Index Dutch Bronze Age
Index first farmers in the Netherlands
Bibracte, a city of the Gauls (2)
The walls and buildings
Oppidum means "fortified site difended by a walls and a trench, site that normally is on a simply defended place". The name derived from the latin "ob pedes", because it was possible to enter only by foot. Sometimes it means a place where people hide, other times a site where people lived permanently. You can neither identify it only with an ancient town nor think that all Celtic oppidae were the same. Sometimes you can't establish if a site was a place where people hided, or a sort of stronghold, or some kind of town.
Caesar - Gallic War - Book VII, 23 - Walls (Latin
The positions of the strongholds were generally of one kind. They were set at the end of tongues and promontories, so as to allow no approach on foot, when the tide had rushed in from the sea--which regularly happens every twelve hours--nor in ships, because when the tide ebbed again the ships would be damaged in shoal water. Both circumstances, therefore, hindered the assault of the strongholds; and, whenever the natives were in fact overcome by huge siege works--that is to say, when the sea had been set back by a massive mole built up level to the town walls--and so began to despair of their fortunes, they would bring close inshore a large number of ships, of which they possessed an unlimited supply, and take off all their stuff and retire to the nearest strongholds, there to defend themselves again with the same advantages of position. They pursued these tactics for a great part of the summer the more easily because our own ships were detained by foul weather, and because the difficulty of navigation on a vast and open sea, with strong tides and few--nay, scarcely any--harbours, was extreme.
A reconstructed Gaulish wall, a.k.a. "Murus Gallicus"
The reconstruction in progress
The top of the reconstructed "Murus Gallicus"
The excavated wall. The dark parts once contained wooden poles.
A model of the entry to the "porte du
There were 3 "quartiers" (districts): one for the craftsmen (-women?), the residential district and the public domain that contained the oval fountain (see top of the photo)
The basin, 10.48 m x 3.65 m, was build halfway the 1st century B.C.E.,
using mathematical and astronomic data.
Channels were used to lead fresh water through the city
Caesar - De bello Gallico - Liber III, 12
Positio et structura oppidorum