European Sovereigns: Fixed Dates

These lists are fixed at specific years; the selection and description of these years is based on The Times Atlas of European History. The first year given is the monarch's date of birth; the second is the year of his or her accession. In cases where a monarch's title had changed (for example, a Prince who became a King), the date of the higher title is given in parentheses.

Imperial Europe
Unification of Germany
Unification of Italy
Treaty of Vienna
Napoleonic Europe
Rise of Napoleon
French Revolution
Rise of Russia
Ascendancy of France
Siege of Vienna
Peace of Westphalia
Eve of Thirty Years War
Wars of Religion

European Sovereigns