Here are charts presenting basic information on the rulers of European kingdoms and empires covering approximately the past one thousand years. My principal source for these lists is the book Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (1991) by Jiri Louda and Michael Maclagan, from which the order of the countries below is also derived.
England/Great Britain (Scotland)
Holy Roman Empire/Austria-Hungary
Bohemia (now Czech Republic)
Prussia/Germany (Bavaria, Hanover, Saxony, Württemberg)
Sardinia/Italy (Two Sicilies)
Serbia/Yugoslavia (including Montenegro)
The royal coats of arms used on these pages were drawn by Arnaud Bunel.
European Sovereigns Today
Nine Kings 1910
Leading Monarchs of the World 1908
Belle Époque Rulers
Selected Royal Anniversaries