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Index Dutch Bronze Age
Index first farmers in the Netherlands

Bibracte, a city of the Gauls (4)

Metals (the techniques)

(1)   - General information
(2)   - The walls and buildings

(3)   - The metals (findings)
(5)   - Strange trees
(6)   - Writing
(7)   - Religion , Gallic War
(8)   - Other findings
(9)   - Coins

 Center: A red-hot crucible with white melted bronze

The process of making bronze fibulae:

  1. creating a form by casting melted wax in a wooden mould

  2. place clay around the wax

  3. dry the clay and then burn the wax

  4. cast the melted bronze in the form

  5. remove the clay

  6. polish the result

  7. heat the fibulae and bend them to give them their final shape

The bronze workshop

Iron ingots: "pyramidal" and bars. La Tène, La Saone.
Some archaeologists believe that families outside oppidae had 1 or 2 bars. If someone needed a tool and the smith passed by, he could make the tool. It is also possible that farmers could also make their own tools; it's not hard to learn.
The ingots could also easily represent some kind of money.

Bronze-forgers at work. Note the round bellows. 
Bellows like these were also used in the early middle ages.

Bronze furnace. I have reconstructed many bronze-casting furnaces like this (the right part of the photo); the furnace itself always matched with the photo. The left part of the photo might represent either a heater for the moulds and/or a place to cast the moulds or remnants.

Another bronze furnace. 
The arrows indicate the possible openings for the bellows. 
A. This might be the section to heat the mould. 
B. This is the furnace where the crucible should be covered 
by coal and/or wood.


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