Water Cooled water-cooled
An engine which is cooled by antifreeze in contrast with an
Water Cooling System
normal cooling system used on most cars and trucks to keep the
temperature of the engine down to a desirable level; engine heat is
removed via water acting as a coolant which surrounds the cylinders
in a water jacket;
the system typically includes water passages, coolant pump,
thermostat, hoses, and radiator
The area around the cylinder
block and head
or intake manifold that
is left hollow so that water may be admitted for cooling.
A Water Jacket is also
known as "cooling jacket."
Also see cooling
that circulates the liquid through the cooling
system by pumping it from the engine water jackets to the radiator.
The pump is usually mounted at the front of the engine and is driven
by a belt from a pulley on the front end of the crankshaft.
Also called a "coolant pump."
Various processes used to join metal items by heating the areas to
be joined to a molten state and fusing them together. For more
information refer to the Haynes Automotive Welding Manual.
Wheels come in many different designs and usually fall into two
categories: stamped sheet metal and machine castings. Some wheels are
a combination of the two. Generally cast alloy wheels are higher
priced, but have greater strength than stamped sheet metal wheels.
The most common are the stamped sheet metal wheels because they are
less expensive to produce and are adequate for most uses. Some cars
have wire wheels, which consist of three basic components; inner
rings, outer rings, and a series of spokes, which connect the two.
Cast aluminum wheels are very popular, magnesium wheels are also
popular. Both are popular because they are lightweight and strong.
The distance between the centers of the front and rear wheel axles as
viewed from the side of the car.
(Slave) Cylinder The wheel cylinder, also called
the brake cylinder or slave cylinder, is a cylinder in which movable
piston(s) convert hydraulic fluid pressure into mechanical force. The
piston(s) within the cylinder move the brake
or pads against the braking surface of the drum or rotor. There is
one cylinder (or more in some systems) for each wheel. The cylinder
is usually made up of a single-bore cylinder casting, an internal
compression spring, two pistons, two rubber cups or seals, two rubber
boots to prevent entry of dirt and water, and a bleeder screw
(valve). In drum type brakes, the wheel cylinder is fitted with push
rods that extend from the outer side of each piston through a rubber
boot, where they bear against the toe end of each brake
In disc brakes, the wheel cylinder is part of the caliper. As the
brake pedal is depressed, it moves pistons within the master
cylinder, forcing hydraulic brake fluid through the brake lines and
into cylinders at each wheel. The fluid under pressure causes the
wheel cylinders' pistons to move, which forces the shoes or pads
against the brake drums or rotors. Two-way pressure is applied when
the wheel cylinder is activated. Brake fluid enters the center of the
cylinder, forcing the pistons apart. Pushrods at the piston ends then
apply equal pressure to the brake
When pressure is released, a return spring pulls the pistons together.
Lugs The large bolts that go through the wheel rim and
secure it to the wheel hub are known as the wheel lugs. They are
pressed into the hub from the inboard side so they cannot pull out
when tightened. The lug nuts thread onto the wheel lugs, clamping the
wheel rim between the hub and lug nuts. If the wheel lug nuts are not
properly tightened your wheel will come off. Over- tightening,
conversely, can prevent you from being able to change a flat tire.
Well The wheel well is either plastic or metal. Metal wheel
wells are usually part of the body shell. Metal wheel wells
strengthen the structure of the car because of their shape, and
because they are strongly welded to the body shell. Most rear wheel
wells are made of metal. Wheel wells are coated with a rock-proof,
rubberized coating underneath to prevent the rocks kicked up by the
wheels from damaging the metal and making a lot of noise when they
hit. The front wheels are often made of plastic. This is because it
is harder to mount the engine with the front wheel wells in place.
Plastic wheel wells can be removed, and are easier to mount the
engine during the manufacturing of the car.
Most windshields are stationary. They are fixed in place with a
weather-strip made of rubber, which has a groove on the inside and a
groove on the outside. The inside groove holds the glass; the outside
groove holds the metal rim of the windshield opening in place. The
glass "floats" in a plastic sealant that is spread out
between the edge of the glass and the frame of the windshield.
Windshields are made of laminated safety plate glass, which is a
sandwich of glass and clear plastic. The plastic acts as a soft,
protective barrier, keeping the glass in place, if it is struck
during a collision. The glass sticks to the plastic to eliminate
glass from flying around the interior and injuring someone.
cars use an electric pump-operated windshield washer with a positive
displacement washer pump. On some, the motor is placed in the washer
reservoir, while on others, it is driven by a wiper motor. When the
pump is attached to the wiper motor, the four lobe cam starts a
spring-loaded follower, but the pump does not operate all the time
that the wiper motor is running. This is because the pumping
mechanism is locked out and pumping action occurs.
Wipers Most cars have an intermittent wiper system, which
permits the driver to select a delayed wipe that operates only every
few seconds. A representative wiper/washer unit is the wiper
assembly, which incorporates a depressed park system that places the
wiper blades below the hood line in the parked position. The relay
control uses a relay coil, relay armature, and switch assembly. It
controls starting and stopping of the wiper through a latching
mechanism. An electric washer pump is mounted on the gear box section
of the wiper. The wiper unit gear assembly drives it.
and Cables Wires and cables conduct electricity. Usually,
they are made of annealed copper and are used to carry electricity to
the various electrical devices and equipment on passenger cars and
trucks. Wire and cable sizes are expressed by a gauge number, which
indicates the cross-sectional area of the conductor. The larger the
diameter of the wire or cable, the smaller the gauge size number.
Cables are made of several strands of wire. The cross-sectional area
is equal to the circular mil area of a single strand times the number
A drawing portraying the components and wires in a vehicle's
electrical system, using standardized symbols.