraine region. MOH-zuhl; moh-ZELL] A famous river that winds through one of Germany's important anbaugebiete (quality-wine regions), mosel-saar-ruwer. The river actually starts in eastern France's Vosges Mountains, flows along the Luxembourg border into western Germany, and finally joins the Rhine River in western Germany at the city of Koblenz.

            One obvious conection between the French Fortineux family members to other members is found in Saarland, where a number of family members resided for a time. Two of the sons of Johann Jonas Fortineux and his wife married while there. Johann David Fortineux who was the oldest child of Jonas' large family, lived in Wolfersweiler after his marriage to Catherine Britzius born 17 April 1736 in Wolfersweiler, Saarland. He arrived in Philadelphia on September 3, 1739, on the ship "Loyal Judith with his wife and his toddler-not yet two year old son, Wendel. It is thought that an infant daughter died during the crossing, who was 14 monthes when the voyage began. The following genealogical record appears:

            Elisabeth Catharine FORTNEY
            • Born: May 1738 in Wolfersweiler, Saarland, Germany
            • Died: Before 3 SEP 1739 in at sea, enroute to America

            Johann David Fortineux spent a year on Rhode Island with the ship before continuing onward to Philadelphia due to the disastrous trip. Three of his brothers were well established residents of Lancaster, PA. This man was granted 200 acres in Warwick Twsp., Lancaster Co., PA. He was "naturalized a foreign Protestant in America and the West Indian Colonies" pursuant to Statute 13 of George II, on July 14, 1765. His will (D1:26-27) in Lancaster was probated on October 5, 1781. It had been drawn January 3, 1780.

            Johann Francis Fortineux also married in Saarland to Elizabeth Lisa Magdalena Wurtz on 15 January 1732/33.

            Judieth Louys the wife of Jacob Menton witnessed the baptism of Judieth Peter 04 MAY 1662 in Otterberg, Pfalz, Germany along with Paul Baudouin, Elizabeth (-----), and Henry Pierrot. The children of Jonas Fortineux and Sara are as follows:

            • A number of resources record the dates of Jean Henri Fortineaux I and his wife and children as follows: He was born on 2 April 1675, at Otterberg, West Palatinate, Germany and christened on 7 Apr 1675 in the Reformed Church, Otterberg, West Palatinate, Germany. He died on 5 Nov 1715-West Palatinate, Germany, and was buried on the 9th of November in the year 1715, at Otterberg, Germany.
            • The complete list of children born to Susanne Rosina "Rosa" (Renata) Spohn and Johann Jonas Fortineux are as follows:

              • i. Marie Rosina Fortineux was born 22 April 1704.
              • ii. Johann David Fortineux was born 15 June 1706 in Landstuhl, Germany. He married Elisabeth Catharina Britzius 17 APR 1736 in Wolfersweiler, Germany.
              • iii. Jacob Fortineux was born 1707. He married Elisabetha Glasen 7 SEP 1728 in France.
              • iv. Johann Michael Fortineux was born 15 MAR 1710/11 in Landstuhl, Germany, and died when he was a toddler on 8 JUN 1713 in France (present day Germany). He was the twin of Johann Francis Fortineux born 15 MAR 1710/11
              • v. Johann Francis Fortineux was born 15 March 1710/11 in Landstuhl, Germany, and died 12 NOV 1755. He married Elizabeth Magdalena Wurtz 15 January 1732/33 in Wolfersweiler, Germany.
              • vi. Johann Michael Fortineux was born 1714 in Landstuhl, Germany, and died 10 February 1778 in Pennsylvania. He married Ann Margaret Traylor in First Reformed Church, Lancaster, PA.
              • vii. Johann Melchior Fortineux was born 9 July 1716 in Landstuhl, Germany, and died 7 DEC 1754 in Pennsylvania. He married Ann Barbara in Pennsylvania.
              • viii. Maria Rosina Fortineux was born 30 OCT 1718 in Landstuhl, Germany.
              • ix. Maria Katharina Fortineux was born 1721.
              • x. Maria Magdalena Fortineux was born 23 MAR 1723/24 in Landstuhl, Germany.
              • xi. Johann Jonas Fortineux was born 15 APR 1728 in Landstuhl, Germany. He married Elisabeth Hergelroth/Herchelroth 14 March 1749/50 in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. She was the daughter of Johannes Lorentz Herchelroth who was born 15 April 1669 in Hockelheim, Frankenthal, Germany and died 30 August 1740 in Cocalico, Lancaster, PA. Johannes Herchelroth was the son of Hans Heinrich Herchelroth born 1640 in Heuchelheim, Frankenthal, Germany. Married 1664. Hans Heinrich Herchelroth was the son of Hans Heinrich Hoerchel born 1615 at Heuchelheim, Frankenthal, Germany.

              Elizabeth Hergeroder/Herchelroth married (1) Jonas Fortune/Fortineux March 14, 1748/49 in Lancaster Co., PA. He was born April 15, 1728 in Landstuhl, Germany. She married (2) Jacob Schmidt April 10, 1758.

              Johannes Hercelroth/Herchelroder a Palatine, immigrated from Germany to the New World aboard the ship Elizabeth, in 1733. He was 19 years of age. He served as Captain of Berks and Northampton County Militia in 1756. He married 1) Anna Mahneschmidt and 5 children were born to them. 2) Anna Maria DeHoff who was the daughter of John Philip DeHoff. He died in 1774 in Frederick County, MD. Children of Elizabeth Hergeroder/Herchelroth and Jonas Fortune are: i. John Henri Fortune born on June 10, 1754, Trinity Tulpehocken Church, Richland, Lebanon Co., PA. More About John Henry Fortune: His christening: Rev. H.W. Stoy with sponsors John Henry Herchelroth and Catherine Meyer, wife of Isaac Meyer of Conestoga.


              With the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, approximately 200,000 Huguenots left France, settling in non-Catholic countries of Europe - the Netherlands, Germany, especially Prussia, Switzerland, Scandinavia, and even as far as Russia, where Huguenot craftsmen could market their work in the court of the Czars.

              When the Huguenots were driven from France in 1685, many watchmakers went over the mountains into Switzerland. The chief workers were the 'cabinotiers', who turned their own homes into workshops. Clockwork mechanism with bellows imitating bird songs, usually associated with AUTOMATA Of birds. Some are in snuff boxes, which reveal a miniature 'bird' when opened, others are life-sized 'birds' in cages which move and sing so realistically it is difficult to believe they are not alive. Made by early English clockmakers such as PINCHBECK and later in large numbers from mid-eighteenth century by the Swiss, French and Germans, until the 1920s. Famous makers were the Brugiers family (c. 1770-1886), Jacquet-Droz, the Rochat family, Lami, Jean David and Auguste, and the Maillardet brothers, all of Geneva; and the firm Of LE ROY, which invented a ROTOR winding system about the same time and Blaise Bontemps, of Paris.

              The hardworking Huguenots were among the most prosperous citizens of France. Their work ethic had made them masters of the crafts in which France excelled. Trades were many and varied. There were husbandmen and vine-dressers, school masters, cloth and linen weavers, carpenters, masons, joyners, shoe-makers, tailors, millers, wheel-wrights, smiths, bakers, coopers and brewers, butchers, herdsmen, sadlers, stocking weavers, silk and woolen weaving, stocking and glove-making tanners, miners, brickmakers, potters, hunters, turners, surgeons, locksmiths, hatters, silversmiths and statuary makers. Huguenots lived largely in the provincial cities where they virtually controlled such industries as papermaking, silk and woolen weaving, stocking and glove-making and, being essentially merchant minded, the French export trade.

              When they fled, they left behind most of their possessions but carried with them their skills. France's enemies were taught techniques of weaving, lace-making, silk-work, and hattery, once the exclusive possession of the French. Many Huguenots enlisted in the English, Dutch and German armies and fought France. The series of oppressive measures did not end with curtailing civic liberty in the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Finally, seizure of property and extreme cruelty whereby, harried beyond endurance, they were yet forbidden to leave the country. But, of course, they went just the same. The French seaports were closed to them and outgoing boats were searched, but there were still land borders and across them several hundred thousand managed to escape over the years, to Holland, Switzerland, the German principalities, and thence to England and America. The Fortineux family built homes and worked at various livlihoods. Some of this work included fishing, ship building, the building of half timber homes and the herding of sheep in France.

              • Jonas Fortineux is called a "stocking knitter," by trade. The earliest definite examples of knitting date from Europe and Egypt in the 14th century, although some claim that the technology dates back into centuries BC. The first knitting trade guild was started in Paris in 1527, establishing the occupation as male-dominated for centuries to come. Knitting became a household occupation with the growing popularity of knitted stockings and by the end of the 1600s, one to two million pairs of stockings were exported from Britain to other parts of Europe.
              • Samuel Fortineux who lived in Otterberg, was a butcher and a baker. When he emigrated to LancasterCounty, the 1774 tax records list him as a baker. Jacob Forteney (Fordney) born 1770 and died 16 December 1816, was a blacksmith. He married Catherine born 1747 and died 25 May 1814.

              • Johann Michael Fortineux was a butcher.
              • Sarah Menton's father Jacob Menton is listed as laihne"wool comber or worker," from 1668-1671. In the process of using the wool from sheep for clothing, the wool must be cleaned and scoured. Wool taken directly from the sheep is called "raw" or "grease wool." It contains sand, dirt, grease, and dried sweat (called suint); the weight of contaminants accounts for about 30 to 70 percent of the fleece's total weight. To remove these contaminants, the wool is scoured in a series of alkaline baths containing water, soap, and soda ash or a similar alkali. The byproducts from this process (such as lanolin) are saved and used in a variety of household products. Rollers in the scouring machines squeeze excess water from the fleece, but the fleece is not allowed to dry completely. Following this process, the wool is often treated with oil to give it increased manageability.

                Next the wool goes through a process called carding. The the fibers are passed through a series of metal teeth that straighten and blend them into slivers. Carding also removes residual dirt and other matter left in the fibers. Carded wool intended for worsted yarn is put through gilling and combing, two procedures that remove short fibers and place the longer fibers parallel to each other. From there, the sleeker slivers are compacted and thinned through a process called drawing. Carded wool to be used for woolen yarn is sent directly for spinning.


              It was not without a certain amount of difficulty that our ancestor Jonas Fortineux and his family members strenuously made their way to Rotterdam to embark by ship from that busy seaport. Travel was difficult enough in those days. There they were able to book passage for their family of 10 aboard a ship sailing to the American Colonies in the early 1700's. The ship was named the Loyal Judith and the passenger list of the vessel, records the name of Jonas Fortineux, with the spelling of his name as Fortinet, giving his age as 56 years, and again as he was unable to write, Jonas signed the Oath of Allegiance with a circle, so that his name is recorded in this historic document as Jonas (O) Furtuly. (How it sounded to the ships officer).

              The fifty-six year old Jonas left from Port of Rotterdam, with 27 year old nephew Samuel Fortineux, born 1715, in Landstuhl, West Palatinate. The Loyal Judith records his age as 56 in the travel document. This age differs from the Steinwendon Parish records, nevertheless it came forth as testimony from Jonas Fortineux's own mouth.

              The Rotterdam seaport is situated in western Netherlands. It lies on both sides of the Nieuwe Maas River (a distributary of the Rhine), near the North Sea. Founded in the 13th century, it developed into a major port and commercial city. From 1795 to 1813 it was occupied by the French. Here is the list of additional family members listed on ship's list of the Loyal Judith as traveling with Jonas to America.

              • Franz Fortineux (age 26-Steinwendon & Wolfersweiler, Bayern-Pfalz)
              • Michael Fortineux (age 22) and
              • Melchoir Fortineux (age 19)
              The three Fortineux brothers are also listed on the Ship Samuel's ship list for 30 August 1737 sailing from Rotterdam to Philadelphia under Capt. Hugh Percy, when traveling also on board was Abraham Furley (age 64) Some accounts read that three sons were already in America, having traveled there on this previous sailing, five years earlier. Johann Michael Fortineux and Johann Francis were twin brothers. Why these 3 names turn up again as passengers on the Loyal Judith is a mystery, unless the 3 brothers returned to accompany their family member Jonas and the other members of the family to America. It was a fairly dangerous journey and the crew, busy manning their posts, didn't have a lot of time to watch out for passengers.

              • Jonas Fortinet, 56 (Landstuhl, Bayern-Pfalz with three spellings of the name recorded in the right hand column. (Fortena, Furlly, and Furtly to Lancaster and Lebanon Counties.
              • Susanna Rosina
              • Johann David
              • Franz-Apparently had no children-left estate to brothers accordin g to source listed. Have copy of will in file. Actually the will stat ed the estate is to be divided between his wife and the children of broth ers David, Melchior, Michael,and Jonas.(Will Book B,Volume 1,page 114- Lancaster County.)
              • Johann Michael-This man arrived in America at Philadelphia on August 30, 1737, on the ship SAMUEL. With him were his brothers: Melchior and Francis and Francis' wife. They all settled in Lancaster, PA. Michael, with his parents, Jonas Peter, and his brothers were prominent members of the community and members of the First Reformed Church in Lancaster. He was a butcher from 1750 to 1759 and had a stall in the marketplace. With his brother Franci, in 1747, he bough 10 acres of land from Henry Bostler and wife, Anna Maria. In 1751 he bought a lot on Prince Street, Lancaster, PA. In Abstracts of Wills, Lancaster Co., his will is dated January 15, 1778, and was probated on March 20 1778. Named were his wife, Casper, Henry, John and Margaret. Will (C1:504) of Michael, Lancaster Co., PA. Michael and Anna Margaret raised brother Melchior's children. Melchior died on December 7, 1754.
              • Johann Melchior
              • Maria Rosina
              • Maria Kathrina
              • Maria Magdalena
              • Johann Jonas


              The eyes of Jonas Fortineau/Fortineaux must have shone with excitement, as he made the necessary preparations for the difficult and lengthy journey to begin a new life in America. It had now been about 12 long years since he'd seen his family member Jean Henri Fortineaux, who'd already made the successful crossing to America and was awaiting his father there. Jean Henri came to America on the "Thistle" of Glasgow from Rotterdam last from Dover (or Cowes) clearance 19 Jun 1730 and arrived at Philadelphia, PA, 29 Aug 1730. He was just 22 years of age. His signature was written by the clerk, so perhaps Henri was unable to write. In About 1735 he married Mary Catherine (Charity) Berger. Henri and Catherine were living in Monococy, MD when on 7 Jun 1738 their daughter, Susanna Catharina Fortunee, was baptized by visiting Lutheran pastor John Casper. The following children were born to them:

              • Susanna Catharina Fortney born: 17 June 1738 in Monocacy, Montgomery, MD She married: Lewis Hoff born: 13 Sept 1737 Lancaster, Frederick CO. The marriage took place on 2 Oct 1765
              • John Hendrick Fortney born 31 Dec 1739 in Frederick Co, MD He married Anna Barbara Buckner in Frederick CO. Marriage #2 Anne Elisabeth Hathaway Pennsylvania
              • Charity Charlotte Fortney born: 15 Oct 1741 in Frederick CO. MD She married Henry Gottlieb Lauffer in Laufen am Neckar, Baden Wurt.
              • David Emmet Fortney born: abt 1743 in Frederick CO. MD Married: Elizabeth Schonsin 1777
              • Christina Fortney born: abt 1748 Frederick CO. MD Married: Jacob Galman
              • Daniel Fortney born: about 1752 Deer Spring, Frederick Co. MD Married Barbara Beckenbaugh 1775
              • Peter Fortney born: 1 Apr 1754 Hagerstown, Washington MD c 23 Feb 1773 Evangelical Luthern Church, Frederick Co MD. Married: Anne Elisabeth Hawn
              • ("Preston County W.Va History." Pg 188. "Daniel Fordeneau, the Great Grandfather of Willis Fortney was born in France in 1754. He was the son of Henry I and married Barbara Peckenpaugh. During the Revolution, he and his father served as privates in the Pennsylvania Regiments. First settling in Frederick County, Maryland, Daniel and wife moved about 1790 into Monongalia County,Virginia, dropped the name Fordeneau and took the name Fortney.)

              God alone could have known that in 11 brief years or so, Jean Henri Fortineux would be tragically killed by a strike of lightning, leaving a pregnant and grieving widow behind with several children to care for.

              Another family member Johann Michael Fortineux who was born 15 March 1710/11 in Landstuhl, Germany, and died 8 June 1713 while they were still living in France (present day Germany) The nephew, Samuel Fortineux, would finally see his brother, Jean Jacob, who'd arrived in America the previous year . The "Loyal Judith" arrived in Philadelphia on September 23, 1742.

              The ship "Loyal Judith," made several voyages between Rotterdam and Philadelphia, to bring emigrants out of Rotterdam to the "new World". Each trip was marked by a stop in an English port (usually Cowes on the Isle of Wight but sometimes other English ports) to obtain permission to import foreigners. The voyage ending in 1742 was neither its first nor its last. The emigration from the Rhineland (then the Electoral Palatinate) began early in the 18th Century when Queen Anne became concerned for the plight of the protestant subjects of her cousin, the Elector. At first, the Palatines were brought to England, but this produced overcrowding and domestic disturbances. In 1709, a group then in England was transported to New York. Subsequently, Palatines were transported directly to the colonies, most often to Pennsylvania. This met the goals of settling the colonies & giving relief to those who wished to emigrate.

              Demand was strong and a bustling trade in human cargo soon developed. Sometimes, recruiters would spread out through the Rhine Valley, selling passage on ships. If the prospective passengers hadn't the money, a contract for indentured servitude would be accepted. Sometimes, the emigrants made their way down the Rhine to (mostly) Rotterdam and contacted a ship's captain there.

              Before the prospective emigrants could leave, they needed permission from their local government. Most often, a simple fee of 10-15 pfennigs and vote by the city council would obtain a "manumission permit". But, if the individual were subject to military subscription (draft) they would not be allowed to leave. The journey down the Rhine River was the next hurdle; this could take weeks on boats or barges. Each time they stopped, the local authorities might exact another tax.

              Primary Immigrant: Fortinet, Jonas Annotation: Swiss and other emigrants, including some recorded in the Reformed Church register of Steinwenden. Lists immigrants to Steinwenden as well as emigrants from there to America and other parts of the world. Gives names, ages, family data, places of origin.

              1 Jonas Fortineux (He also used Fortinet) was a Strumpfstricker, a stocking knitter, according to Fritz Braun, in Otterberg. The first knitting trade guild was started in Paris in 1527, establishing the occupation as male-dominated for centuries to come. Knitting became a household occupation with the growing popularity of knitted stockings and by the end of the 1600s, one to two million pairs of stockings were exported from Britain to other parts of Europe.

              Jonas was 65 years of age when he arrived in Philadelphia aboard the ship LOYAL JUDITH from Rotterdam in September 23, 1742 (Some records show his age as 56. The Steinwenden parish register corrects this.) He was unable to write his name but made "his mark" a simple small circle, beside his name on the ship's list. Some of the reason for the variety of spelling of ourname comes from others writing it as it sounded to them. In Jonas' case FORTNE was used in the Church Book of the First Reformed Church of Lancas ter,PA.

              Magdalena Wurtz; Melchior who had come five years before and settled in Lancaster,PA; and (Johann) David with his wife and family three years before him, arriving in Philadelphia on September 3, 1739. He brought his wife Suzanne Rosina (Spohn); his three daughters, Maria Rosina, Maria Katrina and Maria Magdalena; and his youngest child and son Johann Jonas who was 14. Also with his family came Samuel whose brother Jean Jacob, had arrived in America the previous year. Fulfilling their dream - going to America and they paid their way - all of them. Indenture was not a part of our progenitor's family past on these shores.


              1 Jonas Fortineaux

              Holzappel is located in the hills surrounding the Lahn River. The region's sovereign at the time was Elizabeth Charlotte and she reigned from 1687 to 1699. Among these families she assisted during this era of severe persecution, was that of Jonas Fortine of Otterberg. Otterberg is in the Pfalz region near Kaiserslautern, Germany. Charlottenberg and Holzappel are located in the hills North of the Lahn River.[Fortney.ged] (Grafschaft) of Holzappel on the Lower Lahn, whose sovereign was Elizabeth Charlotte from 1687 to 1699. Among these families are that of Jonas Fortine of Otterberg. Source: ( Jahrbuch zur Ges chichte von Stadtund Landjreis Kaiserslautern Band h/9 1970/1971 . Kaller, Gerhard. "Bevolkerungsverluste und Bevolkerungswande l in Otterberg 1665-1712". P.189 ). also has a copy of the abstracted French and Reformed KB records). Otterberg is in the Pfalz region near Kaiserslautern, Germany. River.


              Huguenots began emigrating to Virginia as early as 1620. In 1700, four ships arrived at the mouth of the James River and the Rappahannock, east of present-day Richmond, Virginia. French Huguenots, having fled religious persecution, had lived in England and done services for the king. They were granted lands in the New World for a permanent home where they had the freedom to worship as they pleased. West of Richmond, many founded a colony on the site of a village deserted by the Monacan Indians. You can visit Manakintown.

              Where the earliest Fortineaux's originated in France is uncertain, as numerous records indicate that they branched out into various locations. Many appear to have been located in Maritime France, though not exclusively. In 1625 there was a Jean Fortny at Seine-Et-Marne, France.Jean Henri Fortineau II emigrated from the Port of Rotterdam to America aboard the ship Thistle of Glasgow, arriving in America on 29 August 1730. Soon after arriving in America, the family divided themselves between the Frederick Co. MD and lancaster, PA regions. The majority moved to Preston CO. West Virginia. Yet another branch of the family moved to New Jersey. As a result there are various name varients in the records. Daniel Fortineau married Anna Barbara Beckenbach. She was born 1758-60, the daughter of Johann Peter Beckenbach, who was born 12 Oct 1738, Green Co, Pa. Anna Barbara Beckenbach's mother was Barbara Buckner. She was born 1740 in Virgiia.

              That there were strong family ties yet in France which remained is obvious by the fact that we see the records state that several of Daniel Fortineau/Fortney and Anna Barbara Beckenbaugh Fortineau's children were born in France. Catharine in 1777, Daniel Jr in 30 August 1781, Henri Jr. in 1783 and John in 1789. (Daniel Fortineau Sr. born 1754-Died Feb 23, 1818 in Monongalia, VA) From "Preston County W.Va History:" Page 188.

              "Daniel Fordeneau was born in France in 1754. He was the son of Jean Henry Fortineau I and married Barbara Beckenbach. Soon after arriving in America the family split between Frederick Co. MD and Lancaster Co, PA. Another branch of the family moved to NJ. Most of the Frederick Co. family migrated to Preston County, WVA. Daniel Fortney Sr. lived in a log cabin on Sacs Run Road and farmed. During the Revolution, he and his father served as privates in the Pennsylvania Regiments. First settling in Frederick County, Maryland, Daniel and wife moved about 1790 into Monongalia County, Virginia, dropped the name Fordeneau and took the name Fortney. The family belonged at this time to a religious group called the Dunkers. They occupied land about 1 1/2 mile from Reedsville. They took up land and lived along the Monocacy River 4 miles east of Frederick. In 1771 Daniel purchased land from his brother Jean Henri. 1773, Daniel was confirmed in the Frederick German Lutheran Church. In early 1794 his mother Catharine died and Daniel and his neighbor Francis Hoffman were executors of the estate. Dec. 12, 1798 he purchased 380 acres of land on Three Forks Creek near his brother Peter. In 1800 Daniel sold the last land in Frederick Co. MD. In 1800 he and Barbara's last child was born in Monongalia Co. VA. He's buried in the old Fortney Cemetery in Monongalia o. WVA. Brother Peter Fortney was born Apr. 8, 1754. He married 1) Thodosia. 2) Ann Elizabeth Hohn on Oct. 8, 1775.

                Children of Daniel Fortney and Barbara Beckenbaugh are as follows:
              • i. Catharine Fortney, born 1777 in France; died Aft. 1858; married David Grim 1797 in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland.
              • ii. Jacob Fortney, born 1779 in Fredrick, Frederick County Maryland; died 1779 in Frederick, Frederick County Maryland.
              • iii. Daniel Fortney, born 30 Aug 1781 in France; married Leah Morgan Menear 15 Sep 1801.
              • iv. Henry Fortney, born 1783 in France; died 1869; married (1) Hannah Watson Shaffer; married (2) Nancy Piles 06 Feb 1806.
              • v. Elizabeth Fortney, born 02 Sep 1786 in France; died 02 Oct 1870; married Samuel Squires in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland.
              • vi.John Fortney, born 1789 in France; died 07 Jun 1869 in Valley Point, Reedsville, Preston County, Virginia, West Virginia; married Keziah Pyles 13 Feb 1812 in Mongalia County Virginia, West Virginia.
              • vii. Barbara Fortney, born 1792 in Frederick, and christened at Evangelical Luthern Church, 7 July, 1792, Frederick County, Maryland. Monocacy was situated at or near the present village of Creagerstown. The congregation was organized in 1732 in Monocacy Village, an early settlement on the west bank of the river near Hunting Creek, 10 miles north of present day Frederick. Here around 1732 the first German church, which was known as the Log Church, was built in Maryland. The Log Church later became the church of Creagerstown and then was replaced by a brick church a few rods north of the old site in 1834. Pastor Stoever recorded Jean Henri Fortineux's name as Fortinee. Other surnames linked to the name of Fortineux in his records are Fortnev, and Fornev, (Fahnev) traced to the name Ferney in Dept. of Ain, France, named after the Ain River on the eastern edge of France. Being part of the region Rhone-Alpes and bordered by the rivers Sane and Rhone. Barbara Fortney married Thomas Hunt on 27 Aug 1812 in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland. Rev. John C Stoever was the first pastor to serve the Monocacy church.
              • viii. Nancy Fortney, born 1794.
              • ix. Christina Fortney, born 1795 in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland; died 03 Oct 1855; married John Field.
              • x. Mary Fortney, born 1800 in Valley Point, Reedsville, Preston County, Virginia, West Virginia; died 12 Jul 1869 in Barbour County, Virginia, West Virginia; married John Squires 26 Feb 1818 in Monongalia County, Virginia, West Virginia.


              Tracing the migration of settlers to western Maryland and the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, initial Huguenot settlements in Frederick County were in Monocacy east of Frederick City. Among these first settlers was Jean Henri Fortineaux who arrived 1727. His posterity write the name Fortny.

              Prior to this, on June 23, 1700, the first shipload of Huguenots arrived in Virginia, followed later that same year by two more shiploads of refugees. Further aided by William Byrd, they settled on land along the James River about twenty miles west of Richmond. Formerly a Monacan Indian settlement, the new community was known as Manakintowne. In December 1700, the Virginia House of Burgesses passed an act stating that the French settlers constituted a "distinct parish themselves" which would be called King William Parish. Additionally, they were exempted from having to pay any parish taxes and were allowed to determine the appropriate salary for their clergy. "The parish was duly organized and, by common consent or agreement, the liturgy of the Church of England was used in their services. There seems no reason to doubt that they might have retained a dissenting status and held services in their own language if they had so desired, as did the German Lutherans who came into the Shenandoah Valley forty years later.

              Frederick County is located in the western part of the U.S. state of Maryland, bordering the southern border of Pennsylvania and the northeastern border of Virginia. It is a part of the Washington-Baltimore Metropolitan Area, and is often recognized as part of Western Maryland. The county is home to Catoctin Mountain Park (encompassing the presidential retreat Camp David) and to the U.S. Army's Fort Detrick. The county seat is Frederick, which was home to several celebrated historical figures like Francis Scott Key. The county may have been named for Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore.


              Frederick County was created in 1748 from parts of Prince George's County and Baltimore County.

              In 1776, Frederick County was divided into three parts. The westernmost portion became Washington County, named after George Washington, the easternmost portion became Montgomery County, named after another Revolutionary War general, Richard Montgomery. The central portion remained Frederick County.

              In 1837 a part of Frederick County was combined with a part of Baltimore County to form Carroll County.


              The ships passenger list for the sea vessel the Thistle of Glasgow contained the names of the family members traveling with Jean Henri Fortineux that Aug. 29, 1730. Colin Dunlap, was the ship's Master, and he'd safely brought the ship from Rotterdam stopping but once to take on water and supplies at Cowes, England, enroute to America.

              The following is a ship list of passengers:

              Valentin Grisemer Hans Menigh Johannes Dunckel Nichol Fiser Christof Batter Johan Zwinger Christian Leman Jocob Nagel Jeremias Hes Ulrich Scherer Joh. Georg Ludwig Hass Philip Groscost Bernhart Siegmund Casper Bittner Hans Jacob Dohl Nickel Cunter Johan Peter Ohller Johannes Scherer Johan Henrich Schmidt Johannes Haus Caspar Fiehman Philip Hautz Steven Remer Lorentz Hoff Rudolph Draugh Thomas Hamma Johannes Kun Jacob Stiffel William Keim Wolfer Sperger Ludwick Delman Ulrich Steyner Gerhart Zinn Thomas Hes Henrich Hes Frederick Peifer Hendrich Gutt Johannes Kepplinger Caspar Krieger Felte Meidelman Christoph Anckenbrant Dietrich Beidelman Jean Henri Fortineaux Elias Meidelman Frederich Reimer Jacob Ammon Peter Beswanger Johan Nickel Lukenbell Johan Caspar Schmidt Hans Simon Mey Johan Paulus Duttenhoffer Henrich Lukebill Johan Augustus Scherrer Ludwig Mohler Hans Georg Hofman Lonhart Hochgenug Abraham Transu Peter Federolff Casper Hartman Peter Muller * see NOTES Christian Shram Friederich Lienberger Leonhart Kopplinger Peter Frawiener Rudlop Andreas Bernhard Renn


              From the enclosed ships list, none of the Fortineux family emigrated with the Luthern Pastor. But at some point in time, Jonas Fortineux met and formed an association with the Luthern Pastor Stoever. The elder John Casper Stoever, was a Lutheran educator and pastor. He's left Germany in the spring of 1728 to go to the Land of Penn (Pennsylvania, USA) A remarkable servant of the Lord, he traveled long, tiresome distances, ministering to several congregations at the same time. He began the official records of Emanuel church and tried to update them on the basis of the best available evidence. Toward the close of his ministry, the congregation spoke of him in an affectionate attitude as "our old pastor." He retired from the pastorate in 1754. In addition to Stoever's church records, he also kept a personal diary written in German and French. It is said that his personal opinions and gossipy items were written in French.

              Within months moving to Brickerville in 1743, Pastor Stoever, was instrumental in the purchase of twenty-nine acres from John Penn, Thomas Penn and Richard Penn. The cost amounted to $22.00 in our currency, or, four pounds, nine shillings and nine pence in British currency. Thus, with the acquisition of the twenty-nine acres, the congregation erected a crude, log-cabin church, according to traditional sources.

              John Kaspar Stover, his son John Caspar Stover, and his daughter Elisabetha Carherina Stover left England the 15th of June 1728, aboard the ship James Goodwill and arrived on the 11th of September 1728. Apparently, his wife had died before they left Germany, because there are no records of her on the ship and John Kaspar Stoever, remarried shortly after arriving in this country. The Stover's changed the family name to Stoever. He became an ordained Lutheran minister on April 8,1733, in Trapp, PA. He was ministering to the needs of the German Lutheran Congregation in Spotsylvania County, Virginia. He went to Germany in 1735 to raise money for the church and died on the return voyage in 1738.

              Johann Casper Jr. was ordained on his wedding day, April 8, 1733. His father was also ordained the same day. He was naturalized by the act of March 29, 1735. This gave him all rights, privileges and advantages of natural-born subjects of the Province of Pennsylvania. Parliament passed a law making it possible for the courts to grant British citizenship to foreigners. John Caspar Stoever, (II), became a naturalized citizen on the 24th of September 1741. Earl Town became the center of Pastor Stoever's activities until 1742. At this time John Caspar Stoever, (II) changed his residence from Earl Town to Lebanon Township, Lancaster County, PA. John Caspar Stoever, (II) and several other men formed the Lebanon Land Company. They purchased large tracts of land and later gave some land to the Evangelical Lutheran Church, called Salem Church.

              The first Tulpehocken church was completed in 5 monthes and dedicated in October 1727. It's generally claimed that Rev. John Casper Stoever officiated. John Casper Stoever is said to have been the first German Luthern pastor in Pennsylvania. At first the church was only a log cabin. When settlers came on Sunday morning they built a huge log fire on the outside of the church and in order to keep warm they sat on the bare ground on logs laid on leaves. Then they entered the building. The minister opened the services. Hanging on the wall by the windows there were two or three rawhides to drive dogs away from the premises. When a minister went to the pulpit he had a gun by his side. People arriving at church carried muskets. One man who came to have his child baptized came to the altar with a powder horn hanging on his belt as he stood during the baptismal ceremony.

              John Caspar Stoever, (II) was a well-dressed colonial pastor and an educated man full of energy and ambition. While he was an educated man, his manner was sometimes violent and rough. He started numerous churches and accumulated a large amount of wealth. He served as scribe for the people on civil matters, such as deeds; many of the old deeds of Lancaster County are in his handwriting. In 1762, he was authorized by the government to issue marriage licenses and then to perform the marriages. In the early records of the Fortineau family, we find these Protestant ministers named Pastor Charles Faucher and Reverend Johann Casper Stoever Sr. as well as his son Johann Casper Stoever Jr. The church records list the following: Fortune, John Henry b. 10 June 1754 Trinity Tulpehocken Church, Richland, Lebanon Co., by Rev. H. W. Stoy, Sponsors, John Henry Herchelroth and Catharine Meyer, wife of Isaac Meyer of Conestoga.

              THE LUTHERN CHURCH

              Pastor and people soon concluded that they needed outside help if they were to build a church and a school, and if they were to be able to support their own pastor while still paying taxes to help maintain the established Anglican church. They decided that Stoever and two laymen should go to Europe seeking funds. Obtained a letter of recommendation from Governor William Gooch on September 18, 1734, and soon thereafter departed. In England and on the Continent secured contributions in the form of money, books, and communion vessels, all possibly worth as much as 3000 pounds. Also persuaded George Samuel Klug, a theological student, to accept a call as Stoever's assistant. This was the most successful of the three efforts undertaken about this time by German church people in the Pennsylvania field to solicit help from European sources (the others being those led by the Reformed George Michael Weiss and the Lutheran Christian Schulz).

              One of the laymen returned to Virginia, but the other remained in Europe while Stoever studied theology with a distant relative, John Philip Fresenius. "After finishing his collection trip," the latter wrote some years later, "he came to my house at Darmstadt, said that he keenly felt his want of better information in doctrinal and practical theology, and requested me to keep him during the winter and instruct him in those branches in which he was deficient. I gladly acceded to his request. He was a close student, and learned a good deal." (Quoted in Lutheran Church Review 12, 1893: 187-188)

              Stoever began the return voyage early in 1739, but died at sea. His will was probated at Philadelphia March 20, 1739 and later also in Orange county, Virginia. He named his son and namesake executor, giving him detailed instructions for fair disposition of the gifts collected in Europe. He also expressed the hope that if the Hebron congregation called his son to be its pastor, he would accept.

              (Fortnev (Fortineaux) - Jean Henri Fortineau was listed as "Fortinee" by Pastor Stoever who baptized a daughter at Monocacy Church in 1738. The Stoever family had resided earlier in Frankenberg, Germany. Their son, John Kasper Stoever, (I), left Germany with his son, Johann Casper Stoever, (II), and daughter, Anna Elisabetha Catherina Stoever in the spring of 1728. They arrived in Philadelphia on September 11, 1728 aboard the ship James Goodwill.

              The spelling of the family name changed to Stoever shortly after arriving in America. Both father and son were well known Lutheran Ministers in the Pennsylvania and Virginia areas. The younger Stoever was the first German Lutheran Minister ordained in the US. We've been unable to locate earlier members of the family born in Germany and assume they were born in France prior to this.


              Date: 1730, Immigrated in 1730 to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA Date: 1730, He came to America aboard the sailing vessel, "Thistle" of Glasgow from Rotterdam last from Dover or Cowes. Clearance was received on June 19 1730. He arrived in Philadelphia, Pa on August 29, 1730, and he was 22 years old. His signature was written by the clerk. Date:7, Jun 1738, Their daughter, Susanna Catharina Fortunee was baptized in Monocacy by visiting Lutheran pastor John Casper. Date: 12 Jul 1753, He was killed by a lightning strike. Date: 1753, "MARYLAND GAZETTE' story of July 12, 1753. "One day last week, a man in Frederick County, about 4 miles from town , whose name was Henry Footney, having just stepped out of his house at the latter end of a Thunder Gust, to a gate at about 3 or 4 yards distance from the house, to see if the storm was over, a flash of lightning killed him on the spot as he was leaning against the gate.

              Mary Catherine Berger

              was born abt. 1708. She died on 27 April 1794 in Frederick County, MD. She was the daughter of Andreas Berger and Philippina Reiff,born 1767 who was the daughter of Daniel Kulewein and Catharina Diese. Biography: Was noted to be a well-educated man - A farmer and blacksmith. Served in Revolutionary War as a Captain of Seventh Company of Oley from 1777-1778. Catherine who was born in 1742 was a Native American. Philipina Reiff married Andreas Berger on 08 January 1787. She died on 26 July 1844.

              Jean Henri Fortineux II was born: 22 SEP 1708-Otterberg, Pfalz, Bayern Otterberg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. Christening: 25 SEP 1708-Died: 07 JUL 1753, Frederick, Maryland Married: Mary Catherine Berger, the daughter of Andreas Berger. Jean Henri Fortineux and Catherine Charity Berger married in 1735 at Monocacy, Montgomery, Md. He was the son of Jean Henri Fortineux I and Renata Spohn born: est. 1675 in Gundersweiler, Rheinland-Platz, Germany. She was buried 14 Sep 1710 in Otterberg, Rheinland-Platz, Germany.

              Jean Fortineux emigrated to America ahead of the rest of the family, landing in Philadelphia on August 30 1730, after 2 months and 10 days at sea. He was 21 years of age. Henry settled briefly at Falckner's Swamp, northwest of Philadelphia.

              Between 1733 and 1738 Jean Henry moved to Frederick, Maryland. His cousin's Michael, Francis and Melchoir settled in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. This early geographical split appears to ahave isolated family members from one other. There's no evidence that cousins in each state ever saw each other after arriving in the New World. As a result the Americanized version of the name took on many forms in each state and the common heritage of the family was lost.

              After the American Revolution, the family began its gradual migration west which continued through the early 1900's. In the 1790's nearly all of the Maryland Fortneys moved to Monongalia and Preston Counties in West Virginia and New Jersey was abandoned by the Samuel Fordney family for the District of Columbia. Ohio and Pennsylvania. The result is that today the descendants of the Fortineux family can be found from the Altantic to the Pacific coasts of the United States and Canada.

              Jean Henry Fortineux II was killed by a lightning strike.

              The MARYLAND GAZETTE presented the following account of the story on 12 July 1753. (Spelling is as printed in the newspaper.)

              "One day last week, a man in Frederick County, about 4 miles from Town, whose name was Henry Footney, having just stept out of his House at the latter end of a Thunder Gust, to a gate at about 3 or 4 Yards Distance from the house, to see if the storm was all over, a Flash of lightening killed him on the spot as he was leaning on the gate. One Child outside the Gate close by him was unhurt one oth er standing at the Door, and another between him and the House, were both struck down but soon recovered, and the rafters at, one end of the House were split, and some of the Shingles turn'd the thick End upwards. There was no Mark to be discovered about his Body, only his Beard was a little singed; for he had a long beard, being one of the sect call'd Dunkers, who never shave nor clip their beards."

              His godfathers were Sgt. Henry Breil and Jean Louys/Lewis/Louis and the godmothers: "Elizabeth Theil and the wife of Jacob Baudoin."

              He married Mary Catharine Charity Berger in 1735 in Monocacy, Montgomery, MD, USA. Catharine Charity Berger was born about 1708-1710. Died on 27 Apr 1794 in Frederick, MD, USA. The following children were born to Jean Henri Fortineux and Catherine Berger:

              • i. Susanna (Catharine) Catarina Fortney-born Oct 1, 1737 in Mononcacy, Montgomery, Maryland. She married Lewis Hoff October 2, 1765 in German Reformed Church, Frederick, Frederick, Maryland son of Adam Hoff and Juliana Seip. He was born 13 Sept 1737 in Lancaster, Pennsuylvania. Pastor Stoever acted as sponsor as did Louis leRoi. In records he spelled the fortineux surname as Fortinee. She died June 1761 in Cordorus Township, York, Pennsylvania.
              • ii. (John) Hendrick (Henry) Fortney-born 31 December 1739 in Monocacy, Prince Georg's (now Frederick, Maryland, and he was christened 21 September 1740 in Monocacy, Montgomery, Maryland. Pastor Stoever spelled the family surname as Fortunee. He died on 1 Jun 1808 in Pennsylvania. He married 1) Anne Elizabeth Hathaway 1786 2) Anna Barbara Beckenbach 1786 in Frederick, Maryland. She was born about 1737 in Frederick, Maryland and died after August 8, 1805 in Monongalia, Virginia, West Virginia.
              • iii. Charity (Charlotte) Fortney-born 15 October 1741 in Frederick, Frederick, Maryland and died 28 November 1825 in Feagaville, Frederick, Maryland. She married Henry Gottlieb Laupfer/Lauffer 1764 in Frederick, Maryland, son of Johannes Michael Lauffer and Anna Maria (Mrs Johannes Michael Lauffer) He was born abt 1738 in Laufen am Neckar, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany and died 14 July 1784 in Frederick County, Maryland.
              • iv. David Emmet Fortney-born about 1743 in Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, and he died 17 January 1787 in Frederick, Frederick, Maryland. He married Elizabeth (Schantzin) Schonsin 1777 near Frederick, Frederick, Maryland. She died November 7, 1837 in Frederick, Frederick, Maryland.
              • v. Christina Fortney-born on 3 June 1748 in Frederick, Frederick, Maryland. She married Jacob Galman about 1766. He was born about 1746.
              • vi. Daniel Fortney Sr. was born in 1754 in France and died February 15, 1818 in Reedsville, Preston County, Virginia, (now West Virginia) He married Barbara Beckenbaugh 1775 in Frederick, Maryland, daughter of Johann Peter Beckenbach and Anna Barbara Henry Buckner. She was born before 1758 in Frederick, Frederick, Maryland and died 1829 in Preston, Virginia (now West Virginia) Their first six children were born in France. Catharine (b. 1777) who married David Grim, Jacob (b1779) Daniel (born 1781) married Leah Morgan Menear-born 1774 at Independance, Preston Co, WVa. She was the daughter of William Menear born 1833 in WVA and Mary Alice Hendershot, Henry (born 1783) who married Hannah Watson Shaffer, Elizabeth (b 1786) John (b 1789) who married Samuel Squires, and John who married Keziah Pyles. The couple's other children born after arrival in America were Barbara, (b 1793) Nancy, (b 1794) Christina, (b 1795) and Mary (b 1800.)
              • vii. Peter Fortney-born 1 April 1754 in Hagertown, Washington, Maryland, was christened 23 February 1773 in Evangelical Luthern Church, Frederick, Maryland. He married Anna Elizabeth Hahn 8 October 1775 in Evangelical Church, Frederick, Maryland, daughter of Caspar Hahn. He married Maria Christina Port. She was born 1754 in Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, and died after 1817. He married Theodosia Turner 15 July 1815, in Monongalia, Virginia, (now West Virginia)

              Jean Henry Fortineaux was known in olonial America as Henry Fortney, Fortny and called Henrici Fourtney twice in the Frederick County Evangelical Lutheran Church Parish Records. Also called Heinrich.Daniel Fortney Sr. lived in a log cabin on Sac's Run Road, and was a farmer. He and his father both served in Pennsylvania regiments during the American Revolution. Settling first in Frederick Co. MD, he and his wife later moved west in about 1790 into Monongalia Co. VA. They occupied land 1 1/2 miles from present day Reedsville. Dropping the name Forteneau, or Fordeneau, they assumed the surname Fortney.


              The first permanent Acadian settlers arrived by ship from France in 1636. This initial settlement was established on the Isle-of-St.-Croix, at St. Croix River near Calais Maine. Jean Fortuneau was born in 1669 and married Jeanne Le Coq born between 1646-1649 at St Croix, or St Roch, Paris, France. In 1637, Jean Fortuneau/dit Laverdure born at Pons, Charente-Maritime, France. (Source: Marriage: The King's Daughters; Joy Reisinger; page 69. Military Soldier) The father was Andre Fortuneau (born at Saints, Saintonge, France) (Source: Dictionnaire Genealogique des Families du Quebec des Origines) and mother Marguerite Beaumont/Beaumone-Jean Fortuneau's religious marriage to Jeanne Lecoq took place 27 June 1689 in Notre Dame, Ville de Quebec, Quebec. Related to above with disputed dates possibly. Their daughter Marie Marguerite Moreau was born 3 Nov 1676 in St Joseph-a-Charlesbourg. Baptized at Quebec City.

              In what is known as the Grand Dérangement, (Great Expulsion) about 10,000 Acadians (three-fourths of the Acadian population in Nova Scotia) were expelled from the colony between 1755 and 1764. The British destroyed around 6000 Acadian houses and dispersed the Acadians among the 13 colonies from Massachusetts to Georgia. After the British took possession of the French colony of Ile Saint-Jean (as P.E.I. was once known), they rounded up some 3,100 island Acadians and deported them to France. Fifty-three per cent of those are estimated to have lost their lives from shipwrecks or disease. This tragedy is immortalized in the epic poem by American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, called “Evangeline.” It is a tale of lovers; Evangeline becomes separated from her betrothed, Gabriel, only to find him as he lies dying because of the Acadian expulsion of 1755. The Fortineux surname can be found amoung the displaced Acadiens.

              Agathe Forteneau was born abt 1782 at Lacadie, St Jean, Quebec. Married: Alexis Belanger on 22 Nov 1802 Lacadie, St Jean, Quebec. Rosalie Forteneau married Jean Guyon abt 1845. Child's of this marriage's name was Damase Guyon.


              Source:The Settlement of the German Coast of Louisiana and the Creoles of German Descent (1909) Louisiana Acadians, or Cajuns as they are sometimes called, are a people whose ancestors left France in the 1600s to settle in the French Canadian province of Acadie and eventually immigrated to Louisiana following the British "Expulsion" from Acadie which occurred in 1755. In 1861 Charlia Forteneau was born in Louisiana. She married Josiah Adams on 16 Nov 1882 in Louisiana.

              The official census taken in November, 1724, forms the principal source of information concerning the founders of the German Coast in Louisiana. Additional sources were taken from other census reports, from church registers, and other official sources. The official census of 1724 embraces the concessions and habitations on both sides of the Mississippi River from New Orleans to and including the German Coast. It consists of two parts of sixty entries each. The first part covers the right bank from the upper limits of the German villages (upper side of Bonnet Carre' bend) down to a point nearly opposite New Orleans ; and the second part begins at the upper town limit of New Orleans on the left bank (at what is now Bienville street) and follows the left bank up the river to a point ten lieues above and opposite the German villages, where the first part began. Concerning the spelling of the German family names, be aware that German names suffered at the hands of the French officials. You will at times find it necessary to obtain original spellings through your own research.

              of Hochhausen, Franconia. Catholic; 25 years old. Miller. His wife with a child at the breast. Stepdaughter of 15 years. "A good man, well lodged." Has a cow from the company and a calf of eight days. A big hog and two little pigs. 1726: Andreas Schantz married Maria Magdalena Gaffel, daughter of Leonhard Gaffel and Catherine Wolf. 1731: Two children. Four negroes; four cows.

              *Note: Andreas Schantz was a meunier or miller by trade born at Hochausen, Faranconie. He married Catherine Wolf ou Wolffine. Catherine Wolf Schantz married Jean Georges at St Charles des Allemands, Louisiana. (1746-01-18) Marie Madeleine Gaffel born 1723 was daughter of Catherine Wolf/Volf Schantz/Wolffzin and Jean Leonard Gaffel.She married a trapper named Pierre Coureur de Bois Ducote IIon 23 Jan 1748/49 at Point Coupee, Louisiana. Pierre Du Cote’, II was listed in the burial records of St. Paul Catholic Church in Mansura, LA, as being buried December 20, 1836. This would put Pierre at the age of 83 at his death. II Post of Pointe Coupee 1735-1803 Marriage of Marie Magdelaine Cable widow of Jacques Cure, January 23, 1749 to Pierre Du Cote’ called Coureur De bois. Pierre dit Marchal Oliveaux born 1697 in Chaille les Marias, LaRochelle, France. He was the son of: Laurent Oliveaux and Helene Robert. He came to this country as a soldier on the ship Marie in 1718. Native of Champagne, Diocese of La Rochelle. The marriage of Marie Madeleine Gaffel and Pierre Oliveaux took place at 27 Aug 1726 in New Roads, Point Coupee, Louisiana. Children:

              • 1. Catherine Oliveaux born: abt 1729-Arkansas Post
              • 2. Marie Catherine Oliveaux born: abt 1728-Arkansas Post
              • 3. George Oliveaux born: abt 1742-Des Allamands, Louisiana
              • 4. Marie Francois (Marie Ann) Oliveaux born: 8 Aug 1741
              • 5. Andre Oliveaux b: Abt 1732
              • 6. Pierre Oliveaux b: 11 Jun 1739 in Point Coupee Parish, Louisiana
              • 7. Marie Francosie Oliveaux b: Aud 8 1741
              • 8. Oliveaux b: 2 Feb 1743 in Pointe Coupee, Louisiana
              Pierre Oliveaux died: 1744 in Point Coupee Parish, Louisiana. Marie Gaffel married Jacques Cure 2 Dec 1744. He was born: abt 1695 in Mardier, Orleans, France. They were married: 02 Dec 1744 in Natchez Post, Mississippi. Marriage Contract Vol.

              • Jacques Cure, Called “Orleans” age 40
              • Marie Magdeleine Cable age 36
              • Andre Olivo (son) age 13
              • two other sons under 12
              • two other daughter’s under 12
            • Marcus Thiel, of Bergwies, Silesia. Lutheran; 43 years old. Shoemaker. His wife. Land at discretion. Always sick. (Possibly related to "Thal" in Pastor Faucher's group of 24 families of refugees.)
            • Sebastian FunckPossibly related to founder of Funkstown, Maryland
            • Johann Adam Edelmeier, of Reiheim, Palatinate. Calvinist; 50 years old. Cooper. Two boys, 10 and 14 years of age. A daughter, Maria Barbara, married Lionnois, a sailor from Lyons. Three arpents cleared. Two pigs. "A very good worker, who deserves attention." 1726: Six arpents cleared. 1728: Marie Christine Edelmeier baptized. 1731 : Five children. One negro; two cows.
            • Simon Kuhn/Kuhnwein, of Weissenburg, Ansbach, Bavaria. "His wife, daughter, son-in-law, Daniel Hopf, 20 years of age of Cassen, diocese of Spire. Orphan boy, 12 years old. Cow, calf, three pigs. One year on the land.

              Had to change his engagements twice, having been forced to give up his cabin on account of water. Good worker." (Census of 1724.) An elder daughter of Simon Kuhn, Anna Kuhn, was the widow of Johann Adam Zweig (Labranche), who had died in Biloxi. She had a daughter of the age of 12 years. The orphan boy, 12 years old, was, no doubt a relative, and very likely that Jean Labranche who, in 1737, married Susanna Marchand and became the progenitor of all the Labranche families in Louisiana.

            • Anna Kuhn/Kuhnwein, widow of Johann Adam Zweig (Labranche). Her husband was a Catholic, and died in Biloxi. Daughter of twelve years. One and a half arpents cleared. "Has no provisions and no seed for the next year. Needs some assistance." 1729: Daughter Anna Margarethe Zweig married Pierre Bridel, a soldier, and a native of Bretagne. According to the marriage entry the bride was born in Bollweiler, Alsace.

            These first-family Acadien French people, who were selected by the French authorities, are said to have been highly skilled craftsmen and farmers. They enjoyed a relatively undisturbed lifestyle, centered around present day Nova Scotia in the area of the Bay of Fundy, for more than a hundred years. Fifty-five percent of these Acadian "first families" hailed from the Centre-Ouest region of France (Poitou, Aunis, Angoumois, and Saintonge); of these, eighty-five percent came from the La Chause area of Poitou.

            Following struggles between France and England over the territory, it eventually came under British control. When the Acadiens refused to swear allegiance to the king of England, 9,000 men, women and children were forcibly banished from their lands and deported in 1755. Henry Wadsworth Longfellows poem "Evangeline" is a saga of this event. It recounts the tragedy of an Acadian girl who was separated from her fiance during deportation and spent the rest of her life trying to find him. When the Acadians were expelled, Many of them went to Louisiana. Other American Colonies were Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York,Pennsylvania, and South Carolina. In Canada they went to Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. And on the continent of Europe they found assylum is England France at St. Malo, Nantes, Belle Ile en Mer and French Colonies such as St. Domingue, Martinique, French Guiana, Falkland Islands, St. Pierre & Miquelon.

            Jonas Fortineux married Sara Menton daughter of Jacob Menton who had the following children:

            • Jean Mentonborn before 1640-Married: Johannes Reyland
            • Marie -Married: Arnot Baudoin
            • Judieth Born 1643-Married:Jean Hebert
            • Sara Married: Jonas Fortineux
            • Abraham-Born 1642
            • Henry-Born 1655

            The refugees fleeing from Nova Scotia who went to Louisiana came to be known as "Cajuns," a local approximation of the word "Acadiens." The language the Cajuns spoke -- and what they still speak -- is French. Under the name Fortineau, we see those of this surname following the Acadien Expulsion of 1755. Archdiocese of New Orleans Sacramental Records, by Charles E. Nolan, Dorenda Dupont & J. Edgar Bruns, 1997, Volume 12, 1816-1817, page 160:

            Victor Francois Fortineau (Gabriel and Francoise Olive L(*]rdy), native of Vielvique in Bretagne, m. Terzize (@Marie Josephine Therbize) Olivier (Olivier Forcelle), Jun. 15, 1816, w. Joseph Lavenu (La Venue), Hilaire De Faire, Balthazard Dusuau (Dussiau), Terence LaBlanc, Joseph Olivier Devezin, Charle Frederic) Olivier Forcelle, Marie Francoise Lamolere Dorville Olivier, Francois Joseph Dorville and (o) Dufouart

            Father: Gabriel FORTINEAU
            Mother: Francoise-Olive L-RDY

            Marriage Marie-Josephe-Tersile Forzel Olivier De Vezin
            b: January 22, 1793 in New Orleans, Orleans, Louisiana
            Married: June 15, 1815 in St. John the Baptist Catholic Church, Edgard, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

            • Victor-Gabriel Fortineau b: March 10, 1817 in Edgard, St. John the Baptist, Louisiana
            • Marie-Amelie-Francoise Fortineau b: March 24, 1818 in Edgard, St. John the Baptist, Louisiana
            • Joseph-Theodore Fortineau b: August 26, 1819 in Edgard, St. John the Baptist, Louisiana
            • Marie-Marthe Fortineau b: 1821 in Edgard, St. John the Baptist, Louisiana


            You're Invited to the Annual
            Fortineux/Fortineau/Fortin/Fortier/Fortney Family Reunion in West Virginia

            Description Fortney-Fortineux Family Reunion sponsored by the WV Chapter. Takes place each year on the third Sunday in July at Bethlehem Church, Dogtown Road about 2.5 miles off SR 92 on the left. Begins after church, about 1 p.m. Carry-in dinner but guests without food are certainly welcome. Descendants of Jean Henri Fortineux. Blind auction, always fun, pays for cemetery restoration work. Several original Fortney family farms, c 1790, in the immediate area as well as family cemeteries. (updated: Tuesday, July 16, 2002)


            location [ map ] Bethlehem, WV near Reedsville Dogtown Rd, 2.5 mi off SR 92 Preston County, WV USA

            Tom R. Fortney

            1-304-864-1058 phone

            1-304-864-1958 fax

            There's a Fortney Cemetery located at: Harrison CountyWest Virginia

            I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from whence cometh my help. Psalms 121:1 _____________________________________________________

            Under King Henry IV the Huguenots became a strong power in France. To break this power, which stood in the way of the absolutist form of government that the next two kings of France, Louis XIII and, particularly, Louis XIV, wished to impose on the country, both monarchs instigated new persecutions of the Huguenots, and new civil wars took place. From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. The French statesman and cardinal Richelieu caused the political downfall of the Huguenots with the capture (1628), after a long siege, of their principal stronghold, La Rochelle. Thereafter he sought to conciliate the Protestants. Louis XIV, however, persecuted them mercilessly, and on October 18, 1685, he revoked the Edict of Nantes. Finding life in France intolerable under the ensuing persecutions and evaporation of religious liberty, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to England, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the English colonies in North America, including Massachusetts, New York, and South Carolina. The total emigration is believed to have been about 200,000, with about 1 million Protestants remaining in France. Thousands of Protestants settled in the Cevennes mountain region of France and became known as Camisards; the attempt of the government to extirpate them resulted in the Camisard War (1702-1705).The name of Johann Jonas Fortineau/Fortineux, goes back to the mountainous strongholds of France in the 1500's to 1700s, where he was the progenitor of our Fortineau/Fortineaux family. We know this because Jonas and his son Jean Henri are listed on the French Huguenot Register. These were extremely difficult times for born again, Spirit filled Christians to be alive in France.

            The Huguenot pastor Charles Faucher's church in which Jonas Fortineau(Fortine) was a member consisted of members whose names were predominently French. Jonas Fortineau, born in Otterberg, Germany on 2 June 1650, and he was 35 years old at the time of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which signaled the beginning of severe persecution of the Protestant church. Otterberg was founded by Huguenot Walloons in the 16th century. Jonas Fortineau and his son Jean Henri Fortineau were born in France in a region that's now partof Germany. The Fortineau families resided early on in the Loire region of France. Studies on the Fortineau surname show that the family lived in Loire Atlantique, the area was originally part of Brittany, and contains what many people still consider to be Brittany's capital, Nantes. The family lived at St. Luminare de Contais, and Sainte Croix. Below is a photograph that portrays the beauty of this region.


            The goal of religious reform, when people have begun to embrace the traditions of man, more than the Word and power of God, is always "Back to the Bible." The Lord's Jewish apostles received their doctrine from the holy scriptures. The apostles themselves saw prophecies fulfilled, such as that occurring on the Day of Pentecost, where the Lord states:

            Repent, be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

            In Acts 10:46-48, we learn this was received with the evidence of speaking supernaturally in other tongues. Converts are commanded in scripture to be baptized by immersion in the name of Jesus Christ. (Acts 2:38, Acts 8:16, Acts 10:46-48, Acts 19:5)

            Did our ancestors always obey this injunction of the Lord to embrace wholeheartedly what is written in scripture? They should have. But frankly, no, all did not. There were many of the Protestant faith in France who came into the truth of Acts 2:38. William Penn who associated himself with the plight of the persecuted French Protestants did. But lets face it, at one time the majority believed that the Catholic church was the apostolic faith, till they read in God's word: "Wherefore come out from among them and be separate." Like a generation of Israelites fell and died in the wilderness because of unbelief, so it was with them. Full obedience awaits many of the descendants.

            It is not always easy for us in researching today, to determine the precise way in which God restored truth as He lead our ancestors as the Shepherd and Bishop of their souls, as He promises all people in the holy scriptures "Into all truth." They allowed themselves to be lead in this way, to varying degrees. There were various issues, such as difficulty at times in obtaining the scriptures in times of severe persecution. They found fellowship with various religious groups, where they could obtain passage to America or other countries to which they fled for refuge. Coming out of centuries of Catholicism was not easy for many of them. Yet God promises in the scriptures that in the last days, he will pour out of his Spirit on all flesh. Your young men will see visions and your old men will dream dreams. Your sons and your daughters will prophesy! In the description handed down concerning a French Protestant group during the reformation years, it states:

            In the trance, (i.e. vision) when seized by convulsions, and pouring forth words of repentance and admonition, often in pure French instead of the local dialect, those "possessed by the Spirit," saw troops from far-off garrisons come marching toward the place, they singled out those among their comrades who should fall in the encounter, they recognized the traitors among them; and these predictions were always accepted with reverence and confidence, and often proved true; although, on the other hand, the power of prophecy later steadily declined. Without this apocalyptic factor, diseased yet sincere, the enthusiasm and obstinacy of the Camisards is unintelligible. Terming themselves "children of God," and their camp the "Camp of the Eternal," they relied with absolute trust on divine guidance and aid, while their fanaticism in destroying churches, like their cruelty in killing priests, finds its explanation in the fact that they believed themselves called of God to extirpate "Babylon and Satan," as they designated the Roman Catholic priests and their Church.

            Do I believe that these were actually seized with convulsions? Much of what was written about french Protestants which was interpreted by their enemies or by a people new to the manifestations of God's Spirit. Some was recorded by enemies who slaughtered them during the inquisition, and who wrote the documents used as evidence in the courts of lands in wwhich they were persecuted for their faith.

            We must turn to the Bible itself, to test the outpouring of God's Holy Spirit. There are genuine biblical manifestations of God's Spirit. Nine spiritual gifts are spoken of in the New Testament, such as prophecy, discerning of Spirits. When the church must endure persecution of the sort so many of them lived through, God would have given many warnings in dreams and prophecy, similar to that given Jesus Christ's own mother and step-father, who was warned in a dream to flee, and which preserved him from the slaughter of infants spoken of as having occurred during his own baby years.

            That Jonas or Jean Henri Fortineaux are described as Huguenots in one place, and Dunkers or German Lutherns in others, simply shows them seeking to know the God of the bible, attending services in the area where they lived, or knew some of the other believers. This has a quest to know the God of the scriptures for the Fortineux family, which has taken perseverance. What is needed is a "foundation" in understanding scriptures. In Reformation times, as now, God uses willing vessels. Many of the Reformers were willing, but at times lacked a practical understanding of various doctrines which were being restored to the church by God, themselves. They were eager to share what truth they felt they understood. One doctrine that most stumbled at that is plainly stated in Acts 2:38, Acts 8:15, Acts 10:46-48, and Acts 19:5, is water baptism in Jesus Christ's name.

            Whether you read of this denomination or that denominations doctrine as off on this point or that shows the degree to which the scriptures themselves were understood by our family members. Many of them baptized infants or were baptized as infants, although eventually the church discovered that this is not scriptural. Some baptized by immersing the convert 3 times instead of once. This is not scriptural, since the baptism speaks of being baptized into Christ once and for all, into that one mediator between God and man, Jesus Christ, who died once for all as the atonement for our sins (For all have sinned) this being representative of ones own death, burial and resurrection to walk in newness of life in Him. Concerning infant baptism, the bible defines sin as "transgression of the Law." (I John 3:4) A baby is not a transgressor or sinner, therefore does not require baptism. Later in his or her life, this obedience to scripture can and should be foundational in any believers life, who considers themselves a Christian. I Corinthians 7:10-14 defines the fact that the children are not unclean but are sanctified through the believing parent, even if the husband or wife is an unbeliever.

            10 But to the married I give instructions, not I, but the Lord, that the wife should not leave her husband 11 (but if she does leave, she must remain unmarried, or else be reconciled to her husband), and that the husband should not divorce his wife. 12 But to the rest I say, not the Lord, that if any brother has a wife who is an unbeliever, and she consents to live with him, he must not divorce her. 13 And a woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he consents to live with her, she must not send her husband away. 14 For the unbelieving husband is sanctified through his wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified through her believing husband; for otherwise your children are unclean, but now they are holy.

            But it is God's command that all must believe on the Saviour, for that all have sinned and come short of the glory of God.

            From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists.

            • For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God; (Romans 3:23 KJV)
            • For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. (Romans 6:23 KJV)
            • But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. (Romans 5:8 KJV)
            • That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from dead, thou shalt be saved. (Romans 10:9 KJV)
            • For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved. (Romans 10:13 KJV)
            • And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high. (Luke 24:49)
            • 'And afterward, I will pour out my Spirit on all people. Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your old men will dream dreams, your young men will see visions. (Joel 2:28)
            • "Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. For the promise is to you and to your children, and to all who are afar off, as many as the Lord our God will call. " (Acts 2:38-Acts 2:39)


            South of the Lozere are the Cevennes, protected by National Park status, rising above the plains of the Languedoc and the Mediterranean. The Cevennes is a maze of deep valleys with winding rivers of clear waters and hill slopes covered in forests of sweet chestnut along with the mulberry which was planted in days gone by for feeding the silkworms bred in the mills called magnaneries.

            Another Protestant Reformation group in France were known as the French Camisards. Protestant peasants of the Cevennes region of France who in 1702 rebelled against the persecutions that followed the revocation (1685) of the Edict of Nantes (see Nantes, Edict of). The name was probably given them because of the shirts they wore in night raids. Led by the young Jean Cavalier and Roland Laporte, the Camisards met the ravages of the royal army with guerrilla methods and withstood superior forces in several battles.

            The Huguenot cross is also called the cross of Languedoc. Protestant peasants of the Cevennes region of France who in 1702 rebelled against the persecutions that followed the revocation (1685) of the Edict of Nantes (see Nantes, Edict of). The name was probably given them because of the shirts they wore in night raids. Led by the young Jean Cavalier and Roland Laporte, the Camisards met the ravages of the royal army with guerrilla methods and withstood superior forces in several battles.

            After the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, a revolt led by the Camisards broke out in the rugged and isolated Cevennes region of south-central France. Protestant peasants of the region rebelled against the official persecutions, called the 'Dragonnades' (conversions enforced by Dragoons, or Catholic 'missionaries in boots') that followed the Revocation, in which military forces terrorized scattered bands of Protestants, inspiring mass emigrations. Clandestine Protestant preachers were hidden in houses and caves, and Protestants were arrested, deported to America, and sentenced to the galleys. Several leading Protestant preachers were executed.

            Open hostilities began with the assassination (July 24, 1702) of a local embodiment of royal repression, Patrick Cabanel, the Abbot of Chaila, at Pont-de-Montvert, who had recently arrested a group accused of attempting to flee France. The abbé was quickly lionized in print as a martyr of his faith. Led by the young Jean Cavalier and Roland Laporte, the Camisards met the ravages of the royal army with guerrilla methods and withstood superior forces in several pitched battles. In 1704, Marshal Villars, the royal commander, offered Cavalier vague concessions to the Protestants and the promise of a command in the royal army. Cavalier's acceptance of the offer broke the revolt, although others, including Laporte, refused to submit unless the Edict of Nantes was restored. Scattered fighting went on until 1710, but the true end of the uprising was the arrival in the Cevennes of the protestant minister Antoine Court and the reestablishment of a small Protestant community that was largely left in peace, especially after the death of Louis XIV in 1715.

            A group of ex-Camisards under the guidance of Elie Marion emigrated to London in 1706. Their example and their writings was later influencial later, both on the spiritual outlook of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and on Ann Lee, founder of the Shaker movement.

            Jacques Fontanieu ou Fontaines ou Fontagnous was a French Camisard who was forced into slavery, as a galley slave when arrested. Others forced into slavery of this sort were Pierre Fournet ou Fournette ou Fournelle, and Francois Fournet.

            The description of a galley will be new to many. "Ours was a hundred and fifty feet long and fifty broad, with but one deck, which covered the hold. The deck rises about a foot in the middle, and slopes toward the edges to let the water run off more easily; for when a galley is loaded it seems to swim under the water, and the sea continually rushes over it. To prevent the sea from entering the hold, where the masts are placed, a long case of boards, called the coursier, is fixed in the middle, running from one end of the galley to the other. The slaves, who are the rowers, have each a board raised from the deck under which the water passes, which serves them for a footstool, otherwise their feet would be constantly in the water. A galley has fifty benches for rowers, twenty-five on each side; each bench is ten feet long, one end fixed in the coursier, that runs through the boat, the other in the band or side of the boat; the benches are half a foot thick, and placed at four feet distance from each other, and are covered with sackcloth, stuffed with flock, and a cowhide thrown over them, which, reaching to the footstool, gives them the appearance of large trunks. To these the galley-slaves are chained, six to a bench. The [145] oars are fifty feet long, and are poized in equilibrio upon the apostic, or piece of timber for this purpose. They are constructed so, that the thirteen feet of the oar, that go into the boat, are equal in weight to the thirty-seven which go into the water. It would be impossible for the slaves to grasp them, and handles are affixed for rowing.

            "The master or comite stands always at the stern, near the captain, to receive his orders. There are sous-comites, one in the middle and one near the prow, each with a whip of cords to exercise as they see fit on the slaves. The comite blows a silver whistle, which hangs from his neck; the slaves have their oars in readiness and strike all at once, and keep time so exactly, that the hundred and fifty oars seem to make but one movement. There is an absolute necessity for thus rowing together, for, should one be lifted up or fall too soon, those before would strike the oar with the back part of their heads. Any mistake of this kind is followed by blows given with merciless fury. The labor of a galley-slave has become a proverb; it is the greatest fatigue that a man can bear. Six men are chained to each bench on both sides of the coursier wholly naked, sitting with one foot on a block of timber, the other resting on the bench before them, holding in their hands an enormous oar. Imagine them lengthening their bodies, their arms stretched out [146] to push the oar over the backs of those before them; they then plunge the oar into the sea, and fall back into the hollow below, to repeat again and again the same muscular action. The fatigue and misery of their labor seems to be without parallel. They often faint, and are brought to life by the lash. Sometimes a bit of bread dipped in wine is put into their mouths, when their labor cannot for a moment be spared. Sometimes, when they faint, they are thrown into the sea, and another takes the place."

            Other members of this family recorded as French Camisards are Antoine Fontanieu (amnistie) Etienne Fontanieu (amnistie) Firmine Fontanieu (prison) Florette Fontanieu (prison) Francois Fontanieu (amnistie) Jeanne Fontanieu (prison)

            A family member of Languedoc origins was Louise Fontanieu, whose parents are recorded as Claude Fontanieu b: in St Bauzille, 34, Herrault, Languedoc-Roussillon, France and her mother was Marie Volpeliere She married: Etienne Coste in 1688, the son of Jacques I Coste and Louise Allier. He died in Cannes et Clairan, 30, Gard, Languedoc-Roussillon.

            Marguerite Fontanieu married Jacques Etienne Aubaneland the following children were born to them.


            • 1. Aubanel b: Bef 1753 in Sommieres, 30, Gard, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
            • 2. Jeanne Aubanel b: in Sommieres, 30, Gard, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
            • 3. Jacques Etienne Aubanel b: in Sommieres, 30, Gard, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
            • 4. Etienne Aubanel

            Marie Anyonia Fortunawas born abt. 1716 and married 1 Jean-Baptiste Garic b: 7 APR 1716 in Chirac, Lazere, Langedoc, France. The Fortuna surname, an obvious derivitive of the Fortineux surname is probably the shortened form of Fortunado, the Italian version of the Fortineux name. Father: Jean-Baptiste Garic b: 15 APR 1671 in Chirac, France Mother: Antonia Paoyet , or Antoinette Prejot b: ABT. 1671 in Chirac, France

            Marriage 1 Marie Anyonia Fortuna b: ABT. 1716

            Marriage 2 Entinette Stephanie Gouyon , des Rochettes b: BEF. 29 FEB 1748 in New Orleans, LA or in Chatelin, Brittany, France

            * Married: 1769 in New Orleans, LA

            Children 1. Eulanie Garic b: 1770 2. Celeste Garic b: ABT. 1774 3. Jean Baptiste Francois Garic b: 12 DEC 1772 in New Orleans, LA 4. Etienne de Rochette Garic b: 1779


            The Fortineaux family originating in the Loire region, with it's capital of Orleans, was France's intellectual capital in the 13th century, attracting artists, poets and troubadours to the royal court. Julien Fortin dit Bellefontaine was an example. He was born in 1599 in Mamers, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France. His father was Simon Fortin b: 1575 in Saint-Cosme-en-Vairais, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France. In 1616 he married Marie Lavye b: 1601 in Mamers, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France. A son was born to Julien Fortine and Marie Lavye whom they named Julien Fortine and he was born 09 Feb 1621. Died: 10 Aug 1692 in Quebec, Canada. He married Genevieve gamache born Oct 1636 in Breval, Yvelines, Ile de France.

            In the German Palatinate, as find the Fortineau's living in Otterberg, Pfalz Bayern, Germany in 1677, and Landstuhl, West Palatinate 1723. The surname laFortune or Fortune which is linked to the Fortineaux name are found in Bretagne in 1618 and Normandy in 1644. By 1720 however, we see the name Fortineau in the Loire region of France.

            The name Fortineau is found in England, where Fortney is a name of ancient Norman origin. It arrived in England with the Norman Conquest of 1066. They lived in Essex, in the town of Fordham. Another way the Fortineau's found their way to England, was by immigrant ship as they fled the Palatinate or France. England was a place where the ships stopped for supplies. There were also refugee camps there.

            Johann Jonas Fortineau/Fortinet's name has numerous spelling varients including: Jonas Fortineaux/Fortineux/Fortineau/Fortinet/Fortne/Fortinet/Fortinee/Fortenay. He was born: 2 June 1650 in St. Lambrecht, Pfalz, Bayern, Germany. The Steinwenden parish register corrects this.) He could not write his signature, but made "his mark," a simple small circle, beside his name on the ship's list. The variety of spelling varients of the Fortineaux name come from people of that day writing names as they sounded them out. In Jonas Fortineaux's case, Fortne was used in the Church Book of the First Reformed Church of Lancaster, PA.

            Pierre Fortineau was born 1655 at Loire Atlantique. He married Marie Gobin on June 21, 1677 at St. Lumine de Coutais, Atlantic Loire.

            Jean Fortineau was born 1698 at Loire Atlantique. His father was Pierre Fortineau who married Marie Gobin. Jean Fortineau was widowed and his spouses were as follows. Marguerite Clavier m on 16 Jan 1720, Spouse: Marguise Oriex married on 24 February 1716. Eloy Alexandre Fortineau/Fortuneau was born 27 Mar 1764 at Pornic-Loire Et Atlantique. His parents were Jacques Fortineau and Michelle Francheteau/Franchetot. He married: Anastase Renee Francheteau at Pornic, Loire Et Atlantique 23 Jun 1794.He died: Nov 14, 1841.

            Jean Baptiste Fortineau was born Loire Inferior at St Lumine de Contais.


            The Italian, Portuguese and Spanish form of Latin Fortunatus, meaning "fortunate, happy and blessed." Guiseppe Leonardo Fortunato was born in Casamassima, Bari, Italy in 1687, the son of Francesco Fortunato and Isabella Magnifico. Others of this family include:

            • Nicola Fortunato-Born 1689 at Casamassima, Bari, Italy-Parents: Francesco Fortunato and Isabella Magnifico.
            • Pietro Fortunato-Born 1685 at Casamassima, Bari, Italy-Parents: Francesco Fortunato and Isabella Magnifico
            • Stefano Antonio Fortunato-Born 1688 at Casamassima, Bari, Italy-Parents: Francisco Fortunato and Isabella Magnifico
            Giulia Fortunato
            Surname: Fortunato
            Given Name: Giulia
            Birth: 1757 in Roccanova, Potenza, Italy

            Father: Pietro Fortunato b: 1726 in Casamassima, Bari, Italy c: in Casamassima, Bari, Italy
            Mother: Domenica Catanzaro b: 1730 in Casamassima, Bari, Italy c: in Casamassima, Bari, Italy

            Enrichetta FORTINI was born in 1860 at , Prata, Caserta, Italy and she died in France in about 1885.

            Anna Maria Isabel Fortunet born 26 Dec 1730 at San Vincente, Cabanas, Gerona, Spain. Parents: Fafel Fortunet and Anna Maria Camps.

            Jonas Fortineaux was not in Otterburg for the 1665 tax, but they were listed in the 1664 tax records. But Jonas went to Charlottenburg, Prussia nearby Holzappel and back in 1675.


            The wife of Jean Henri Fortineux II, was Maria/Mary Catherine "Charity" Berger. She was born on September 22, 1708 in Otterberg, Palatinate, the daughter of Andreas Berger/Yerger( born 1765) and Philipina Reiff (born 04 March of 1767.) Philipina Reiff's parents were Daniel Kulewein Reiff born 15 October 1736 and died 30 September 1782 and Catherine Diese. He married Catharina Diese who was born 1762 at Oley, Berks, PA. The naturalization document of Jean Henri Fortineux's and Maria Catherine "Charity" Berger Fortineux lists her as Catherine Fortine, dating this event as having occurred on September 10, 1765. Jean Henri and Maria Catherine Berger were married in 1735.

            When Catharine was suddenly widowed due to the death of her husband by a lightning strike, she was just 40 years of age, and was left alone to care for her 6 children, and expecting her last one in the Spring. She purchased 436 acres in 1755 and additional land in 1761. Her sons Henry and David inherited Deer Spring when they came of legal age. As daughter of Andreas Berger, she is recorded in baptismal records. Maria/Mary Catherine "Charity" Berger Fortineaux died on 27 April 1794 in Frederick County, MD, leaving a will of substancial means. Her will was witnessed by William Tabler and Barnet Renn. Jean Henri Fortineux II and Catherine Berger are the parents of Daniel Fortineux/Fordeneau/Fortney.


            Pierre Chevalier De Ferney was born abt 1695 in Ferney, France. He was killed during the Huguenot exodus from France following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by King Louis the XIV. He married to Ann Smith. A son born in 1721 whom they named Jacob Ferney. Jacob died in 1806 in Lincoln, NC. Jacob married Maria Bergner born: 1721 in Grindelwald, Switzerland. They were married in: 1752 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Their children were as follows:

            • 1. Jacob Forney b: 1754 in Of, Lincoln, North Carolina
            • 2. Peter Forney b: 21 APR 1756 in Of, Lincoln, North Carolina
            • 3. Abram Forney b: 15 OCT 1758 in Of, Lincoln, North Carolina
            • 4. Catherine Forney b: 1760 in Of, Lincoln, North Carolina
            • 5. Elizabeth Forney b: 1761 in Lincoln County, North Carolina
            • 6. Christina Forney b: 1762 in Of, Lincoln, North Carolina
            • 7. Selanah Eve Forney b: 1766 in , Lincoln, North Carolina
            • 8. Susannah M Forney b: 1767 in Of, Lincoln, North Carolina


            Jean Pierre Ferney was born:
            July 23, 1796 in LeVal, Belfort, France. Belfort's strategic location, in a natural gap between the Vosges and the Jura, on a route linking the Rhine and the Rhonee, has attracted human settlement and made it a target for armies. He died: 28 Feb 1859 in St.Cosme, Haut Rhin, France. Named for the Rhine River, Haut-Rhin is bordered by the Territoire de Belfort and Vosges departements and the Vosges Mountains to the west, the Bas-Rhin departement to the North, Switzerland to the south and its eastern border with Germany is also the River Rhine His father was Antoine Ferney born: Mar. 21, 1749 in LeVal. France and his mother: Marie Anne Guittard born: Nov. 16, 1748. He married 1 Marie Anne Monnier b: May 21, 1800 in St. Cosme, France. * Married: Feb. 7, 1816 in LeVal, France Children:

            • 1. Marie Catherine Ferney b: 13 Jul 1834 in St.Cosme, Haut Rhin, France
            • 2. Damien Dominique Charle Ferney b: 16 Nov 1820 in St.Cosme, Haut Rhin, France
            • 3. Marianne Ferney b: 26 Sep 1823 in St.Cosme, Haut Rhin, France
            • 4. Antonnin Marie Constant Ferney b: 12 Oct 1826 in St.Cosme, Haut Rhin, France
            • 5. Marie Anne Eleonore Ferney b: 12 Aug 1828 in St.Cosme, Haut Rhin, France
            • 6. Marie Rose Ferney b: 22 Oct 1830 in St.Cosme, Haut Rhin, France
            • 7. Pierre Francois Ferney b: 31 Oct 1832 in St.Cosme, Haut Rhin, France
            • 8. Marie Anne Sophie Cecile Ferney b: 10 May 1836 in St.Cosme, Haut Rhin, France
            • 9. Marie Claire Ferney b: 3 Oct 1837 in St.Cosme, Haut Rhin, France
            • 10. Joseph Fereny b: 10 Jun 1839 in St.Cosme, Haut Rhin, France
            • 11. Marie Rosalie Ferney b: 24 Jul 1842 in St.Cosme, Haut Rhin, France


            The area which has become known as Lancaster, Pennsylvania was settled in the early 1700s by the Europeans, and declared a "townstead" by the governor of Pennsylvania in 1730. Most of the land at this time was owned by Andrew Hamilton. His son James was deeded 500 acres of this land in 1733, and designed the layout of the city in a plan of straight streets and rectangular property lots, that included what we all know as a "town square," known in those days as a "centre square." The puzzle is difficult to fit together at times due to the fact that the Fortineux name in Pennsylvania records which is spelled "Fortune." At times other records use laFortune as a surname."

            • Jonas Fortune/laFortune
            • Birth: 15 APR 1728 in Landstuhl, Germany
            • Marriage 1 Elizabeth Hergeroder
            • Married: 14 MAR 1748/49 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
            • Children
            • 1. John Henry Fortune b: 10 Jun 1754 in Trinity Tulpehocken Church, Richland, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania c: in Rev. H. W. Stoy with sponsors John Henry Herchelroth and Catherine Meyer, wife of Isaac Meyer of Conestoga

            Lancaster is the oldest inland city in the United States, and served as the capital city of Pennsylvania from 1799 until 1813, until it was replaced by Harrisburg. In 1709, the town was known as "Hickory Town;" Then after it was re-designed by James Hamilton, a prominent citizen named John Wright gave "Hickory Town" the name "Lancaster" after Lancaster, England where he used to live.

            Lancaster is known as the "Red Rose City" because of its link to Lancaster, England. The city became a borough in 1742, a chartered city in 1818, and surrendered its ancient city charter and became a Third Class City under the laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvanian May 27, in 1924.

            During the Revolutionary War, Lancaster was an important munitions center, the National Capital of the American Colonies on September 27, 1777 when the Continental Congress was fleeing British forces after their capture of Philadelphia.


            Long before there were any settlements in Frederick County, parties of Germans passed through it from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, to seek homes in Virginia. The principal route was over a pack horse or Indian road that crossed the present Pennsylvania counties of York and Adams to the Monocacy where it passed into Maryland. Once in Maryland, the road passed through Crampton's Gap and crossed the Potomac at several fords. The first German settlement in Frederick County was as early as 1729 in the village of Monocacy, which was the first village beyond the lower part of Montgomery County in Western Maryland .

            Monocacy was situated at or near the present village of Creagerstown. Here around 1732 the first German church, which was known as the Log Church, was built in Maryland. The Log Church later became the church of Creagerstown and then was replaced by a brick church a few rods north of the old site in 1834. There were several taverns there to accommodate travelers on the Monocacy Road, which was constructed by the governments of Pennsylvania and Maryland. Monocacy Road was an improvement upon the old Indian trail which was formerly used. The road went from Wright's Ferry in Pennsylvania to the Maryland line, then to the Potomac, and then on to the uplands of Virginia.


            Daniel Fortney Sr. was the son of Jean-Henri Fortineux and Mary/Maria Catherine (Charity) Berger, who was the daughter of Andreas Berger and Philipina Reiff.

            Daniel was born 30 AUG 1781 in France, and died February 23, 1818 in Reedsville, Valley Point, Preston County, West Virginia. He married Barbara Beckenbaugh the daughter of Johann Peter Beckenbaugh, the son of Johann Adam Beckenbaugh and Anna Barbara Buckner born abt 1740 in Baden, Germany.

            Barbara Beckenbaugh was born 1758, in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland, and died about 1829-30 Preston, Virginia, West Virginia. Her surname should be correctly spelled as "Beckenbach" because she was the daughter of Johann Peter Beckenbach (son of Johann Adam Beckenbach and Anna Maria Schmitt. He was born: 28 Dec. 1682 of Baden, Heidelburg, Eiterbach, Germany-died: before 21 Jan 1778Anna Maria Schmitt born:1686 at Wunschmichelbach, Hesse, Germany. They married on 28 July 1716 at Eiterbach, Hesse, Germany of Wunschmichelbach, Hesse, Germany) born: 23 May 1735, Eiterbach, Odenwald, Germany; married: 1765 Christened: 27 May 1735, Germany; died: April 1786 Dunkard Twp, Greene Pa. and Anna Barbara Henry Buckner born 1740, Virginia; married 1765 Berkeley, Virginia; Died: Dunkard Twp, Greene, Pa.

            The earliest descendant I have of my line, is Johannes Beckenbach born: 29 January 1656/1657 Died: 30 April 1738 who married Catharine born: August 1665 died: 4 February 1728-1729.

            "Preston County West Virginia History." Page 188. "Daniel Fortineux/Fordeneau/Fortney, was born in France in 1754. He was the son of Henry I and married Barbara Peckenpaugh, the daughter of Johann Adam Beckenbach. He was born: 28 Dec 1682. During the Revolution, he and his father served as privates in the Pennsylvania Regiments. First settling in Frederick County, Maryland, Daniel and wife moved about 1790 into Monongalia County, Virginia, dropped the name Fordeneau and took the name Fortney.

            Daniel Fortney/Fortineaux born in France in 1754, and died: February 23, 1818 in Monogalia, VA. He was the son of Jean Henri Fortineaux II who was born: 15 Jan 1704 Otterberg, Germany. He was the son of Jean Henri Fortineau I-born: 02-04 April 1675-Otterberg, Pfalz Bayern, Christened in the Otterberg, West Palatinate, (Germany) French Reformed Church: 7 April 1675 He married: Renarde (Renata) Spohn 1678-1683 in Katzenback, West Palatinate. died: 5 Nov. 1715. Buried: 9 Nov. 1715 Otterberg, Pfalz, Bayern, Germany. His father was Johann Jonas Fortineaux.

            The children of Daniel Fortineaux/Forteneau/Fortney and Barbara Beckenbach are as follows:

            * At least five of the children were born in France as Daniel himself was. The rest were born in Preston County and Frederick County, Maryland.

            • i. Catharine Fortney, born 1777 in France; died Aft. 1858; married David Grim 1797 in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland.
            • ii. Jacob Fortney, born 1779 in Fredrick, Frederick County Maryland; died 1779 in Frederick, Frederick County Maryland.
            • iii. Daniel Fortney, born 30 Aug 1781 in France; married Leah Morgan Menear 15 Sep 1801.
            • iv. Henry Fortney, born 1783 in France; died 1869; married (1) Hannah Watson Shaffer; married (2) Nancy Piles 06 Feb 1806.
            • v. Elizabeth Fortney, born 02 Sep 1786 in France; died 02 Oct 1870; married Samuel Squires in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland.
            • vi. John Fortney, born 1789 in France; died 07 Jun 1869 in Valley Point , Reedsville, Preston County, Virginia, West Virginia; married Keziah Pyles 13 Feb 1812 in Mongalia County Virginia, West Virginia.
            • vii. Barbara Fortney, born 1793 in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland; married Thomas Hunt 27 Aug 1812 in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland.
            • viii. Nancy Fortney, born 1794.
            • ix. Christina Fortney, born 1795 in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland; died 03 Oct 1855; married John Field.
            • x. Mary Fortney, born 1800 in Valley Point , Reedsville, Preston County, Virginia, West Virginia; died 12 Jul 1869 in Barbour County, Virginia, West Virginia; married John Squires 26 Feb 1818 in Monongalia County, Virginia, West Virginia.


            As the Huguenots became more established and their farms thrived, homes tended to be constructed of more substancial building materials such as stone rather than the wood or clay used previously. The floor plan was rectangular, consisting of 2 or 3 rooms with a wine-cellar and stables added on. As families grew and prospered, rooms were added and the rectangular house became T or L-shaped. The foundation was shallowly dug and filled with river stones. The clay floor was regularly strewn with sand and later covered with a firm layer of well-mixed cow manure and water. This, being sticky, gave the floor a tough skin as it dried and prevented the surface from wearing away and becoming dusty.

            The sandstone used for walls was quarried, then broken up, dressed or polished on one side. Large stones were placed on an even surface and the gaps filled in with smaller ones. After a certain height the walls were finished off with clay bricks. Clay was also used for masonry and plastering.

            At the front and back of the house, stable-doors were hung. They were broad in size and had large iron hinges. The ground in front of the house was cobbled to prevent the formation of mud during the wet winter months. The windows were small, so the walls sloped inwards to let in more light. The casement windows were built in flush with the wall and where shutters were present, opened inwards, while the shutters opened outwards. French hearths were an important feature of the kitchen, with the chimney extendeding along the width of the kitchen wall. The front wall was built of stone or clay bricks, or of clay on a base of stone. The entire hearth being plastered and whitewashed. The chimney-beam usually ran the whole width of the kitchen. It supported the chimney-breast, which was the expanded lower and front part of the chimney. The roof was relatively low with tapered ends or was hipped. It rested on a framework of poles and the principal roof trusses consisted of rounded poles. The top beam or purloin which joined the two poles of a truss together was fixed with wooden pegs or thongs. A number of trusses placed alongside each other were secured by a ridge-beam overhead. Below the trusses a wall-beam was positioned on top of the wall. The battens were laid across the trusses and were covered with thatch. At the ridge-pole it was either weatherproofed with extra reeds or smeared with clay which was then whitened with lime.

            Although ceilings were not common in late 17th early 18th century houses, where present they were either built of spars or reeds. The spars were laid across the beams and tied to them with a string or narrow thongs while the reeds were laid similarly but had their ends secured with nails hammered into the beams and then bent back over the reeds. (Nails hammered through the reeds resulted in them splitting).

            A layer laid over the spars or reeds to prevent dust filtering through, and over this a thick layer of well-kneaded clay was laid as fire-proofing. (Should the thatched roof catch fire, the contents of the house were in less danger). This was known as a "brand-solder" or fire proof ceiling. Its purpose was to protect the contents of the house and to regulate the internal temperature. Lofts were also used as storage-space.


            *Note: Contributed by Alana Campbell Mailing Address: 5214 South 2nd Avenue, Everett, Wa. 98203-4113 (425) 257-9511

            The "Hunt" surname is one of those surnames that changed dramatically with the countries the family lived in. The German name for "Hunt" is "hundt," meaning "Wolf." Among our Wolf ancestors is Ludwig Lewis Wolf born: 24 Oct 1767 in Frederick Co, Md-died: 11 Nov 1841 in Monongalia Co, Va. He was the son of Johann Adam Wolf of Reishweiler, Bavaria and Maria Clara Catherine born: 1771 in Fredericks CO, MD. He married Charlotte Lauffer born: 15 Oct 1741-died: 28 Nov 1825 in Frederick CO, MD She was also known as Charlotte Runner, due to her marriage to Gottlieb Runner born: 1738 in Germany. Her maiden name was Charity Charlotta Fortney, and she was the daughter of Jean Henri Fortineaux. Catherine Wolf is another Wolf ancestor who married Andreas Schantz. Yet another is Jeremiah Wolf who married Minnie Belle Burger. Also in our family history is Catherine Wolf, who married Andreas Schantz.

            My father, Galen Otto Hunt, was the son of William Chester Hunt and Margaret (Maggie) Elizabeth Burger. He was born 1898 at Chequest, Iowa, the grandson of Thomas Anderson Hunt & Barbara Fortney, daughter of Daniel Fortineau. Thomas Anderson Hunt was born July 27, 1826 near Newburg, Preston Co. West Virginia. His mother died when he was very small. He was about 19 years old when the long journey to Iowa was undertaken by covered wagon. The main reason for settling in the hills of Davis County was the availability of logs for building purposes and to secure land with natural drainage.

            Shortly after their home in Davis County was estblished, Thomas met his future bride, and they were married in 1851, when Thomas was age 25 and Sarah was 19 years of age. Sarah Swaim was the daughter of Elias Swaim, and Rachel Yost Swaim.Rachel/Rachael Foster was born Monroe County, Ohio and died on 26 OCT 1873 in Salt Creek twp. Davis, IA

            Thomas A. Hunt was licensed by the Methodist denomination, to preach in Troy, Iowa. Preaching, farming, and raising a family were the natural order of the day, until the Civil War broke out. He enlisted in April-May 1862, in the Seventh Iowa Infantry, I Company. While he was away at war, and Sarah was left with the 4 small children, southern bushwackers raided the home. They were probably looking for money. They killed a neighbor named Renee. Thomas was later transferred to the medical unit, and cared for wounded soldiers. He was honourably discharged, and returned home, yet with some sight impairment.

            Thomas Hunt Sr. was the son of James Hunt and Mary Davis/Davys/David who was the daughter of Solomon Davis.(born abt 1730 and died abt 1810 Granville County, NC.) Solomon lived near his sister Patience (Davis) Tynes, in the Island Creek section of Granville County, North Carolina, and he was the son of Richard Davis, born abt 1680, and Keziah. He married Elizabeth_______ Davis in Virginia in abt 1745. The father of Richard Davis was Thomas Davis, born abt 1670 in Virginia or Wales. Mary Ann Davis/Davys/David married James Hunt on 22 October 1811 in Monongalia, WVa. Our family has ties to North Carolina. James Hunt was born about 1789 in Granville, North Carolina. James Hunt who was born in Ireland and died in America was the son of James Hunt who was born and died in Ireland. The three sons of Thomas Hunt Sr. and Mary Davies were as follows:

            • James B Findley Hunt
            • John Westley Hunt born: 22 Apr 1809
            • Thomas Anderson Hunt born:27 July 1826 in Preston County, WVA

            Thomas Hunt was known for his clear singing voice, which people said could be clearly heard a half mile away.

            Sarah died on the old home place October 4, 1881, at age 48 and is buried in the Heidelbaugh Cemetery. Thomas later married Jerusha Brown. He died at the home of his son William Chester Hunt at age 72. Here's a photograph of Thomas Hunt, in his later years, and another of my Dad, when he graduated from law school:

            The parents of Thomas Anderson Hunt were:

            Barbara Fortney was born 1792 in Fredrick, Fredrick, Md., chr 07 July 1792. She died Oct 3, 1855. Barbara Fortney was the daughter of Daniel Fortineux. She married Thomas Hunt on 27 August 1812 Preston County, Monongalia, West Va. Census: 2 Sep 1850 Dist 45, Preston Co., Virginia 1 Census: 12 Sep 1860 Dist 6, Preston Co., Virginia 1 Census: 29 Jul 1870 Kingwood, Preston Co., West Virginia She was alive for the 1880 Preston COunty Census with son Daniel, a farmer and G/Daughter Elizabeth who works in the house and William G age 1 G/G/Grandson. Father Daniel Fortineux Mother: Barbara Beckenbach Pickenpaugh (Source: (1) "PROMINENT FAMILIES OF PRESTON COUNTY WEST VIRGINIA" P 431., (2) Genserv database HAYE8EB OF CHARLES HAYES, 849 Canyon View Drive,.), born Bef. 1758 in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland; died Abt. 1829 in Preston, Virginia, West Virginia. She was the daughter of 94. Johann Peter Beckenbach and 95. Anna Barbara Henry Buckner.

            Click To Hear A Beautiful West Virginia Tune - "Ashakan Farewell"

            She married Thomas Hunt
            27 AUG 1812 in, Frederick Co, Maryland.


            • Daniel Fortney was born 1752-54 in France, and died FEB 1818 in Valley, W.Va.. He was the son of 4. Jean Henry Fortineaux and 5. Maria/Mary Catherine "Charity" Berger.

            • (Cousin to Peter Fortney.
            • Daniel was a native of France and came to this country about 1780.)6 Feb 1781 in Frederick, Frederick, Maryland
            • Christening: 30 Aug 1781 Evangelical Lutheran Church, Frederick, Frederick, Maryland
            • Death: ABT 1862 in , Preston, Virginia (now West Virginia)
            • Burial: Old graveyard at
              Bethlehem near Reedsville, Preston, West Virginia Reference Number: 1285
            • Event: Company B, 4th West Virginia Calvary and Company I, 17th West Virginia Infantry Military Service



            The Penn surname, such as that of Francis Penn who married John Hunt in 1723, is known to be a derivation of the surname "Payne". James Hunt Sr.
            was born: 7 July 1754 St. George Parish) died: Aug. 5, 1771. James Hunt (2) married Mary Davys/David/Davis, the daughter of Solomon Davis, (born-abt. 1790) of Granville, NC.(The Davis name varients include: Davys, David, Davids, Davis, Davies Dafydd. East Ashkenazic; all sometimes anglicized as Davis. Heb "Beloved") The surname Davies/Davys are the Welsh spellings of the surname David. The earliest David/Davis/Davys emigrant to America was Morgan Davis, who came to the to America aboard the ship "The Vine," arriving on July 17, 1686 and settling in Marion County, Pennsulvania.


        • Solomon Hunt
        • William Hunt
        • Lemuel Hunt
        • Absolom Hunt
        • James Hunt


        The surname Davys, belonging to Mary Ann Davis/Davys/David's was found first in France. Mary Ann Davys/Davies/David married James Hunt. She was the daughter of Solomon Davisof North Carolina. The unique spelling of "Davys," is said to be Judaic. Names within the Hunt family such as Judish and Sion may lend credence to this. (Interesting Reading: When Scotland Was Jewish)

        Solomon Davis father, Richard (b. 1680) and Elizabeth Davis. Richard Davis, in his will, claimed to be “of Cariline County”, even though his will was probated in Granville County, North Carolina. Caroline County, Virginia, is unfortunately one of the “burned counties” whose local records were destroyed during the Civil War. All that survives from the eighteenth century are a few wills and a set of court order books. Richard Davis and his sons Absalom and Gideon appear in those order books, as does Richard’s son-in-law William Tynes.

        Richard Davis was the son of Thomas Davis & Elizabeth Green, the son of John I David, (born 1656) and Ann C. Thomas, whose family had resided in Glamorgan, Wales, from ancient times, and is traced to David David (born: 1590) who married Maude Morgan, (born: 1594) and to his father Ieuan Dafydd/David born 1555, who was the son of Jenkin David, born (1555 in Wales.

        How did the David family emigrate to Wales in the first place? One theory concerns the fact that Caesar landed in Britain in 55 BC, defeated some tribes and returned to Gaul. When Roman leaders defeated regions, they used conquered people of other lands to colonize the new locale. This served the purpose of displacing the vanquished and of colonizing the new territory, all at the same time. The name Britain itself is a corruption of the Hebrew words Barat Anach or "Islands of Tin."

        The Romans were extremely active in Britain between 55 BC, 122-135 during which Hadrians Wall was built, and 409 AD when the last Roman was deported from Britain.

        The name Wales has been given to this country not by its inhabitants but by the Teutonic occupiers of England, and means "the territory of the alien race". "Welsh" implies a people of either Latin or Celtic origin living in a land near or adjoining that of the Teutons; thus Walschland is an obsolescent, poetical German term for Italy. After an invasion lasting 330 years, the Anglican, Saxon, and Jutish "comelings" having driven the earlier "homelings" into the hill-country of the west by steady encroachments and spasmodic conquests, the names Wales and Welsh were applied to the ancient people and the land they retained. Wales is in French, Pays de Galles, from Latin Gallus, Low Latin Wallia.

        The Morgans married into the Hunt family in Wales. Dafydd Dafydd/David David married Mawde/Maude Morgan, in 1594 in Lantwidvoyde, Glamorgan, Wales.

        Sir Knight: Matthew Dafyyd was born 1411-Llandaf Court, Cibwr, Glamorgan Wales. He was the son of Matthew Ieuan (Sir Knight) and Jonet Fleming. He married: Gwenllian Verch Dafydd. Their children were: Jane Mathew born: 1430-Of Llandaf, Cibwr, Glamorgan, Wales, John Mathew born 1431-Of Llandaf,Cibwr, Glamorgan, Wales, Rimron Mathew born: 1434,-Pf Llandaf,Cibwr, Glamorgan, Wales, William "Fawr" Mathew, born: 1436-Of Llandaf, Cibwr, Glamorgan, Wales Thomas I Mathew, born: 1438-Of Llandaf,Cibwr, Glamorgan, Wales, John Mathew, born:1440-Llandaff, Glamorgan,Wales, Margred Mathew, born:1440, David Mathew, born: 1442-Of Trevor Oenb, Glamorgan, Wales, Ellen Mathew born: 1445-Llandaff, Glamorgan, Wales, Jenkin Mathew born: 1446, William "Leia" Mathew, born:1448-Llandaf, Cibwr, Glamorgan, Wales.

        The MORGAN FAMILY MOTTO: Heb. dduw-"Without God we Have nothing."

        This lineage is through (Alana Campbell's) father Galen Otto Hunt, her grandfather William Chester Hunt, her gr-grandfather Thomas Anderson Hunt and Sarah Swaim gr-gr grandfather Thomas Hunt and Barbara Fortney. The family is traced back through James Hunt of West Virginia. (Photo is baby picture of Galen Otto Hunt, taken at Bloomfield, Iowa)

        The Hunt surname is first found in Shropshire, England, where they were from very ancient times. Some say they inhabited the region well before the Norman Conquest and the arrival of Duke William at Hastings in 1066 A.D.James Hunt settled in West Virginia, in 1636, when it was Virginia. A descendant of James Hunt, was born about 1789, and died 22 Dec, 1844. His mother died when he was very small. He was about 19 when the long journey was taken to Iowa. He married Sarah Swaim, daughter of Elias Swaim, of Pennsylvania Dutch descent in 1851. Sarah Swaim Hunt died on the Old Home Place, Davis Co. Iowa, on October 4, 1881, at age 48, and is buried in the Heidlebaugh graveyard, a few miles away.

        Thomas A. Hunt, who married Sarah Swaim, later married Jerusia Brown, but they lived together only a short time before he died in his son William Chester Hunt's home age 72. Thomas Anderson Hunt is buried in the old Hunt Cemetery in Newburg, West Virginia, and bearing the same name of James Hunt.

        Thomas Anderson Hunt was born July 27, 1826 near Newburg, Preston Co. West Virginia. His mother died when he was very small, just 3 monthes old. He was about 19, when the long journey to Iowa was undertaken by covered wagon. The main reason for settling in the hills of Davis County was the availability of logs for building purposes and to secure land with natural drainage. Davis County was a hilly landscape, heavily wooded in some areas, with pastures rather than corn or grain fields, as are other areas of the state. The land is best suited to pastures, rather than crops, and as such has served best for raising and feeding stock.

        Shortly after this home in Davis County was estblished, Thomas met his future bride, and they were married in 5 July 1820. Sarah Swaim was the daughter of Elias Swaim, Born: 25 March 1792 in NJ and Rachel Yost Swaim, who was born in Monroe Co. Ohio, November 12, 1802-1832. She died: Sept. 24, 1872 at age 70 years and 11 mos. Their childrens names are as follows:

        • John Swaim: Born: 31 May 1819 in Jefferson Co. Ohio
        • Mary Swaim Born: 9 December 1822
        • Sarah Swaim Born: 12 November 12, 1832 in Monroe Co. Ohio
        Elias Swaim died Sept. 10, 1863, age 71 years. He is buried in Heidlebaugh Cemetery, Davis County, Iowa. The children of the Elias and Rachel Foster Yost Swaim are as follows:

        • Mary Swaim Payne Heidlebaugh, born Dec. 9, 1822, died: May 26, 1906. Her first husband was Leander Payne. Her second husband was Jacob Heidlebaugh Jr. Jacob Heidlebaugh Jr was born: 11 March 1802 in Virginia. Mary was Jacob Jr's second marriage, his first wife was Sarah Binkley. Jacob Heidlebaugh Jr's tombstone reads: Born Mar 11, 1802, Died: Oct 9, 1887 "Asleep in Jesus."
        • John Swaim
        • Sarah Swaim Hunt who married Thomas Anderson Hunt
        • Martha Swaim Heidlebaugh

        HEIDLEBAUGH SURNAME NOTE: The Heidlebaugh surname is an Americanized form of German Heidelbach, near Alsfeld in Hesse. Heidelbach like most German names has a distinct meaning and is made up of two parts Heide and Bach. The Americanization of the suffix Bach is Baugh. The name Heide means to dwell on the heath. Bach or Baugh means a stream. This indicates that the original bearer of the surname may have lived by the bank of a stream near a heath. The earliest reference to the surname Heidlebaugh is recorded in the "Urkunden der Markgrafen" where one Heinrich Heide is registered and lived in Basil in 1462. Variants of the surname include Heidelbach and Heidelbeck.

        The family name in church, marriage and baptismal records in Bayern Germany indicate the spelling as Heydelbach. Elsewhere in Germany the name is spelled Heidelbach which is a name still common in many places in Germany today. Later generations of both sides of the family used the name spelled "Heidelbaugh" and "Heidlebaugh" which is apparantly a more Americanization of the German name. Because of the sounding of the name and the fluer used by Germans on the first letter of the name (Old German used to capitalize the first two letters of the last name, ie Heidlebaugh) some branches began to use the name spelled "Heidlebaugh" or Hidlebaugh". Sometimes, as in the case of my grandfather and eldest brother, both the name "Heidlebaugh" and "Hidlebaugh" were in used and generations today spell the name both ways. The name Heydelbach is more Swiss than German and would lend some credulance to the idea of a Swiss origin of the family. This name could have been changed to Heidelbach when the family or branches remained in Germany. Of course this is only speculation on my part. Spelling varients are numerous, with spellings due to the sound of the name and the way ancestors spoke with their German accent. Whether the name is spelled Heydelbach, Heidelbach, Heidlebach, Heidelbaugh, Heidlebaugh, Hidelbaugh, or Hidlebaugh we are all related somewhere down the line. That is the fun of genealogy; trying to find out. "HEIDLEBAUGH FAMILIES OF AMERICA" as of 1999 contains 980 pages of family tree information. The book includes the various spellings of the names included: Heydelbach, Heidelbach, Heidlebach, Heidlebaugh, Heidelbaugh, Hidelbach, Hidlebach, Hidlebaugh, and Hidelbaugh. The book includes some information from Germany that dates back to the 15th century and included the "Heidlebaugh Coat of Arms". The book in America begins with Gerg Wilhelm Heydelbach who came to America in 1744 from the town of Albershim, Germany.

        Thomas Anderson Hunt was licensed by the Methodist denomination, to preach in Troy, Iowa. Preaching, farming, and raising a family were the natural order of the day, until the Civil War broke out. He enlisted in April-May 1862, in the Seventh Iowa Infantry, I Company. While he was away at war, and Sarah was left with the 4 small children, southern bushwackers raided the home. They were probably looking for money. They killed a neighbor named Renee. Thomas was later transferred to the medical unit, and cared for wounded soldiers. He was honourably discharged, and returned home, yet with some sight impairment.

        Thomas Anderson Hunt was known for his clear singing voice, which people said could be clearly heard a half mile away.

        Sarah died on the Old Home Place, in Davis Co. Iowa, October 4, 1881, at age 48 and is buried in the Heidelbaugh Cemetery. Thomas married Jerusia Brown. He died at the home of his son William Chester Hunt at age 72, and is buried at the old home place.


        William Chester Hunt was born in Chequest, Jefferson County, Iowa 28 June, 1868 at the old home place of the Hunt family, which was the log cabin in this photograph. In those days, plowing was done with a team and a walking plow. Walnut logs were split into rails. Farmers hunted wild turkeys, rabbits, and quail with an old muzzle-loading rifle. Farm work was plowing, harvesting grain, by old fashioned hand cradle, and hand tying sheaves. As a young man, William Chester Hunt finished the grades and entered the southern Iowa Normal School at Bloomfield, and graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree. His first job as a school teacher was at Eldon.

        He married Margaret Elizabeth Burger, born December 27, 1879, in Russell County, Kansas, and died 17 January 1905 at Idaho Falls, Idaho. (White structure-above-left was the Idaho Falls house they built.) Maggie was the daughter of Joseph Madison Burgerborn 28 June 1850 and died 26 September 1921 in Udell, Iowa and Selinda Jane Ridenour,born 24 April 1853 and died 14 September 1929 in Modesto, California. Maggie Burger's family belonged to the Yellow Creek church of the Church of the Brethren heritage whose origins go back to the Schwarzenau Brethren organized when eight believers under the leadership of Alexander Mack following principles of Anabaptism and Pietism, baptized themselves publicly and defiantly in the nearby Eder River. The pastor and several people emigrated to America from Rotterdam in 1729. Margaret Elizabeth Burger died at age 25, during a time when her family was building a new home at Idaho Falls, and she is buried: New Sweden Cemetery. Their sons were: 1) Galen Otto Hunt born May 22, 1898 and died 1975 2) Ivo Hunt born January 10, 1902 Davis County, Iowa and died 12 August 1990 at Ottumwa, Iowa.
        William Chester Hunt married Alice Rodabaugh, descended from Daniel Rodabaugh son of Adam Rodabaugh (Christian Rodabaugh-1701-Baden, Ger. Died: 1779 Westmoreland Co. PA-married Elizabeth) and Catherine Runny and Elizabeth Glotfelty, through Casper Glattfelder Zurich, Swit. and Elizabeth Lauffer. The Glattfelder etc. families originally of Switzerland. Casper Glattfelder (1709-1774/75) and his brother, Johannes Peter Glattfelder (1700-1742), were sons of Felix Glattfelder and Barbara Gorius, both born in Glattfelden, Eglisau, Zurich, Switzwerland. Casper married (1) Elizabeth Lauffer (1711-1743/46) in 1731 in Switzerland, and (2) Anna Maria ? (d. 1775) about 1745 in Pennsylvania. He died in Codorus Twp., York Co., Pa. Johannes Peter Glattfelder married Salomea AmBerg (b. 1704) 1721 in Glattfelden. Hons Heinrich Glattfelder (1671-1734) was also born in Glattfelden, where he married Dorothea Gorius (d. 1719) in 1693. William Chester Hunt died in 1937. Alice's two step children loved Alice dearly and thought of her as a kind and compassionate woman. Dad spoke of the encouragment her letters brought to him as a young man far from home, when he was serving in the armed services during the war.

        Margaret Elizabeth Burger's father Joseph Madison Burger was the son of Christian Whetstone Burger,born July 1, 1820 Bedford Co. Pa, and Sarah Brown born June 16, 1821, Bedford Co. PA. The Brown line begins with Hendry Brown according to George H. Lebegott's papers. He's mentioned in Bedford, Somerset and Fulton Counties in PA as an early settler who lived near Keagy's Mill. Christian Whetstone Burger was 24 came to Jefferson Co. with his young wife who was also 24, and a young man named Simon Frye in 1845. Christian homesteded on a quarter section of land, receiving a land patent called "The last sheep-skin in the county," signed by Martin Van Buren. The first buildings were of logs, and set on a knoll across the road south of where the barn was. In that log home all the children were born, and they are as follows:

        • Susan Burger Born: 1844 Woodbury Township, Bedford Co, PA
        • Samuel Lewis Burger born 16 July 1848 in Libertyville, Jefferson Co, PA.
        • Joseph Madison Burger Born: July 16, 1848, Jefferson Co. Iowa
        • Malachi Burger Born: August 15, 1852 in Jefferson Co, PA
        • Sarah Brown Burger Born: October 22, 1854 at Libertyville, Iowa
        • Almyra Burger Born: July 7, 1858 Jefferson Co. Iowa

        Shortly after Sarah Brown Burger died, Christian Whetstone Burger married Ann Elizabeth Shafer, who was born on September 10, 1863 in Cadiz, Ohio. There were born the following children:

        • Ida Burger (Thomas) (Born Sept. 4, 1864. Libertyville, Iowa. Married Jacob Thomas) He was the brother of Sarah Thomas Burger who married Samuel Lewis Burger (Born 1848)
        • Ira Sealy Burger born April 6, 1866, Libertyville, Iowa. (Burger Place)
        • Christian Silas Burger born 3 Nov. 1867 in Jefferson County, PA.
        • David H. Burger Born Sept. 4, 1869)
      • Christian Whetstone Burger was born in Morrisons Cove, Bedford County, PA on 1 July 1820. He was the son of Samuel Burger born October 24, 1792 and Susanna Whetstone, born January 29, 1798 in Bedford Co. PA. He married Sarah Brown who was born in Libertyville, Jefferson Co., IA on 16 Jun 1821. Sarah Brown married David Daniel Ridenour (born 1850) and the following children were born:

        • Susie Ridenour
        • Charles Ridenour
        • Albert Ridenour
        • Christian L Ridenour
        • Amos R. Ridenour

          At age 40, Christian Whetstone Burger was listed in the Bedford County tax records as a blacksmith. Ten years later, in 1870 he had moved to Des Moines, Iowa and was a farmer. Sam Burger came from Bedford Co. PA with his family and settled in Illinois in the latter part of 1843-44. It is likely that Abram Lewis Burger was born in Pennsylvania. His widow was assessed taxes in Woodbury Township in 1829, 1832, 1835 and apparently died before 1838.

          The children of Samuel Burger are as follows:

          • Jacob Burger
          • Joseph Burger
          • Christian Whetstone Burger
          • Mary Burger Burger
          • Susan Burger Burger

          In the last years of Samuel Burger's life, he came to Jefferson Co to live with his son Christian Whetstone Burger. He died in Jefferson Co. on April 19, 1870 age 77 years, and is buried in the cemetery of the Libertyville Church of the Brethren. After he died in Iowa, Christian Whetstone became the administrator of his estate, and made several trips to Illinois settling up and distributing the property. The wife of Samuel Burger died in Raritan, Illinois.

          Abraham (Abram) Lewis Burger, the brother of Samuel Burger, later came to Iowa and settled 4-5 miles NE of Eldon. From tax records of Bedford Co., we find Abram, who left Woodbury Township between 1844-1847. From the family we have it that Abram married Elizabeth (Betty) Wetzstein/Whetstone and had one boy named Joseph Burger. The family lived on the property near Eldon until Abram died, and some years after that in 1877, Joseph sold out and moved away to Kansas. (*Notes: Diary Galen Hunt)

          Samuel Burger was the son of Abraham Lewis Burger, born 1766 in the American Colonies and Elizabeth Wettstein/Whetstone wife of Abraham Lewis Burger, was also born 1769-1733 in the American Colonies, possibly North Carolina.

          Children of Elizabeth Wettstein/WHETSTONE and Abraham Lewis BURGER are: * i. Susanna Hefner BURGER was born 26 Apr 1791 in Bedford Co., PA, and died 27 Feb 1865 in Jefferson Co., IA. She married Abraham RITSCHY BET 1806 AND 1813. He was born 22 Jun 1781 in Loudoun Co., VA, and died BEF 19 Mar 1859 in Bedford Co., PA. She married John Shively Teeter 1807, son of Abraham Teeter, Sr. and Elizabeth Shively. He was born February 1782 in South Woodbury, Bedford County, PA, and died 5 August 1847 in Monroe Twp, Bedford County, PA. * ii. Samuel BURGER was born 24 Oct 1792 in Bedford Co., PA, and died 19 Apr 1870 in Batavia, IA. He married Susannah WHETSTONE BET 1814 AND 1815 in Bedford Co., PA. She was born 29 Jan 1798 in Bedford Co., PA, and died 2 Nov 1867 in Pine Creek Twp, Ogle Co., IL. * iii. Daniel BURGER was born 16 Sept. 1794 in Bedford Co., PA. He married Nancy STULL 1825. * iv. Jacob BURGER was born 1796 in Bedford Co., PA, and died 1880 in Knox Co., OH. He married Susannah RUSH 1830 in Bedford Co., PA. She was born 1798 in Center Co., PA, and died 1848 in Knox Co., OH. * v. Christian Whetstone BURGER was born 28 Jun 1798 in Bedford Co., PA, and died AFT 1842. He married Catherine MENTZER 1825. She was born 1798, and died AFT 1842. * vi. Abraham BURGER, Jr was born 7 Feb 1800 in Bedford Co., PA, and died 7 Jan 1874 in Eldon, Wapello, IA. He married Elizabeth HOLDER. She was born 1798 in Bedford Co., PA, and died 1881 in Eldon, Wapello, IA. * vii. David BURGER was born 28 Oct 1802 in PA, and died 14 Dec 1875 in East Freedom, Blair, PA. He married Catherine Elizabeth SHANEFELT 1823. She was born 25 Dec 1805 in Taylor Twp then Huntington Co., BC, PA, and died 14 May 1857 in East Freedom, Blair, PA. * viii. Elizabeth BURGER was born 17 Mar 1804 in PA. She married Jacob B. SELL. He was born 21 Mar 1800 in Adams Co., PA. * ix. John W. BURGER was born 20 Dec 1806 in Bedford Co., PA, and died 11 Dec 1877 in Bedford Co., PA. He married Elizabeth BROWN 31 Oct 1833 in S. Woodbury Twp, Bedford Co., PA. She was born 18 Apr 1816 in Bedford Co., PA, and died 11 Mar 1887 in Bedford Co., PA. * x. Hannah BURGER was born 1808. * xi. Joseph BURGER was born 1810. * xii. Catherine BURGER was born 1813, and died 1834. She married John BROWN 1833.


          Tom & Alana Campbell
          5214 So 2nd Avenue
          Everett, Washington 98203

          Email: adazio@lycos

          A Minister For Your Marriage Celebration
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