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1200s.gif (4054 bytes) Overview - The Christian conquest of Spain was complete. Erosion of feudalism. In the Americas, the first signs of Inca culture were showing in the Cuckoo Valley of Peru.

Technology - development of the English longbow; invention of the wheelbarrow; spectacles and spinning wheel in common use. Refinement of distilling techniques. Minting of gold coins in Italy. Coal mining at Liége.

Genghis Khan - In the first decades of the 13th century, the Mongol horsemen, united by Genghis Kahn in 1206, conquered the empire of the China Tartars to the south of their homelands, and advanced west through Muslim Asia as far as the Caucasus, thus creating the nucleus of an empire that would become, under  his grandson,  Kublai Kahn, larger than any the world has seen.

The Polo brothers presenting Kublai Khan gifts on arriving at his courtMarco Polo (1254 - 1324) - Was a traveler who described in writing the people and places he saw. He saw things he had never dreamed of -- a civilization equal to, if not beyond, his own. In China he saw people using paper money; he also saw block printing, elaborate buildings, countless ships on great rivers and huge cities with thousands of people. For the first time he saw coal burned and he saw asbestos, which would not burn at all.

1202-1204 -  The Fourth Crusade -  Constantinople was captured and the Latin Empire of the East (Romania) replaced the Greek Empire.
1203 - Cambodia captured South Vietnam.
1206 - India - founding of the dynasty of Slave Kings of Delhi by Aybak.
1212 - 300 rabbis/scholars from Europe settle in Jerusalem.
1215 - The Magna Carta
1217-1252 Ferdinand III ended the dynastic war in Castile and attacked the Moors in the Guadalquivir Valley.
1218-1221 - The Fifth Crusade - Pope Innocent III - Egypt was the objective.
1221 - Treaty of 1221 - eight-year truce.
1228-1229 - The Sixth Crusade - Emperor Frederick II
1237-1241 - Mongol conquest of Russia, Poland and Hungary.
1244 - Seljuk Turks conquer Jerusalem.
1248-1254 - The Seventh Crusade - the first of King Louis IX of France.
1260 - Mamlukes of Egypt conquer Jerusalem, rule for two and a half centuries.
1261 - Re-conquest of Constantinople for Orthodoxy
1267 - Nachmanides arrives from Spain, reviving Jewish religious life.
1270 - The Eighth Crusade - the second of King Louis IX and Edward of England - attack on Tunis, Louis died of a plague en route and the expedition led Charles of Anjou accomplished nothing.
1287 - Destruction of Pagan by Mongols
1291 - End of Christian presence in Holy Land.
1299 - Raids on northern India by the Mongols, but no permanent conquests.

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