Overview: The War of 1812, the Civil War, the birth of Communism, the westward expansion of the United States, the invention of the steam engine, the railroad opens travel and trade from "sea to shining sea" and Henry Ford makes his first car. Pioneers and immigrants start living "the American Dream." Commercialism gives birth to the industrial "Robber Barons." Women want the right to vote.
1800 - The federal government of the United States moves from Philadelphia to its newly constructed capital at Washington, D.C.
1802 - Richard Trevithick builds the first high-pressure steam engine.
1803 - Louisiana Purchase. Meriwether Lewis picked as commander of expedition across the Louisiana Territory. Writes to ask William Clark to join him and share command. Clark accepts.
1804-1814 - Napoleon I crowns himself emperor of France and king of Italy.
1807 - Robert Fulton sails the Clermont from New York to Albany.
1812 - United States declares war on Britain.
1814 - The United States and Britain sign the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812.
1838 - Jerusalem population totals 14,000 - 6,000 Jews, 5,000 Muslims, 3,390 Christians.
1844 - First official census in Jerusalem confirms a Jewish plurality in Jerusalem: 7,120 Jews, 5,760 Muslims, 3,390 Christians.
1846-1848 - The Mexican War
1848 - Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles issue the Communist Manifesto.
1860 - First Jewish settlement is founded outside the city walls in Mishkenot Sha'ananim. Abraham Lincoln elected President of the U.S. South Carolina secedes from the Union followed within two months by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas.
1861 - The Confederate States of America is formed with Jefferson Davis, a West Point graduate and former U.S. Army officer, as president.
April 12, 1861 - At 4:30 a.m. Confederates under Gen. Pierre Beauregard open fire with 50 cannons upon Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina. The Civil War begins.
1863 - The tide of war turns against the South as the Confederates are defeated at the Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania. Read about the Battle of Gettysburg - Battlefield Photos
1864 - Jerusalem - Hurva Synagog is reconstructed.
1865 - First oil pipe line is constructed in Pennsylvania.
1865 - Joseph Lister initiates the practice of antiseptic surgery.
April 9, 1865 - Gen. Robert E. Lee surrenders his Confederate Army to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at the village of Appomattox Court House in Virginia. Grant allows Rebel officers to keep their side arms and permits soldiers to keep horses and mules.
1865 - Abraham Lincoln is assassinated.
1866 - Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony form the American Equal Rights Association, an organization for white and black women and men dedicated to the goal of universal suffrage.
1869 - Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads met to complete the first transcontinental line in America.
1880 - James Garfield elected President of the U.S.
1881 - President James Garfield is assassinated.
1884 - Charles A. Parsons gets patent for first steam turbine engine.
1886 - The first hydro-electric installation at Niagara Falls.
1898 - The Spanish-American War. American forces invade Puerto Rico.
1896 - Henry Ford makes his first car.
1899 - The United States annexes Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico.
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