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STRANGE & HUMOUROUS.
HUMOUR IN HINDI.
figure of speech.
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Nobel Prize winners in literature, physics, chemistry, peace,
economics, or physiology & medicine
========== Literature 2004-1901 ===========View My Guestbook
2004 ELFRIEDE JELINEK for her musical flow
of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that
with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the
absurdity of society's clich s and their
2003 JOHN MAXWELL COETZEE who in innumerable
guises portrays the surprising involvement of the
outsider 2002 IMRE KERTÉSZ for writing that upholds
the fragile experience of the individual against the
barbaric arbitrariness of history
V. S. NAIPAUL for having united perceptive
narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works
that compel us to see the presence of suppressed
GAO XINGJIAN for an oeuvre of universal validity,
bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has
opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama.
GUNTER GRASS whose frolicsome black fables portray
the forgotten face of history.
who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and
irony continually enables us once again to apprehend
an elusory reality.
who emulates the jesters of the Middle
Ages in scourging authority and upholding the
dignity of the downtrodden.
for poetry that with ironic precision allows the
historical and biological context to come to light
in fragments of human reality.
for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which
exalt everyday miracles and the living past.
KENZABURO OE who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today. 1993 TONI MORRISON who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality. 1992 DEREK WALCOTT for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment. 1991 NADINE GORDIMER who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity. 1990 OCTAVIO PAZ for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity. 1989 CAMILO JOSÉ CELA for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability. 1988 NAGUIB MAHFOUZ who, through works rich in nuance-now clearsightedly realistic, now evocatively ambigous-has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind. 1987 JOSEPH BRODSKY for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity. 1986 WOLE SOYINKA who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence. 1985 CLAUDE SIMON who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition. 1984 JAROSLAV SEIFERT for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man. 1983 SIR WILLIAM GOLDING for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today. 1982 GABRIEL GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts. 1981 ELIAS CANETTI for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power. 1980 CZESLAW MILOSZ who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts. 1979 ODYSSEUS ELYTIS (pen-name of ODYSSEUS ALEPOUDHELIS ), for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness. 1978 ISAAC BASHEVIS SINGER for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life. 1977 VICENTE ALEIXANDRE for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry beween the wars. 1976 SAUL BELLOW for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work. 1975 EUGENIO MONTALE for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions. 1974 The prize was divided equally between: EYVIND JOHNSON for a narrative art, farseeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom. HARRY MARTINSON for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos. 1973 PATRICK WHITE for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature. 1972 HEINRICH BÖLL for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature. 1971 PABLO NERUDA for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams. 1970 ALEKSANDR ISAEVICH SOLZHENITSYN for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature. 1969 SAMUEL BECKETT for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation. 1968 YASUNARI KAWABATA for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind. 1967 MIGUEL ANGEL ASTURIAS for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America. 1966 The prize was divided equally between: SHMUEL YOSEF AGNON for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people. NELLY SACHS for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength. 1965 MICHAIL ALEKSANDROVICH SHOLOKHOV for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people. 1964 JEAN-PAUL SARTRE for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a farreaching influence on our age. (Declined the prize.) 1963 GIORGOS SEFERIS (pen-name of GIORGOS SEFERIADIS ), for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture. 1962 JOHN STEINBECK for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception. 1961 IVO ANDRI´C for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country. 1960 SAINT-JOHN PERSE (pen-name of ALEXIS LÉGER ), for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time. 1959 SALVATORE QUASIMODO for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times. 1958 BORIS LEONIDOVICH PASTERNAK for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition. (Accepted first, later caused by the authorities of his country to decline the prize.) 1957 ALBERT CAMUS for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times. 1956 JUAN RAMÓN JIMÉNEZ for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity. 1955 HALLDÓR KILJAN LAXNESS for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland. 1954 ERNEST MILLER HEMINGWAY for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea ,and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style. 1953 SIR WINSTON LEONARD SPENCER CHURCHILL for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values. 1952 FRANÇOIS MAURIAC for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life. 1951 PÄR FABIAN LAGERKVIST for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind. 1950 EARL BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM RUSSELL in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought. 1949 WILLIAM FAULKNER for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel. 1948 THOMAS STEARNS ELIOT for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry. 1947 ANDRÉ PAUL GUILLAUME GIDE for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight. 1946 HERMANN HESSE for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humaitarian ideals and high qualities of style. 1945 GABRIELA MISTRAL (pen-name of LUCILA GODOY Y ALCA-YAGA ), for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world. 1944 JOHANNES VILHELM JENSEN for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style. 1943-1940 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1939 FRANS EEMIL SILLANPÄÄ for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature. 1938 PEARL BUCK (pen-name of PEARL WALSH née SYDENSTRICKER ), for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces. 1937 ROGER MARTIN DU GARD for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novelcycle Les Thibault. 1936 EUGENE GLADSTONE O'NEILL for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy. 1935 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1934 LUIGI PIRANDELLO for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art. 1933 IVAN ALEKSEYEVICH BUNIN for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing. 1932 JOHN GALSWORTHY for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsythe Saga. 1931 ERIK AXEL KARLFELDT The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt. 1930 SINCLAIR LEWIS for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters. 1929 THOMAS MANN principially for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature. 1928 SIGRID UNDSET principially for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages. 1927 HENRI BERGSON in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brillant skill with which they have been presented. 1926 GRAZIA DELEDDA (pen-name of GRAZIA MADESANI née DELEDDA) , for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general. 1925 GEORGE BERNARD SHAW for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty. 1924 WLADYSLAW STANISLAW REYMONT ( pen-name of REYMENT ), for his great national epic, The Peasants. 1923 WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation. 1922 JACINTO BENAVENTE for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama. 1921 ANATOLE FRANCE (pen-name of JACQUES ANATOLE THIBAULT ), in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament. 1920 KNUT PEDERSEN HAMSUN for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil. 1919 CARL FRIEDRICH GEORG SPITTELER in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring. 1918 The prize money for 1918 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1917 The prize was divided equally between: KARL ADOLPH GJELLERUP for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals. HENRIK PONTOPPIDAN for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark. 1916 CARL GUSTAF VERNER VON HEIDENSTAM in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature. 1915 ROMAIN ROLLAND as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings. 1914 The prize money for 1914 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1913 RABINDRANATH TAGORE because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with comsummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West. 1912 GERHART JOHANN ROBERT HAUPTMANN primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art. 1911 COUNT MAURICE (MOORIS) POLIDORE MARIE BERNHARD MAETERLINCK , in appreciation of his manysided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations. 1910 PAUL JOHANN LUDWIG HEYSE as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories. 1909 SELMA OTTILIA LOVISA LAGERLÖF in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings. 1908 RUDOLF CHRISTOPH EUCKEN in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life. 1907 RUDYARD KIPLING in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author. 1906 GIOSUÈ CARDUCCI not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces. 1905 HENRYK SIENKIEWICZ because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer. 1904 The prize was divided equally between: FRÉDÉRIC MISTRAL in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist. JOSÉ ECHEGARAY Y EIZAGUIRRE in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama. 1903 BJØRNSTJERNE MARTINUS BJØRNSON as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit. 1902 CHRISTIAN MATTHIAS THEODOR MOMMSEN the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome. 1901 SULLY PRUDHOMME (pen-name of RENÉ FRANÇOIS ARMAND ), in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualitites of both heart and intellect Jelinek =============================================================== =========================================== Nobel Peace Prize Winners 2004-1901 =========================================== 2004 The prize was awarded to: WANGARI MAATHAI for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace 2003 The prize was awarded to: SHIRIN EBADI for her efforts for democracy and human rights 2002 The prize was awarded to: JIMMY CARTER JR., former President of the United States of America, for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development 2001 The prize was awarded to: UNITED NATIONS, New York, NY, USA KOFI ANNAN, United Nations Secretary General 2000 The prize was awarded to: KIM DAE JUNG for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular. 1999 The prize was awarded to: DOCTORS WITHOUT BORDERS (MÉDECINS SANS FRONTIÈRES), Brussels, Belgium. 1998 The prize was awarded jointly to: JOHN HUME and DAVID TRIMBLE for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland. 1997 The prize was awarded jointly to: INTERNATIONAL CAMPAIGN TO BAN LANDMINES (ICBL) and JODY WILLIAMS for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines. 1996 The prize was awarded jointly to: CARLOS FELIPE XIMENES BELO and JOSE RAMOS-HORTA for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor. 1995 The prize was awarded jointly to: JOSEPH ROTBLAT and to the PUGWASH CONFERENCES ON SCIENCE AND WORLD AFFAIRS for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and in the longer run to eliminate such arms. 1994 The prize was awarded joinly to: YASSER ARAFAT , Chairman of the Executive Committee of the PLO, President of the Palestinian National Authority. SHIMON PERES , Foreign Minister of Israel. YITZHAK RABIN , Prime Minister of Israel. for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East. 1993 The prize was awarded jointly to: NELSON MANDELA Leader of the ANC. FREDRIK WILLEM DE KLERK President of the Republic of South Africa. 1992 RIGOBERTA MENCHU TUM, Guatemala. Campaigner for human rights, especially for indigenous peoples. 1991 AUNG SAN SUU KYI, Burma. Oppositional leader, human rights advocate. 1990 MIKHAIL SERGEYEVICH GORBACHEV , President of the USSR, helped to bring the Cold War to an end. 1989 THE 14TH DALAI LAMA (TENZIN GYATSO) , Tibet. Religious and political leader of the Tibetan people. 1988 THE UNITED NATIONS PEACE-KEEPING FORCES New York, NY, U.S.A. 1987 OSCAR ARIAS SANCHEZ , Costa Rica, President of Costa Rica, initiator of peace negotiations in Central America. 1986 ELIE WIESEL , U.S.A., Chairman of 'The President's Commission on the Holocaust'. Author, humanitarian. 1985 INTERNATIONAL PHYSICIANS FOR THE PREVENTION OF NUCLEAR WAR Boston, MA, U.S.A. 1984 DESMOND MPILO TUTU , South Africa, Bishop of Johannesburg, former Secretary General South African Council of Churches (S.A.C.C.). for his work against apartheid. 1983 LECH WALESA , Poland. Founder of Solidarity, campaigner for human rights. 1982 The prize was awarded jointly to: ALVA MYRDAL , former Cabinet Minister, diplomat, delegate to United Nations General Assembly on Disarmament, writer. ALFONSO GARCÍA ROBLES , diplomat, delegate to the United Nations General Assembly on Disarmament, former Secretary for Foreign Affairs . 1981 OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES Geneva, Switzerland. 1980 ADOLFO PEREZ ESQUIVEL , Argentina, architect, sculptor and human rights leader. 1979 MOTHER TERESA , India, Leader of the Order of the Missionaries of Charity. 1978 The prize was divided equally between: MOHAMED ANWAR AL-SADAT , President of the Arab Republic of Egypt. MENACHEM BEGIN , Prime Minister of Israel. for jointly negotiating peace between Egypt and Israel. 1977 AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL London, Great Britain. A worldwide organization for the protection of the rights of prisoners of conscience. 1976 BETTY WILLIAMS and MAIREAD CORRIGAN Founders of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People). 1975 ANDREI DMITRIEVICH SAKHAROV , Soviet nuclear physicist. Campaigner for human rights. 1974 The prize was divided equally between: SEÁN MAC BRIDE , President of the International Peace Bureau, Geneva, and the Commission of Namibia, United Nations, New York. EISAKU SATO , Prime Minister of Japan. 1973 The prize was awarded jointly to: HENRY A. KISSINGER , Secretary of State, State Department, Washington. LE DUC THO , Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. (Declined the prize.) for jointly negotiating the Vietnam peace accord in 1973. 1972 The prize money for 1972 was allocated to the Main Fund. 1971 WILLY BRANDT , Federal Republic of Germany, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, initiator of West Germany's Ostpolitik, embodying a new attitude towards Eastern Europe and East Germany. 1970 NORMAN BORLAUG , Led research at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico City. 1969 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (I.L.O.) Geneva. 1968 RENÉ CASSIN , President of the European Court for Human Rights . 1967-1966 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1965 UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF) New York, founded by U.N. in 1946. An international aid organization. 1964 MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. , leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, campaigner for civil rights. 1963 The prize was divided equally between COMITÉ INTERNATIONAL DE LA CROIX-ROUGE (INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE REDCROSS) Geneva, founded 1863. LIGUE DES SOCIÉTÉS DE LA CROIX-ROUGE (LEAGUE OF RED CROSS SOCIETIES) Geneva. 1962 LINUS CARL PAULING , California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. Campaigner especially for an end to nuclear weapons tests. 1961 DAG HJALMAR AGNE CARL HAMMARSKJÖLD , Secretary General of the United Nations (awarded the Prize posthumously). 1960 ALBERT JOHN LUTULI , President of the South Africal liberation movement, the African National Congress. 1959 PHILIP J. NOEL-BAKER , Great Britain, Member of Parliament, life long ardent worker for international peace and co-operation . 1958 GEORGES HENRI PIRE , Belgium, Father of the Dominican Order, Leader of the relief organization for refugees, l'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde. 1957 LESTER BOWLES PEARSON , former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada, President 7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly . 1956-1955 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1954 OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES Geneva, an international relief organization, founded by U.N. in 1951. 1953 GEORGE CATLETT MARSHALL , General, President American Red Cross, ex-Secretary of State and of Defense, Delegate to the U.N., Originator of the Marshall Plan. 1952 ALBERT SCHWEITZER , Missionary surgeon, Founder Lambaréné Hospital in République du Gabon. 1951 LÉON JOUHAUX , France, President of the trade union C.G.T. Force Ouvrière. President of the International Committee of the European Council, Vice President of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, Vice President of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the UN. 1950 RALPH BUNCHE , Professor Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, Director of the UN Division of Trusteeship, Acting Mediator in Palestine 1948. 1949 LORD JOHN BOYD ORR OF BRECHIN , Physician, Alimentary Politician, prominent organizer and Director General Food and Agricultural Organization, President National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations. 1948 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1947 The prize was awarded jointly to: THE FRIENDS SERVICE COUNCIL (The Quakers), London. Founded in 1647. THE AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE (The Quakers), Washington. The society's first official meeting was held in 1672. 1946 The prize was divided equally between: EMILY GREENE BALCH, former Professor of History and Sociology, Honorary International President Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. JOHN RALEIGH MOTT Chairman of the first International Missionary Council, President of the World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations . 1945 CORDELL HULL Former Secretary of State. One of the initiators of the United Nations. 1944 COMITÉ INTERNATIONAL DE LA CROIX-ROUGE (INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS) 1943-1939 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1938 OFFICE INTERNATIONAL NANSEN POUR LES RÉFUGIÉS (NANSEN INTERNATIONAL OFFICE FOR REFUGEES) an international relief organization in Geneva started by Fridtjof Nansen in 1921. 1937 CECIL OF CHELWOOD, VISCOUNT, (LORD EDGAR ALGERNON ROBERT GASCOYNE CECIL) , Writer, Former Lord Privy Seal. Founder and President of the International Peace Campaign. 1936 CARLOS SAAVEDRA LAMAS Foreign Minister. President of the Société des Nations (League of Nations), Meditator in a conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia in 1935. 1935 CARL VON OSSIETZKY Journalist (with Die Weltbühne, among others), pacifist. 1934 ARTHUR HENDERSON Former Foreign Secretary. Chairman of the League of Nations Disarmament Conference 1932-1934. 1933 SIR NORMAN ANGELL (RALPH LANE) Writer. Member of the Commission Exécutive de la Société des Nations (Executive Committee of the League of Nations) and the National Peace Council. Author of the book The Great Illusion, among others. 1932 The prize money for 1932 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1931 The prize was divided equally between: JANE ADDAMS Sociologist. International President of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER President of Columbia University. Promoter of the Briand-Kellogg Pact. 1930 LARS OLOF NATHAN (JONATHAN) SÖDERBLOM Archbishop. Leader of the ecumenical movement. 1929 FRANK BILLINGS KELLOGG Former Secretary of State, Negotiated the Briand-Kellogg Pact. 1928 The prize money for 1928 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1927 The prize was divided equally between: FERDINAND BUISSON Former Professor at the Sorbonne University, Paris. Founder and President of the Ligue des Droits de l'Homme (League for Human Rights). LUDWIG QUIDDE Historian. Professor at Berlin University. Member of Germany's constituent assembly 1919. Delegate to numerous peace conferences. 1926 The prize was awarded jointly to: ARISTIDE BRIAND Foreign Minister. Negotiator of the Locarno Treaty and the Briand-Kellogg Pact. GUSTAV STRESEMANN Former Lord High Chancellor (Reichs-kanzler). Foreign Minister. Negotiator of the Locarno Treaty. 1925 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR AUSTEN CHAMBERLAIN Foreign Minister. Negotiator of the Locarno Treaty. CHARLES GATES DAWES Vice-President of the United States of America. Chairman of the Allied Reparation Commission. Originator of the Dawes Plan . 1924-1923 The prize money for 1924-1923 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1922 FRIDTJOF NANSEN , Norway. Scientist. Explorer. Norwegian Delegate to Société des Nations (League of Nations). Originator of the Nansen passports (for refugees). 1921 The prize was divided equally between: KARL HJALMAR BRANTING Prime Minister. Swedish Delegate to the Conseil de la Société des Nations (Council of the League of Nations). CHRISTIAN LOUS LANGE Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Brussels. 1920 LÉON VICTOR AUGUSTE BOURGEOIS, France. Former Secretary of State. President of the Parliament (Sénat). President of the Conseil de la Société des Nations (Council of the League of Nations) . 1919 THOMAS WOODROW WILSON, President of the United States of America. Founder of the Société des Nations (League of Nations) 1918 The prize money for 1918 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1917 COMITÉ INTERNATIONAL DE LA CROIX ROUGE (INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE REDCROSS) , Geneva. 1916-1914 The prize money for 1916-1914 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1913 HENRI LA FONTAINE, Belgium. Member of the Belgian Parliament (Sénateur). President of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne. 1912 ELIHU ROOT Former Secretary of State. Initiator of several arbitration agreements. 1911 The prize was divided equally between: TOBIAS MICHAEL CAREL ASSER, the Netherlands. Cabinet Minister. Member of the Privy Council. Initiator of the International Conferences of Private Law at the Hague. ALFRED HERMANN FRIED, Austria. Journalist. Founder of the peace journal Die Waffen Nieder (later renamed Die Friedenswarte). 1910 BUREAU INTERNATIONAL PERMANENT DE LA PAIX (PERMANENT INTERNATIONAL PEACE BUREAU) , Bern. 1909 The prize was divided equally between: AUGUSTE MARIE FRANÇOIS BEERNAERT, Belgium. Former Prime Minister. Member of the Belgian Parliament. Member of the Cour Internationale d'Arbitrage (International Court of Arbitration) at the Hague. PAUL HENRIBENJAMIN BALLUET D'ESTOURNELLES DE CONSTANT, BARON DE CONSTANT DE REBECQUE, France. Member of the French Parliament (Sénateur). Founder and President of the French parliamentary group for international arbitration (Groupe parlementaire de l'arbitrage international). Founder of the Comité de défense des intérêtsnationaux et de conciliation internationale (Committee for the Defense of National Interests and International Conciliation). 1908 The prize was divided equally between: KLAS PONTUS ARNOLDSON, Sweden. Writer. Former Member fo the Swedish Parliament. Founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League. FREDRIK BAJER, Denmark. Member of the Danish Parliament. Honorary President of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne. 1907 The prize was divided equally between: ERNESTO TEODORO MONETA, Italy. President of the Lombard League of Peace. LOUIS RENAULT, France. Professor International Law, Sorbonne University, Paris. 1906 THEODORE ROOSEVELT, USA. President of the United States of America. Drew up the 1905 peace treaty between Russia and Japan. 1905 BARONESS BERTHA SOPHIE FELICITA VON SUTTNER née COUNTESS KINSKY von CHINIC und TETTAU, Austria. Writer. Hon. President of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne. Author of Die Waffen Nieder (Lay Down Your Arms). 1904 INSTITUT DE DROIT INTERNATIONAL (INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW) , Gent, Belgium. A scientific society. 1903 SIR WILLIAM RANDAL CREMER, Great Britain. Member of the British Parliament. Secretary of the International Arbitration League . 1902 The prize was divided equally between: ÉLIE DUCOMMUN, Switzerland. Honorary Secretary of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne. CHARLES ALBERT GOBAT, Switzerland. Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Berne. Honorary Secretary of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne. 1901 The prize was divided equally between: JEAN HENRI DUNANT, Switzerland. Founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva; Initiator of the Geneva Convention (Convention de Genève). FRÉDÉRIC PASSY, France. Founder and President of the first French peace society (since 1889 it has been called the Société Francaise pour l'arbitrage entre nations). =============================================================== Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2004-1969 (a.k.a. Nobel Prize in Economics) (also available in alphabetical arrangement) brought to you by The Nobel Prize Internet Archive 2004 The prize was awarded jointly to: FINN E. KYDLAND and EDWARD C. PRESCOTT for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles 2003 The prize was shared between: ROBERT F. ENGLE for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH) and CLIVE W. J. GRANGER , for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration) 2002 The prize was shared between: DANIEL KAHNEMAN for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty and VERNON L. SMITH, for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms 2001 The prize was awarded jointly to: GEORGE A. ACKERLOF, A. MICHAEL SPENCE, and JOSEPH E. STIGLITZ, for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information. 2000 The prize will be shared between: JAMES J. HECKMAN for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples and DANIEL L. MCFADDEN for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice. 1999 ROBERT A. MUNDELL for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas. 1998 AMARTYA SEN for his contributions to welfare economics. 1997 ROBERT C. MERTON and MYRON S. SCHOLES for a new method to determine the value of derivatives. 1996 JAMES A. MIRRLEES and WILLIAM VICKREY for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information. 1995 ROBERT LUCAS for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy. 1994 The prize was awarded jointly to: JOHN C. HARSANYI , JOHN F. NASH and REINHARD SELTEN for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games. 1993 The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT W. FOGEL and DOUGLASS C. NORTH for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change. 1992 GARY S. BECKER for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour. 1991 RONALD H. COASE for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy. 1990 The prize was awarded with one third each to: HARRY M. MARKOWITZ , MERTON M. MILLER and WILLIAM F. SHARPE for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics. 1989 TRYGVE HAAVELMO for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures. 1988 MAURICE ALLAIS for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources. 1987 ROBERT M. SOLOW for his contributions to the theory of economic growth. 1986 JAMES M. BUCHANAN, JR. for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making. 1985 FRANCO MODIGLIANI for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets. 1984 SIR RICHARD STONE for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis. 1983 GERARD DEBREU for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium. 1982 GEORGE J. STIGLER for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation. 1981 JAMES TOBIN for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices. 1980 LAWRENCE R. KLEIN for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies. 1979 The prize was divided equally between: THEODORE W. SCHULTZ and SIR ARTHUR LEWIS for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries. 1978 HERBERT A. SIMON for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations. 1977 The prize was divided equally between: BERTIL OHLIN and JAMES E MEADE for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements. 1976 MILTON FRIEDMAN for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy. 1975 The prize was awarded jointly to: LEONID VITALIYEVICH KANTOROVICH and TJALLING C. KOOPMANS for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources. 1974 The prize was divided equally between: GUNNAR MYRDAL and FRIEDRICH AUGUST VON HAYEK for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena. 1973 WASSILY LEONTIEF for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems. 1972 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR JOHN R. HICKS and KENNETH J. ARROW for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory. 1971 SIMON KUZNETS for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development. 1970 PAUL A SAMUELSON for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science. 1969 The prize was awarded jointly to: RAGNAR FRISCH and JAN TINBERGEN for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes ================================================================= Nobel Prize in Physics Winners 2004-1901 (also available in alphabetical arrangement) brought to you by The Nobel Prize Internet Archive 2004 The prize is being awarded jointly to: DAVID J. GROSS, H. DAVID POLITZER and FRANK WILCZEK for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction 2003 The prize is being awarded jointly to: ALEXEI A. ABRIKOSOV, VITALY L. GINZBURG and ANTHONY J. LEGGETT for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids 2002 The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to: RAYMOND DAVIS JR., and MASATOSHI KOSHIBA for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos and the other half to: RICCARDO GIACCONI for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources 2001 The prize is being awarded jointly to: ERIC A. CORNELL, WOLFGANG KETTERLE and CARL E. WIEMAN for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates. 2000 The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to: ZHORES I. ALFEROV, and HERBERT KROEMER for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics and and one half to: JACK ST. CLAIR KILBY for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit. 1999 The prize was awarded jointly to: GERARDUS 'T HOOFT, and MARTINUS J.G. VELTMAN for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics. 1998 The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT B. LAUGHLIN, HORST L. STORMER and DANIEL C. TSUI for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations. 1997 The prize was awarded jointly to: STEVEN CHU, CLAUDE COHEN-TANNOUDJI and WILLIAM D. PHILLIPS for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light. 1996 The prize was awarded jointly to: DAVID M. LEE, DOUGLAS D. OSHEROFF and ROBERT C. RICHARDSON for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3. 1995 The prize was awarded for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics, with one half to: MARTIN L. PERL for the discovery of the tau lepton. and the other half to: FREDERICK REINES for the detection of the neutrino. 1994 The prize was awarded for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter to: BERTRAM N. BROCKHOUSE for the development of neutron spectroscopy CLIFFORD G. SHULL for the development of the neutron diffraction technique. 1993 The prize was awarded jointly to: RUSSELL A. HULSE and JOSEPH H. TAYLOR JR. for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation. 1992 GEORGES CHARPAK for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber. 1991 PIERRE-GILLES DE GENNES for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers. 1990 The prize was awarded jointly to: JEROME I. FRIEDMAN, HENRY W. KENDALL and RICHARD E. TAYLOR for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics. 1989 One half of the award was given to: NORMAN F. RAMSEY for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks. and the other half jointly to: HANS G. DEHMELT and WOLFGANG PAUL for the development of the ion trap technique. 1988 The prize was awarded jointly to: LEON M. LEDERMAN, MELVIN SCHWARTZ and JACK STEINBERGER for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino. 1987 The prize was awarded jointly to: J. GEORG BEDNORZ and K. ALEXANDER MÜLLER for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials. 1986 The prize was awarded by one half to: ERNST RUSKA for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope. GERD BINNIG and HEINRICH ROHRER for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope. 1985 KLAUS VON KLITZING for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect. 1984 The prize was awarded jointly to: CARLO RUBBIA and SIMON VAN DER MEER for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction. 1983 The prize was divided equally between: SUBRAMANYAN CHANDRASEKHAR for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars. WILLIAM A. FOWLER for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe. 1982 KENNETH G. WILSON for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions. 1981 The prize was awarded by one half jointly to: NICOLAAS BLOEMBERGEN and ARTHUR L. SCHAWLOW for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy and the other half to: KAI M. SIEGBAHN for his contribution to the development of high- resolution electron spectroscopy. 1980 The prize was divided equally between: JAMES W. CRONIN and VAL L. FITCH for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons. 1979 The prize was divided equally between: SHELDON L. GLASHOW, ABDUS SALAM and STEVEN WEINBERG for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including inter alia the prediction of the weak neutral current. 1978 The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: PYOTR LEONIDOVICH KAPITSA for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics and the other half divided equally between: ARNO A. PENZIAS and ROBERT W. WILSON for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. 1977 The prize was divided equally between: PHILIP W. ANDERSON, SIR NEVILL F. MOTT and JOHN H. VAN VLECK for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems. 1976 The prize was divided equally between: BURTON RICHTER and SAMUEL C. C. TING for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind. 1975 The prize was awarded jointly to: AAGE BOHR, BEN MOTTELSON and JAMES RAINWATER for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection. 1974 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR MARTIN RYLE and ANTONY HEWISH for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars. 1973 The prize was divided, one half being equally shared between: LEO ESAKI and IVAR GIAEVER , for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively, and the other half to BRIAN D. JOSEPHSON for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects. 1972 The prize was awarded jointly to: JOHN BARDEEN, LEON N. COOPER and J. ROBERT SCHRIEFFER for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory. 1971 DENNIS GABOR for his invention and development of the holographic method. 1970 The prize was divided equally between: HANNES ALFVÉN for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics LOUIS NÉEL for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics. 1969 MURRAY GELL-MANN for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions. 1968 LUIS W. ALVAREZ for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis. 1967 HANS ALBRECHT BETHE for his contributions to the theory ofnuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars. 1966 ALFRED KASTLER for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying hertzian resonances in atoms. 1965 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIN-ITIRO TOMONAGA, JULIAN SCHWINGER and RICHARD P. FEYNMAN for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles. 1964 The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: CHARLES H. TOWNES the other half jointly to: NICOLAY GENNADIYEVICH BASOV and ALEKSANDR MIKHAILOVICH PROKHOROV for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle. 1963 The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: EUGENE P. WIGNER for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles and the other half jointly to: MARIA GOEPPERT-MAYER and J. HANS D. JENSEN for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure. 1962 LEV DAVIDOVICH LANDAU for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium. 1961 The prize was divided equally between: ROBERT HOFSTADTER for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the stucture of the nucleons RUDOLF LUDWIG MÖSSBAUER for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name. 1960 DONALD A. GLASER for the invention of the bubble chamber. 1959 The prize was awarded jointly to: EMILIO GINO SEGRÈ and OWEN CHAMBERLAIN for their discovery of the antiproton. 1958 The prize was awarded jointly to: PAVEL ALEKSEYEVICH CHERENKOV , IL'JA MIKHAILOVICH FRANK and IGOR YEVGENYEVICH TAMM for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect. 1957 The prize was awarded jointly to: CHEN NING YANG and TSUNG-DAO LEE for their penetratinginvestigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary partic les. 1956 The prize was awarded jointly, one third each, to: WILLIAM SHOCKLEY, JOHN BARDEEN and WALTER HOUSER BRATTAIN for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect. 1955 The prize was divided equally between: WILLIS EUGENE LAMB for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum POLYKARP KUSCH for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron. 1954 The prize was divided equally between: MAX BORN for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction WALTHER BOTHE for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith. 1953 FRITS (FREDERIK) ZERNIKE for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope. 1952 The prize was awarded jointly to: FELIX BLOCH and EDWARD MILLS PURCELL for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith. 1951 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR JOHN DOUGLAS COCKCROFT and ERNEST THOMAS SINTON WALTON for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially acce lerated atomic particles. 1950 CECIL FRANK POWELL for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method. 1949 HIDEKI YUKAWA for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces. 1948 LORD PATRICK MAYNARD STUART BLACKETT for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation. 1947 SIR EDWARD VICTOR APPLETON for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer. 1946 PERCY WILLIAMS BRIDGMAN for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics. 1945 WOLFGANG PAULI for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle. 1944 ISIDOR ISAAC RABI for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei. 1943 OTTO STERN for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton. 1942-1940 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1939 ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artifi cial radioactive elements. 1938 ENRICO FERMI for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons. 1937 The prize was awarded jointly to: CLINTON JOSEPH DAVISSON and SIR GEORGE PAGET THOMSON for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals. 1936 The prize was divided equally between: VICTOR FRANZ HESS for his discovery of cosmic radiation CARL DAVID ANDERSON for his discovery of the positron. 1935 SIR JAMES CHADWICK for the discovery of the neutron. 1934 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1933 The prize was awarded jointly to ERWIN SCHRÖDINGER and PAUL ADRIEN MAURICE DIRAC for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory. 1932 WERNER HEISENBERG for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen. 1931 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1930 SIR CHANDRASEKHARA VENKATA RAMAN for his work on the scattering of ligh t and for the discovery of the effect named after him. 1929 PRINCE LOUIS-VICTOR DE BROGLIE for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons. 1928 SIR OWEN WILLANS RICHARDSON for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him. 1927 The prize was divided equally between: ARTHUR HOLLY COMPTON for his discovery of the effect named after him CHARLES THOMSON REES WILSON for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour. 1926 JEAN BAPTISTE PERRIN for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium. 1925 The prize was awarded jointly to: JAMES FRANCK and GUSTAV HERTZ for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom. 1924 KARL MANNE GEORG SIEGBAHN for his discoveries and researchin the field of X-ray spectroscopy. 1923 ROBERT ANDREWS MILLIKAN for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect. 1922 NIELS BOHR for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them. 1921 ALBERT EINSTEIN for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. 1920 CHARLES EDOUARD GUILLAUME in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys. 1919 JOHANNES STARK for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields. 1918 MAX KARL ERNST LUDWIG PLANCK in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta. 1917 CHARLES GLOVER BARKLA for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements. 1916 The prize money for 1916 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1915 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR WILLIAM HENRY BRAGG and SIR WILLIAM LAWRENCE BRAGG for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays. 1914 MAX VON LAUE for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals. 1913 HEIKE KAMERLINGH-ONNES for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia to the production of liquid helium. 1912 NILS GUSTAF DALÉN for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys. 1911 WILHELM WIEN for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat. 1910 JOHANNES DIDERIK VAN DER WAALS for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids. 1909 The prize was awarded jointly to: GUGLIELMO MARCONI and CARL FERDINAND BRAUN in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy. 1908 GABRIEL LIPPMANN for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference. 1907 ALBERT ABRAHAM MICHELSON for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid. 1906 SIR JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases. 1905 PHILIPP EDUARD ANTON LENARD for his work on cathode rays. 1904 LORD JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT RAYLEIGH for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies. 1903 The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: ANTOINE HENRI BECQUEREL in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity the other half jointly to: PIERRE CURIE and MARIE CURIE, née SKLODOWSKA in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel. 1902 The prize was awarded jointly to: HENDRIK ANTOON LORENTZ and PIETER ZEEMAN in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena. 1901 WILHELM CONRAD RÖNTGEN in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him Nobel Prize in Chemistry Winners 2004-1901 (also available in alphabetical arrangement) brought to you by The Nobel Prize Internet Archive 2004 The prize is being awarded jointly to: AARON CIECHANOVER, AVRAM HERSHKO , and IRWIN ROSE for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation 2003 The prize is being awarded for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes with one half of the prize to: PETER AGRE, for the discovery of water channels and the other half of the prize to: RODERICK MACKINNON for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels. 2002 The prize is being awarded for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules with one half jointly to: JOHN B. FENN, and KOICHI TANAKA, for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules and the other half to: KURT WÜTHRICH for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution. 2001 The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to: WILLIAM S. KNOWLES, and RYOJI NOYORI, for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions and the other half to: K. BARRY SHARPLESS for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions. 2000 The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to: ALAN J. HEEGER, ALAN G. MACDIARMID, and HIDEKI SHIRAKAWA for the discovery and development of conductive polymers. 1999 AHMED ZEWAIL for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy. 1998 The prize was awarded for pioneering contributions in developing methods that can be used for theoretical studies of the properties of molecules and the chemical processes in which they are involved. The prize was divided equally between: WALTER KOHN for his development of the density-functional theory and JOHN A. POPLE for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry. 1997 The prize was divided, one half being awarded jointly to: PAUL D. BOYER and JOHN E. WALKER for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and with one half to: JENS C. SKOU for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+-ATPase. 1996 The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT F. CURL, Jr. , SIR HAROLD W. KROTO , and RICHARD E. SMALLEY for their discovery of fullerenes. 1995 The prize was awarded jointly to: PAUL CRUTZEN , MARIO MOLINA , and F. SHERWOOD ROWLAND for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone. 1994 GEORGE A. OLAH for his contribution to carbocation chemistry. 1993 The prize was awarded for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry equally between: KARY B. MULLIS for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. and MICHAEL SMITH for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleiotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies. 1992 RUDOLPH A. MARCUS for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems. 1991 RICHARD R. ERNST for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. 1990 ELIAS JAMES COREY for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis. 1989 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIDNEY ALTMAN and THOMAS R. CECH for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA. 1988 The prize was awarded jointly to: JOHANN DEISENHOFER , ROBERT HUBER and HARTMUT MICHEL for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre. 1987 The prize was awarded jointly to: DONALD J. CRAM , JEAN-MARIE LEHN and CHARLES J. PEDERSEN for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity. 1986 The prize was awarded jointly to: DUDLEY R. HERSCHBACH , YUAN T. LEE and JOHN C. POLANYI for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes. 1985 The prize was awarded jointly to: HERBERT A. HAUPTMAN and JEROME KARLE for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures. 1984 ROBERT BRUCE MERRIFIELD for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix. 1983 HENRY TAUBE for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes. 1982 SIR AARON KLUG for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nuclei acid-protein complexes. 1981 The prize was awarded jointly to: KENICHI FUKUI and ROALD HOFFMANN for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions. 1980 The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: PAUL BERG for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA and the other half jointly to: WALTER GILBERT and FREDERICK SANGER for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids. 1979 The prize was divided equally between: HERBERT C. BROWN and GEORG WITTIG for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis. 1978 PETER D. MITCHELL for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory. 1977 ILYA PRIGOGINE for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures. 1976 WILLIAM N.. LIPSCOMB for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding. 1975 The prize was divided equally between: SIR JOHN WARCUP CORNFORTH for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and VLADIMIR PRELOG for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions. 1974 PAUL J. FLORY for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules. 1973 The prize was divided equally between: ERNST OTTO FISCHER and SIR GEOFFREY WILKINSON for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds. 1972 The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: CHRISTIAN B. ANFINSEN for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active confirmation and the other half jointly to: STANFORD MOORE and WILLIAM H. STEIN for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule. 1971 GERHARD HERZBERG for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic stucture and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals. 1970 LUIS F. LELOIR for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates. 1969 The prize was divided equally between: SIR DEREK H. R. BARTON and ODD HASSEL for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry. 1968 LARS ONSAGER for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. 1967 The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: MANFRED EIGEN and the other half jointly to: RONALD GEORGE WREYFORD NORRISH and LORD GEORGE PORTER for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy. 1966 ROBERT S. MULLIKEN for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method. 1965 ROBERT BURNS WOODWARD for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis. 1964 DOROTHY CROWFOOT HODGKIN for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances. 1963 The prize was divided equally between: KARL ZIEGLER and GIULIO NATTA for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers. 1962 The prize was divided equally between: MAX FERDINAND PERUTZ and SIR JOHN COWDERY KENDREW for their studies of the structures of globular proteins. 1961 MELVIN CALVIN for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants. 1960 WILLARD FRANK LIBBY for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science. 1959 JAROSLAV HEYROVSKY for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis. 1958 FREDERICK SANGER for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin. 1957 LORD ALEXANDER R. TODD for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes. 1956 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR CYRIL NORMAN HINSHELWOOD and NIKOLAY NIKOLAEVICH SEMENOV for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions. 1955 VINCENT DU VIGNEAUD for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone. 1954 LINUS CARL PAULING for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances. 1953 HERMANN STAUDINGER for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry. 1952 The prize was awarded jointly to: ARCHER JOHN PORTER MARTIN and RICHARD LAURENCE MILLINGTON SYNGE for their invention of partition chromatography. 1951 The prize was awarded jointly to: EDWIN MATTISON MC MILLAN and GLENN THEODORE SEABORG for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements. 1950 The prize was awarded jointly to: OTTO PAUL HERMANN DIELS and KURT ALDER for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis. 1949 WILLIAM FRANCIS GIAUQUE for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures. 1948 ARNE WILHELM KAURIN TISELIUS for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins. 1947 SIR ROBERT ROBINSON for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids. 1946 The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: JAMES BATCHELLER SUMNER for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized. the other half jointly to JOHN HOWARD NORTHROP and WENDELL MEREDITH STANLEY for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form. 1945 ARTTURI ILMARI VIRTANEN for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method. 1944 OTTO HAHN for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei. 1943 GEORGE DE HEVESY for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes. 1942-1940 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1939 ADOLF FRIEDRICH JOHANN BUTENANDT for his work on sex hormones. (Caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award but later received the diploma and the medal). and LEOPOLD RUZICKA for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes. 1938 RICHARD KUHN for his work on carotenoids and vitamins. (Caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award but later received the diploma and the medal.) 1937 The prize was divided equally between: SIR WALTER NORMAN HAWORTH for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C. and PAUL KARRER for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2. 1936 PETRUS (PETER) JOSEPHUS WILHELMUS DEBYE for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases. 1935 The prize was awarded jointly to: FRÉDÉRIC JOLIOT and IRÈNE JOLIOT-CURIE in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements. 1934 HAROLD CLAYTON UREY for his discovery of heavy hydrogen. 1933 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1932 IRVING LANGMUIR for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry. 1931 The prize was awarded jointly to: CARL BOSCH and FRIEDRICH BERGIUS in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods. 1930 HANS FISCHER for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin. 1929 The prize was divided equally between: SIR ARTHUR HARDEN and HANS KARL AUGUST SIMON VON EULER-CHELPIN for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes. 1928 ADOLF OTTO REINHOLD WINDAUS for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins. 1927 HEINRICH OTTO WIELAND for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances. 1926 THE (THEODOR) SVEDBERG for his work on disperse systems. 1925 RICHARD ADOLF ZSIGMONDY for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry. 1924 The prize money for 1924 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1923 FRITZ PREGL for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances. 1922 FRANCIS WILLIAM ASTON for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule. 1921 FREDERICK SODDY , for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes. 1920 WALTHER HERMANN NERNST in recognition of his work in thermochemistry. 1919 The prize money for 1919 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1918 FRITZ HABER for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements. 1917-1916 The prize money for 1917-1916 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1915 RICHARD MARTIN WILLSTÄTTER for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll. 1914 THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS , in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements. 1913 ALFRED WERNER in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry. 1912 The prize was divided equally between: VICTOR GRIGNARD for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry and PAUL SABATIER for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years. 1911 MARIE CURIE, née Marie Sklodowska, in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element. 1910 OTTO WALLACH in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds. 1909 WILHELM OSTWALD in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction. 1908 LORD ERNEST RUTHERFORD for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances. 1907 EDUARD BUCHNER for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cellfree fermentation. 1906 HENRI MOISSAN in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him. 1905 JOHANN FRIEDRICH WILHELM ADOLF VON BAEYER in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds. 1904 SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system. 1903 SVANTE AUGUST ARRHENIUS in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation. 1902 HERMANN EMIL FISCHER in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses. 1901 JACOBUS HENRICUS VAN'T HOFF in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions ===================================== Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Winners 2004-1901 ====================================== 2004 The prize was awarded jointly to: RICHARD AXEL, and LINDA B BUCK for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system 2003 The prize was awarded jointly to: PAUL C. LAUTERBUR, and SIR PETER MANSFIELD for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging. 2002 The prize was awarded jointly to: SYDNEY BRENNER, H. ROBERT HORVITZ and JOHN E. SULSTON for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death. 2001 The prize was awarded jointly to: LELAND H. HARTWELL, R. TIMOTHY HUNT and PAUL M. NURSE for their discoveries of "key regulators of the cell cycle." 2000 The prize was awarded jointly to: ARVID CARLSSON, PAUL GREENGARD and ERIC KANDEL for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. 1999 The prize was awarded to: GÜNTER BLOBEL, for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell. 1998 The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT F. FURCHGOTT, LOUIS J. IGNARRO and FERID MURAD for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system. 1997 STANLEY B. PRUSINER for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection 1996 The prize was awarded jointly to: PETER C. DOHERTY and ROLF M. ZINKERNAGEL for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence. 1995 The prize was awarded jointly to: EDWARD B. LEWIS, CHRISTIANE NÜSSLEIN-VOLHARD and ERIC F. WIESCHAUS for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development. 1994 The prize was awarded jointly to: ALFRED G. GILMAN and MARTIN RODBELL for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells. 1993 The prize was awarded jointly to: RICHARD J. ROBERTS and PHILLIP A. SHARP for their independent discoveries of split genes. 1992 The prize was awarded jointly to: EDMOND H. FISCHER and EDWIN G. KREBS for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism. 1991 The prize was awarded jointly to: ERWIN NEHER and BERT SAKMANN for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells. 1990 The prize was awarded jointly to: JOSEPH E. MURRAY and E. DONNALL THOMAS for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease. 1989 The prize was awarded jointly to: J. MICHAEL BISHOP and HAROLD E. VARMUS for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. 1988 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR JAMES W. BLACK , GERTRUDE B. ELION and GEORGE H. HITCHINGS for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment. 1987 SUSUMU TONEGAWA for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity. 1986 The prize was awarded jointly to: STANLEY COHEN and RITA LEVI-MONTALCINI for their discoveries of growth factors. 1985 The prize was awarded jointly to: MICHAEL S. BROWN and JOSEPH L. GOLDSTEIN for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. 1984 The prize was awarded jointly to: NIELS K. JERNE , GEORGES J.F. KÖHLER and CÉSAR MILSTEIN for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies. 1983 BARBARA MC CLINTOCK for her discovery of mobile genetic elements. 1982 The prize was awarded jointly to: SUNE K. BERGSTRÖM , BENGT I. SAMUELSSON and SIR JOHN R. VANE for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances. 1981 The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: ROGER W. SPERRY for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres. and the other half awarded jointly to: DAVID H. HUBEL and TORSTEN N. WIESEL for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system. 1980 The prize was awarded jointly to: BARUJ BENACERRAF , JEAN DAUSSET and GEORGE D. SNELL for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions. 1979 The prize was awarded jointly to: ALAN M. CORMACK and SIR GODFREY N. HOUNSFIELD for the development of computer assisted tomography. 1978 The prize was awarded jointly to: WERNER ARBER , DANIEL NATHANS and HAMILTON O. SMITH for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics. 1977 The prize was divided equally, one half awarded jointly to: ROGER GUILLEMIN and ANDREW V. SCHALLY for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain and the other half awarded to: ROSALYN YALOW for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones. 1976 The prize was awarded jointly to: BARUCH S. BLUMBERG and D. CARLETON GAJDUSEK for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases. 1975 The prize was awarded jointly to: DAVID BALTIMORE , RENATO DULBECCO and HOWARD MARTIN TEMIN for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell. 1974 The prize was awarded jointly to: ALBERT CLAUDE , CHRISTIAN DE DUVE and GEORGE E. PALADE for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell. 1973 The prize was awarded jointly to: KARL VON FRISCH , KONRAD LORENZ and NIKOLAAS TINBERGEN for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns. 1972 The prize was awarded jointly to: GERALD M. EDELMAN and RODNEY R. PORTER for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies. 1971 EARL W. JR. SUTHERLAND for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones. 1970 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR BERNARD KATZ , ULF VON EULER and JULIUS AXELROD for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation. 1969 The prize was awarded jointly to: MAX DELBRÜCK , ALFRED D. HERSHEY and SALVADOR E. LURIA for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the gentic structure of viruses. 1968 The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT W. HOLLEY , HAR GOBIND KHORANA and MARSHALL W. NIRENBERG for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis. 1967 The prize was awarded jointly to: RAGNAR GRANIT , HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE and GEORGE WALD for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye. 1966 The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: PEYTON ROUS for his discovery of tumorinducing viruses and the other half to: CHARLES BRENTON HUGGINS for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer. 1965 The prize was awarded jointly to: FRANÇOIS JACOB , ANDRÉ LWOFF and JACOUES MONOD for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis. 1964 The prize was awarded jointly to: KONRAD BLOCH and FEODOR LYNEN for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. 1963 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR JOHN CAREW ECCLES , SIR ALAN LLOYD HODGKIN and SIR ANDREW FIELDING HUXLEY for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane. 1962 The prize was awarded jointly to: FRANCIS HARRY COMPTON CRICK , JAMES DEWEY WATSON and MAURICE HUGH FREDERICK WILKINS for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nuclear acids and its significance for information transfer in living material. 1961 GEORG VON BÉKÉSY for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea. 1960 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR FRANK MACFARLANE BURNET and SIR PETER BRIAN MEDAWAR for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance. 1959 The prize was awarded jointly to: SEVERO OCHOA and ARTHUR KORNBERG for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxiribonucleic acid. 1958 The prize was divided equally, one half awarded jointly to: GEORGE WELLS BEADLE and EDWARD LAWRIE TATUM for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events and the other half to: JOSHUA LEDERBERG for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria. 1957 DANIEL BOVET for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles. 1956 The prize was awarded jointly to: ANDRÉ FRÉDÉRIC COURNAND , WERNER FORSSMANN and DICKINSON W. RICHARDS for their discoveries concerning heart catherization and pathological changes in the circulatory system. 1955 AXEL HUGO THEODOR THEORELL for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes. 1954 The prize was awarded jointly to: JOHN FRANKLIN ENDERS , THOMAS HUCKLE WELLER and FREDERICK CHAPMAN ROBBINS for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue. 1953 The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: SIR HANS ADOLF KREBS for his discovery of the citric acid cycle and the other half to: FRITZ ALBERT LIPMANN for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism. 1952 SELMAN ABRAHAM WAKSMAN for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis. 1951 MAX THEILER for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it. 1950 The prize was awarded jointly to: EDWARD CALVIN KENDALL , TADEUS REICHSTEIN and PHILIP SHOWALTER HENCH for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects. 1949 The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: WALTER RUDOLF HESS for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs and the other half to: ANTONIO CAETANO DE ABREU FREIRE EGAS MONIZ for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses. 1948 PAUL HERMANN MÜLLER for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arth ropods. 1947 The prize was divided, one half awarded jointly to: CARL FERDINAND CORI and GERTY THERESA CORI née RADNITZ for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen the other half awarded to: BERNARDO ALBERTO HOUSSAY for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar. 1946 HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation. 1945 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR ALEXANDER FLEMING , SIR ERNST BORIS CHAIN and LORD HOWARD WALTER FLOREY for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases. 1944 The prize was awarded jointly to JOSEPH ERLANGER and HERBERT SPENCER GASSER for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres. 1943 The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: HENRIK CARL PETER DAM for his discovery of vitamin K. and the other half to: EDWARD ADELBERT DOISY for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K. 1942-1940 The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section. 1939 GERHARD DOMAGK for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil. (Caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award, but later received the diploma and the medal.) 1938 CORNEILLE JEAN FRANÇOIS HEYMANS for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration. 1937 ALBERT SZENT-GYÖRGYI VON NAGYRAPOLT for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid. 1936 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR HENRY HALLETT DALE and OTTO LOEWI for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses. 1935 HANS SPEMANN for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development. 1934 The prize was awarded jointly to: GEORGE HOYT WHIPPLE , GEORGE RICHARDS MINOT and WILLIAM PARRY MURPHY for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia. 1933 THOMAS HUNT MORGAN for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity. 1932 The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR CHARLES SCOTT SHERRINGTON and LORD EDGAR DOUGLAS ADRIAN for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons. 1931 OTTO HEINRICH WARBURG for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme. 1930 KARL LANDSTEINER for his discovery of human blood groups. 1929 The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: CHRISTIAAN EIJKMAN for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin and the other half awarded to: SIR FREDERICK GOWLAND HOPKINS for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins. 1928 CHARLES JULES HENRI NICOLLE for his work on typhus. 1927 JULIUS WAGNER-JAUREGG for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica. 1926 JOHANNES ANDREAS GRIB FIBIGER for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma. 1925 The prize money for 1925 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1924 WILLEM EINTHOVEN for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram. 1923 SIR FREDERICK GRANT BANTING and JOHN JAMES RICHARD MACLEOD for the discovery of insulin. 1922 The prize was divided equally between: SIR ARCHIBALD VIVIAN HILL for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle and OTTO FRITZ MEYERHOF for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactid acid in the muscle. 1921 The prize money for 1921 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1920 SCHACK AUGUST STEENBERGER KROGH for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism. 1919 JULES BORDET for his discoveries relating to immunity. 1918-1915 The prize money for 1918-1915 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. 1914 ROBERT BÁRÁNY for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus. 1913 CHARLES ROBERT RICHET in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis. 1912 ALEXIS CARREL in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood-vessels and organs. 1911 ALLVAR GULLSTRAND for his work on the dioptrics of the eye. 1910 ALBRECHT KOSSEL in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances. 1909 EMIL THEODOR KOCHER for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland. 1908 The prize was awarded jointly to: ILYA ILYICH MECHNIKOV and PAUL EHRLICH in recognition of their work on immunity. 1907 CHARLES LOUIS ALPHONSE LAVERAN in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases. 1906 The prize was awarded jointly to: CAMILLO GOLGI and SANTIAGO RAMON Y CAJAL in recognition of their work on the stucture of the nervous system. 1905 ROBERT KOCH for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis. 1904 IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged. 1903 NIELS RYBERG FINSEN in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science. 1902 SIR RONALD ROSS for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful resesarch on this disease and methods of combating it. 1901 EMIL ADOLF VON BEHRING for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths ===============================================================
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