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1000s.gif (4205 bytes) Durham Cathedral, England, 1093Overview - In the Year 1000, the world was divided between the ancient civilizations like China and India and the re-awakening societies of the Christian West. In Africa, the north and north-eastern territories were now dominated by Islam, including Jerusalem. Beyond the Sahara, Arab penetration had only just begun. Unknown to Western Europe, the individual cultures of the Americas flourished -- beginnings of the Chimu empire in Per;. Rise of  Toltecs of Tula in Mesoamerica; continuation of the Mayan culture centered in northern Yucatán and three major cultures in North America: Hohokan (Arizona), Mississippian (Mississippi Valley) and Anasazi (Colorado).
Technology - arrival from Byzantium of Greek medicine, fore-and aft lateen sail, astronomical instruments perfected. In China, gunpowder first used in warfare; printing with movable type developed; paper currency created; first compasses used; Water-driven mechanical clock in Peking.

China in the 11th centuryChina in the 11th century: Fifty years of anarchy followed the collapse of the T'zng dynasty in the 10th century. By the 11th century, China had been stabilized under two rival empires -- the sung, who reunited the central and southern provinces and established a central government at Kaifeng; and the Khitan Liao, who retained their independence in the provinces of the extreme north.

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910 - castle.gif (198 bytes) The Abbey of Cluny in Burgundy, France is founded by William the Pius, duke of Aquitaine.
970-1035 - Spain - Sancho the Great of Navarre effected a close of union of Castile and Navarre and began the conquest of Leon.
1000 - Kingdom of Hungary founded under Stephen I.
1000 - Poland - Political and ecclesiastical independence achieved with the crowning of Boleslav I.
1002 - 1014 - Ireland - Brian of Munster established his supremacy. A period of road and fort building.
1002 - Henry II crowned Emperor of Rome.
1003 - Leif Ericsson discovers Nova Scotia
1010 - Jerusalem - Caliph al-Hakim orders destruction of synagogues and churches, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
1014 - Ireland - At Clontarf, Brian defeated the Norse, ending the domination of Dublin, though the Norse remained in their cities.
1015 - 1019 - Death of Vladimir I of Russia; Succession of his son, Yaroslav.
Map - 11th Century Italy
1025 - Malay empire destroyed by Cholas (Southeast Asia).
1032 - Map - France
1035 - 1065 - Spain - Ferdinand I of Castile completed the work started by Sancho the Great, by conquering Leon (1037) and assuming the title of King of Leon.
1044 - Burma - Dynasty of Anortha founded at Pagan. Kingdom of Pegu joined with Pagan; Anortha first king of united Burma.
1050's - Gregorian Reform - Papal Theocracy - No lay dictation. Before, a civil ruler could appoint a bishop, abbot or even a pope. Nobles had been permitted to provide for younger sons in ecclesiastical posts and families built up power by obtaining several sees in the name of one incumbent. Bishops had sons who succeeded their posts.
1054 - The Orthodox Church sharply refused the demand of the Gregorian reformers that it recognized their claims for the papacy.
1059 - It was decreed that popes should be elected only by a body of cardinals. Hildebrand was elected and took the name of Gregory VII.
1066 - 1087 - William I (The Conqueror) of Normandy defeated Harold, elected to the throne of England and was crowed King of England. The Bayeux Tapestry:

The Bayeux Tapestry


1074 - The Gregorians demanded obligatory and universal celibacy, partly so that there would be no male heirs to the bishops and partly in accord with the spirit of the new wave of ascetic monasticism.  Laity was told to refuse to receive the sacraments at the hands of married priests. Pope Gregory VII - Simony and Celibacy - the Medieval Sourcebook
1079 - The growth of feudalism tended to diminish anarchy and to improve the general security of life and ultimately led to decisive economic recover in Western Europe, a trend toward urban economy and the emergence of a bourgeoisie who were beginning to accumulate capital.
1087-1100 - William II (Rufus), 2nd son of The Conqueror, succeeded his father as King of England while Robert, the 1st son, got Normandy.  The administration was cruel and unpopular. Taxation was heavy and the church was exploited.
1088-1099 - Henry IV of Germany invades Italy.
Council of Clermont1095 - Pope Urban II, a former monk of Cluny, convened the Council (Synod) of Clermont which was attended only by the French.
1096-1099 -  castle.gif (198 bytes) The First Crusade
1099 - Map - Europe at the time of the First Crusade
1099-1118 - Henry IV is excommunicated and his son Henry V took reign.
1099-1291 - Anthology of Crusader Inscriptions in the Holy Land - Sabino De Sandoli, OFM

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