There are more images about the Early and Middle Bronze Age on the next site
There are more images about the Late Bronze Age on the next site
There are more foto's about Iron Age findings on the next site (#2)
There are more images about bronze casting techniques on the next site

Index Dutch Bronze Age
Index first farmers in the Netherlands

Dutch pre-Roman Iron Age

(750 B.C.E. - 50 C.E.)

I hereby wish to thank Mr. Sander van Houthum for his help in making this page possible.

All findings are from the Netherlands, unless otherwise specified.

In 1944 Søgårds Mose in Denmark yielded a bog body of which only the arms and legs were preserved. The legs were covered with woolen wrappings, woven in 2/2 twill. Analysis of these wrappings has shown that the cords were originally blue, having been dyed with woad. The find has never been dated, but might date between 360 B.C. and A.D. 240, the date of a body found nearby. (Skive Museum)

Oss, Bronze / Iron Age, bronze spearhead

Oss, Early Iron Age, ± 600 B.C.E., a "king's grave":

iron sword (90 cm) with a wooden handle, inlayed with gold and red coral (!), other various bronze objects, like a small whet-stone.
The man was 40 - 60 years old when he was cremated and put in a situla (see below)
The grave consisted of a low hill about 2 m high, with a ditch around it: 52 m diameter

Note: some people in Oss still knew the legend: "There was a king buried nearby..."

Bronze situlae, 7th - 6th century B.C.E. :
a)Oss, Early Iron Age, 600 B.C.E. (watch explanation above)

In 2009 and 2011, 2 other very rich graves were excavated near Oss. See here and here.


Bronze horsegear, iron pieces of knifes and a piece of a sword, 2 pieces of cloth, all in the Oss situla, a socketed bronze chisel / axe and 2 pieces of woolen cloth

Oss Ussen, Haps type Early Iron Age farm, about 500 B.C.E.
The people lived probably in the area left from the entrance, the sheep in the right area (in the winter)

Oss, Late Iron Age, bronze fibula

River Meuse near Kessel, bronze belt hooks, 1st century B.C.E and decoration rivets of such hooks

"Iron age" farm Oss-Ussen, about 50 C.E. The part top-right was probably a stable for cows, the people lived in the part below left, the walls were made of oak wood, placed in a ditch

17 Fibulae from the "Tempel van Empel" near Den Bosch (Late Iron Age, ± 125 - 75 B.C.E.)

    As many as 400 brooches were found there....

  • 1-5: "Middle La Tène type"

  • 6-13: "Nauheim brooches"

  • 14-17: early "wire brooches"

Tempel van Empel, 70 - 15 B.C.E., gold coins ascribed to the Eburones. There have been found 810 coins near Empel, dating between 70 B.C.E. and 50 C.E. I don't know how many of them were bronze, silver or gold.

Oss, Late Iron Age, iron socketed / winged axe

Oss, Late Iron Age, iron hammer-axe and so called iron "keys"

The surrendering of Vercingetorix to the Roman army (i.e. Caesar) near Alésia, France, 52 B.C.E.
(more information)

Skinned deer, hanging in the 50 C.E. Haps farm, Museum Eindhoven 1998. In 2005, the Haps farm was replaced by a "Sliffert" type.

A volunteer casting bronze in our Museum (a cire-perdue coin):

Two bellows that we used in the Prehistoric Museum to cast bronze (one is sufficient to reach 1200oC!)

Bronze casters from Aubechies, Belgium in action (left founder / caster Léonce)

Their furnace in action

Their casting results

Celtic warrior, Iron Age, probably many Gallic and other European warriors looked about the same in the Iron Age.

Information about the writer / editor

November, 5th 1999