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1100s.gif (4048 bytes) byzicon.gif (22615 bytes)Overview -  By 1100, in Eastern Europe, Byzantine law was in place and there were marriages between Russian rulers and the Byzantine royal house.   In Japan, the military government of the Kamakura shogunate, after much bloodshed, took the place of the long-established Fujiwara. In China, the Jürched Tartars overran both the Northern Sung and the Khitan Emire of the Liao. Yet, around the globe, there was a general climate of political stability and economic expansion.
Technology - Public medical service organized in China. First recorded use of gun powder. In Europe, increasing use of windmills, manufacture of silk. Woodcuts used for initial letters. First arrivals of porcelains in the Middle East. Bronze casting at Ife, Africa.

The Cisterican Order - The monastic order, promoted by the genius of St. Bernard of Clairvaux,  was at the forefront of a great period of monastic revival. From a base in France, the Cistericans expanded to Spain, Britain, Scandinavia, Germany and Italy.

Church of St. Denis, France, 1137-44Gothic Style - In the 12th century, there was a flurry of church building. The Gothic style had was in vogue in England, Germany, Scandinavia, Christian Spain and in the later period, in northern Italy in Milan. The Gothic style is an expression of the new piety in which tension of region had grown more acute. The dominant note in Gothic is the upward reach as demonstrated in the cathedral in Milan, Italy.

1100-1135 - England - Henry I, won the crown by a dash to the royal treasury at Winchester and a quick appeal to the nation by a promise of reform by a return to the good. His reign was marked by notable expansion, specialization and differentiation of function in the royal administration. Prosperity was general and trade in London attracted Norman immigrants.
1114 - Henry V married Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England.
1117 - Henry V occupied Matilda's lands.
1118 - Gelasius II was forced to flee Rome. Henry V appointed his own pope. Henry V was later excommunicated.
1119 - The Synod of Reims renewed the decrees against simony, clerical marriage and lay investiture as well as the excommunication of Henry V.
1122 - Concordat of Worms - official end to investiture dispute.
1135 - Germany - The "year of pacification" - general peace was proclaimed.
1147-49 - The Second Crusade -  Bernard of Clairvaux, persuaded by Pope Eugenius III, preached the Second Crusade. Conrad III and King Louis VII of France took the Cross. The two monarchs went by separate routes, yet there never was a consistent direction or unity of command.  The Norman Roger of Sicily seized the Greek Islands and attacked Athens, Thebes and Corinth. Nothing significant was achieved by the Second Crusade and the movement was discredited throughout Europe. Crusader knights led by Alfonso I of Portugal liberated Lisbon from the Muslims.
Eleanor of Aquitaine1152 - Henry II of England married Eleanor of Aquitaine giving him control of Central and Western France.
1179 - Independence of Portugal and royal title were recognized by Pope Alexander III.
1182-92 - In India, Muslim power had its most disastrous effect.  Muhammad Ghuri took Sind, Lahore and then Delhi.
1187 - Saladin rules Jerusalem and allows the reentry of Jews.
1189-92 - The Third Crusade - in the  Holy Land,  Richard the Lion Heart, king of England (1189-99), confronted Saladin, sultan of Egypt and Syria (1175-93). It concluded with a truce between Richard I and Saladin.


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