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  GM David Janowski - GM Frank J. Marshall

   Cambridge Springs, PA; (USA)  1904.  


 (This game was chosen as the BEST web-based analysis of 2004, by the CJA.) 


In 1904, mainly to celebrate the completion of one of the world's finest hotels - at a nationally famous spa, (back then, mineral waters were very popular and thought to cure many ailments and diseases); at a small town in Pennsylvania - it was decided to hold "the strongest chess tournament ever held." (With donations and support from some of America's wealthiest men.) Invitations were sent out to all the World's best chess players. (The venue of the event was to be to be the Ryder Hotel, in Cambridge Springs, PA.)  

(Note:  I just received a letter from one of the nation's most respected historians. {He asked that I not use his name, at least for now.} His area of expertise is that of architecturenot  chess. He told me that the Ryder Hotel  (Rider?)  the event that CS1904 was played in - was indeed one of the finest buildings of its type. It had the finest foyer, balcony and lobby ... of any hotel ... IN THE WORLD!!! {Of that time.} It also had the most rooms, (over 500 actual guest rooms); of ANY hotel of its kind in the continental United States! Hopefully, he will soon be publishing a book on this topic. Once the book is published, he said he would give me permission to use a few of the photo's here on my website. Of course the building itself no longer exists, it was {regrettably} later destroyed in a fire, circa 1931. Monday, August 23rd, 2004.)  

In the end, some of the players (like Tarrasch) declined their invitations, but it was still probably the  strongest tournament  ever held on American soil!  EIGHT (8) of the "Old World's" strongest players and EIGHT of the strongest masters in the U.S. assembled to play in a truly world-class venue. Some of the finest chess ever played in America, (at least, prior to 1950); was played at this event. 

Masters like World Champion Emanuel Lasker, Tchigorin, Janowski, Schlechter, or even Pillsbury would have been the pre-tournament favorites. But in a VERY surprising turn of events, a young  Marshall  virtually ran away with this event. In the final tally, he scored an incredible eleven wins and only four (!!!) draws - an incredible score that has few, if any!, equals in modern tournament practice -  to run away with the tournament. 

Later - when asked by a newspaper reporter - to name his best or most memorable game, he cited several struggles. In particular he noted this contest, because it virtually guaranteed him clear first place. 

Cambridge Springs - April 25th/May 19th 1904
International Chess Tournament
                      1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1. Marshall   * 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1      13.0
2. Lasker      * 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1      11.0
3. Janowsky  0 0 * 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1        11.0
4. Marco      * 1 0 1 0 1 1 1    9.0
5. Showalter 0 * 1 1 1 0 1   8.5
6. Schlechter 0 1 0 * 0 0 1 1 1     7.5
7. Chigorin    0 0 0 0 1 * 1 0 1 1 1 0 1        7.5
8. Pillsbury    0 1 0 0 * 0 1 0 1 1     7.0
9. Mieses      0 0 0 1 0 0 1 * 1 1 1 0 1 0         7.0
10. Fox         0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 * 1 0 1 1 0 0          6.5
11. Teichmann 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 * 1 0 1 1      6.5
12. Napier    0 0 0 0 0 1 0 * 0 1 1        5.5
13. Lawrence 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 * 0      5.5
14. Barry       0 0 0 0 0 1 0 * 0 1     5.0
15. Hodges   0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 * 0          5.0
16. Delmar    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 *         4.5

It was NOT my idea to annotate this game! The idea really belongs to Mr. Steven Etzel, who has the extremely nice site for this  tournament(Please check it out.) 

I do have a long history with this game. I saw it many years ago, when I was just a teenager. (I think a friend or the library had a book on Marshall.) Anyway, I really devoured that whole book, and I was impressed by several of the games in there. (I also gave a chess lecture and a simul at a small town in Alabama once. This was the game I lectured on - I didn't pick it, I almost always allow a paying client to pick the game I am going to analyze and give a talk on. They picked two games of Marshall's. I think the other was his 'quickie' win over Pillsbury.)  I was also writing a book on this tournament, but sadly when I had my big computer crash in February of 2003, I lost nearly all of those files.  

Anyway I was very pleased to see all the progress that Steve had done with his site. I told him - that if he would like me to - I would make him a 'present.'  I offered to analyze one of Marshall's games, {from Cambridge Springs, 1904}; that I had not done before or was not currently posted on any of my web pages. {I did tell him I would not do the Pillsbury game ...  I considered Pillsbury a dying man and I did not consider that clash truly representative of Pillsbury at his very best.}  Anyway, Steve wound up picking this game  ...  in retrospect, I would have been MUCH better off doing some other game!!! (hee-hee, ha-ha)

Many thanks to: 
# 1.)  Thomas ______ (he asked I not use his last name); ... of a small town just outside Cleveland, Ohio. Tom spent many hours pouring through the  "John G. White"  collection in the Cleveland Public Library. He e-mailed me (and even USPS mailed me) literally hundreds of documents, (Actually photo-copies, NOT the originals!!);  and <tid-bits> of information. 

# 2.)  A  Mr. J. Halder, (spelling? I could barely read his handwriting!); who is a big fan of my web sites. He photo-copies a ton of documents and put them in a sturdy box and shipped them to Florida all the way from ... ... ... ENGLAND!!  Needless to say, this is way, way above and beyond the call of duty!!!!!!!  Thanks! 

# 3.)  A special thanks to ALL the friends and {former} students who gallantly answer the call when I ask for copies or information. And a special thanks to  ______  for copying  an entire book  and mailing it to me!! 
(This person {or persons} asked that I not use their name.) 

# 4.)  A VERY special thanks to  Steven Etzel  who was kind enough to  PROOF-READ  my original ChessBase document. Steve caught many errors. (All my wretched mis-spellings!) Additionally, he had dozens of suggestions about improving the notes to the game. ("You have to add a note here, otherwise the reader will not understand why you gave this move an exclam," says Steve. Of course I knew I would hate him when it came time to format this page! Just kidding, Steve!!)  Again, many thanks(To everyone.) 

In my own opinion, this game is not as thoroughly appreciated as it might be. It was only AFTER I taught this TITANIC STRUGGLE a few times on the Internet to some "average" chess players, that I began to realize just what an incredible chess game this is. It gets a (full) TEN for fighting content!! 

Normally - almost every line I give ends in an evaluation. (symbol) In this game, I did not do that - often times it was unnecessary, as Janowsky sacrificed material for the attack. If his attack failed, he was going to lose because of his material deficit. His approach was dictated by his standing in the tournament ... I believe he was TWO full points behind Marshall when this game was played. Even a draw would not help him to gain ground on Marshall, which is exactly what he was trying to do. 

NOTE:  See the very fine article in the August, 2004  'Chess Life,'  page no. # 11. (About the Centennial Event.)   

There are also two very fine articles in the  Spring and Summer (August) 2004  issues of:  "The PennsWoodPusher."  
(The official - quarterly - publication of the  Pennsylvania State Chess Federation.  [website]   
 {Current} Editor: Neil Brennan, 333 Lancaster Ave; Apt. # 1003, Malvern, PA. 19355-1832.)  

  Click  HERE  to see an explanation of the symbols that I use when annotating a game.  


   Click  HERE  to see this game in an (un-annotated) JS re-play format.   


 D. Janowski (2675) - F.J. Marshall (2564) 
Super-GM Tournament  (Invitational)
Cambridge Springs, PA;  (USA)
(Round # 11),  11.05.1904  (May 11th, 1904) 

[A.J. Goldsby I]



This is the game that ... "sealed the deal" ... for Marshall, and guaranteed him a clear 
first place in the tournament. 

Marshall would have probably been content with just a draw, but Janowski had to have 
a win in order to have even a shot at first place. (All or nothing.) 


The ratings here are those of Jeff Sonas, I have only added 30 points to both players. This was 
done in order to make their ratings a closer approximation of modern (post-2000) players. 

One thing that struck me greatly in when I began annotating this exciting, but difficult struggle was ... 
how many players and authors have gotten this game completely wrong. It seems most writers along 
the way were willing to simply reproduce old work without even bothering to check it critically.


The game starts as a double-QP opening.   

1.d4 d5;  2.c4 e6;  3.Nc3 c5!?;  {Diagram?}  
The full-blown Tarrasch System to combat the QP Opening. 
This system - for many years - was not seen at the highest level. 
(Thanks mainly to the work done by the one and only Akiba Rubinstein.) 

When one great player used this line against Tigran Petrosian, all one famous 
GM (Bent Larsen) could say was: "Petrosian is losing the World's Championship - 
if he cannot defeat this particular variation." 

This line was resurrected by many strong players - the first key player to consistently 
use this line was the very respected GM, Boris Spassky. 

I will tell you a funny story. When I was VERY young, I got a book on this line and began 
studying it ... with the full intent of playing it. But a fairly strong player at the Pensacola 
Chess Club, (about 1700 strength); told me the line was completely UN-SOUND and 
strongly urged me to take up something else. (I did.) Only when a young Kasparov {again}
resuscitated this line in his quest for the World Championship - see his Candidates Match 
versus Vassily Smyslov - did this opening finally begin to gain real credibility. 


     [ The  'Main Line'  of the Queen's Gambit Declined runs as follows: 
        3...Nf64.Bg5 Nbd75.Nf3 c6;   6.e3 Be77.Rc1 0-0;   8.Bd3 dxc4;  
        9.Bxc4,  "+/="  {Diagram?} and White maintains a slight edge. 

       This variation is at least 250 years old. The first recorded example is from the early 1800's. 
       (There are literally thousands of examples in my database of this position.)  

       The most recent example I could find in the database is: 
       GM Giorgi Kacheishvilli (2603) - T. Petrosian (2260)
       BCSA Open Tournament / Batumi, Georgia, (RUS); 2003.  

       Of course the QGD became very popular at the Master level just after the turn 
       of the 20th Century. (ALL the games of the 1927 World Championship Match 
       began with the moves, 1.d4, d5. !!!) ]   



A sensible move, if not the sharpest play or the line that theory (today) 
considers to be correct.
(REMINDER: This contest was played nearly 100 years ago!!!) 


     [ The most modern line is:  >/=  4.cxd5! exd55.Nf3 Nc66.g3 Nf6;  
        7.Bg2 Be78.0-0 0-09.Bg5, "+/="  {Diagram?}  
        and White has a slight advantage, as in the game: 
        A. Rubinstein - S. Tarrasch;  Karlsbad, (GER);  1923. 

        [ See also MCO-14;  page # 436, col.'s # 1-4  and notes # (a. - s.). ] ]  


4...Nc6;  5.Nf3 Nf6;     
We now have transposed from a 'complete'  Tarrasch  ... to the lines 
known as  "The Semi-Tarrasch."
(I prefer the name, the Tarrasch Symmetrical System, after its creator.) 

     [ Maybe  5...cxd4!? ]   


Truly amazing. 

I was at a U.S. Open just a few years ago. There was an IM there who has written a lot 
of books and has a column in the USCF chess magazine. I tried to draw him into a discussion 
about some of the games of the older masters. His reply was something like: "Those games 
are not worth studying. The openings are simply atrocious." 

Here Janowski - a player known for his tactics - comes up with a HIGHLY POSITIONAL 
treatment of this whole variation. This is also the line theory considers to be correct today. 

"Obviously intending to play QPxBP (d4xc5), when if Black responds with ...BxBP (...Bxc5); 
  Janowski will simply play P-QN4 (b4) with advantage." 
   - GM Frank J. Marshall  (The American Chess Bulletin.)  

      [ Possible also was:  6.Be2!?, "+/=" ]  


6...Ne4!?; (TN?)  (Maybe - '!')  {Diagram?}    
"Crossing White's plan."  - F.J. Marshall.

Some authors have suggested that this ingenious Knight leap might be unsound, yet no one 
has ever clearly demonstrated anything resembling a refutation. (And I like it.) {A.J.G.}

   '!' - GM Andrew Soltis.   
   (Soltis praises this move and calls  it a theoretical novelty!)   


     [ According to theory it is better for Black to play:  
        >/=  6...a6; ('!') 
       This is considered best by accepted opening theory.  


          ( Instead, one very respected volume gives the line:      
            7.b3!? cxd4!?; 8.exd4 Be7; 9.c5 b6; 10.cxb6 Nd7;       
            11.Be2 a5!?; 12.Nb5 Qxb6;  {Diagram?}       
            The end of the column.      
            13.Bf4! 0-0;  14.0-0!?,  ("+/=")  {Diagram?}   
            MCO considers this position to be better for White.     

            GM B. Gelfand - GM V. KramnikSanghi Nagar, 1994.     

            [See MCO-14;  page # 432, column # 102, and note # (z.). ] )     


        7...Bxc58.b4 Ba79.Bb2 0-010.Qc2,  "+/="  {Diagram?}  
        White has a slight edge, according to a new book on the Queen's Gambit Declined.  

        A good example is:  
        GM Levon Aronian (2581) - GM Lubomir Ftacnik (2605);  Bundesliga 0203, (GER) 

        ('Bundesliga' is the popular German League/Team Championship. Many of the best GM's 
          play in this - their season runs from the end of one year to just before the spring of the 
          following year; here 2002 - 2003.) ]    



Janowski wisely continues to develop. 

     [ The great Polish Master could have gotten into an inferior 
        opening after the moves:  
       7.Nxe4!? dxe48.Nd2!? cxd49.Nxe4 Qh4!; "=/+"  {Diagram?}    
       and Black is already a little better in this position. ]    


7...Nxc3;  ('!')  {Diagram?}     
Marshall decides to give Janowski doubled pawns.  

     [ Perhaps it was possible for Marshall to try:  7...f5!?{D?}  
        with a wild position? ]   


Both sides continue to develop, White avoids un-doubling his Pawns, as after 
c4xd5, e6xd5;  Black's light-squared Bishop has been freed.  
8.bxc3 Bd6;  9.0-0!? 0-0;  10.Qe2 Na5!;  {See the diagram, below.}     
Marshall says this is the best move because it hits c4 AND b3 ... 
and, of course, Tarrasch agrees with him.  

   '!' - GM Andrew Soltis.  



  marsh_jan-vs-m_pos1.gif, 42 KB



This is a very nice move, and if Janowski were smart, he would look for a way to equalize - 
or risk getting a very bad game. 

     [ Black could also play:  10...Qf6!?{Diagram?}
        or even  10...dxc4;  "="  {Diagram?}  with an equal game. ]   


11.e4!?,  {Diagram?}   
Typical Janowski  ...  "full steam ahead, and damn the torpedoes." 
That sort of thing. But maybe he should (already) be looking for a drawing line.  


     [ Maybe  >/=  11.cxd5!?,  "="  {Diagram?}  
        looking for equality? 
        (Then e4 would even give White a slight initiative.);   


       Probably the best line was: 
       >/=  11.Nd2! Qh4!?12.h3!? dxc413.Nxc4 Nxc4;  
       14.Bxc4 a6;  "="  {Diagram?}  with a fairly balanced position. ]   



Now Black wins the Bishop-pair. 
(Something that must have bugged Janowski ... he supposedly loved having the two B's.)  
White will then advance his KP which threatens Black's King, forcing Marshall to swap 
off one of his Bishops.  
11...dxc4;  12.Bxc4 Nxc4;  13.Qxc4 Qc7;   
Black defends the c5-square.  

     [ Maybe  13...cxd4was also possible? ]   


14.Qd3 Bd7;  15.e5!? Be7;  16.Ng5!?,   
(White has a small threat in this position!) 
In searching through the database, I discovered Janowski had a lot of 
success with an attack based on Bishops of opposite color. But maybe 
Bishop-to-g5 was a little more promising here.  

     [ Maybe  16.Bg5!?, "+/="  instead. ]    


16...Bxg5;  17.Bxg5 Rfc8;  18.Qg3,    
This threatens Bf6 winning.  


  Now White tries to generate some attacking chances based on the presence    
  of opposite-colored Bishops. (These types of positions tend be either terribly     
  dull  ...  or extremely sharp. Often times one player can attack a certain color   
that his opponent cannot really defend.)     


     [ Or  18.Rab1 h6; "=" ]    


18...Kh8;  {Box?}  {See the diagram just below.}    
Black has easily parried the threat. 

Now Tarrasch points out that White should probably play Rfc1. But by 
continuing to try so hard to win, he is only setting himself up for a loss.



  marsh_jan-vs-m_pos2.gif, 41 KB



But I think the great German teacher and writer, (Tarrasch); is really missing the point
A draw here is as good as a loss as far as Janowski was concerned. 
(He bragged before this game he would put down the young, upstart American.)  

   '!' - GM Andrew Soltis.    
(I don't understand this, this move is completely forced!)  


     [ Black should not allow:  </=  18...cxd4?19.Bf6! g6 []; 
        20.cxd4!  This is (probably) best.  

           ( Or 20.Qh4!? Qc5; 21.Rad1!, "+/=" )    

       20...Qb821.Qh4 Rc422.Rac1! Rxc123.Rxc1 Qf8;  
       24.Rc5!, ''  ("+/")  {Diagram?}  with a continuing attack.  
       (Although Black has some drawing chances ... due to the presence 
        of the opposite-colored Bishops.)  ]    



White plans to try and bring this Rook over to the King-side  ...  
to strengthen his already flagging assault.  

     [ Maybe  19.Rfd1!?, {Diagram?}  is a little better? ]   


19...cxd4;  20.cxd4 Qc3!;    
This is NOT the move most players or computers pick here, but it is 
almost certainly the best move. 

Black insures domination of the c-file, and also offers an exchange of the 
Queens - after which, it would be practically impossible for White to win.

     [ Most boxes like:  20...Bc6!?;  "~"  {Diagram?} 
        The position is rather unclear. ]  


White had to try something like this here. 

Tarrasch once said of Janowski - that he understood HOW to attack as well as any man 
that ever lived. It was just that he did not always understand WHEN he should go on the 
offensive. (A truly penetrating and perceptive comment.) 

     [ </=  21.Re3 ???,  21...Qxa1+;  and mates. ]  


This looks simple enough, but it was not the only move for Black. 

     [ Was the move:  21...Be8!?{Diagram?}  
        worth a try? (In order to try not to lose another tempo - as 
        compared to what happened in the game.) ]   


22.Rab1 b6;  ('!')  {Diagram?}  
The simplest ... and also the best, at least in this position. 

     [ Black could have also played:  22...Bc6!?{Diagram?}  
        with a reasonable position. ]   


White continues with his all-out hostile efforts on the King-side. 


     [ Tarrasch points out that R-K3 is a bad idea here for White.  I.e.,  
        </=  23.Re3? Qc1+24.Re1{Diagram?}  
        This is forced.  

          ( Of course not:  24.Rxc1?? Rxc1+; 25.Re1 Rxe1#. )    

        24...Qxf4;  "="  {Diagram?}  
        and Black has absolutely nothing to fear in this position. 

          ( Maybe  >/=  24...Qxa3!?;  "=/+" )     


       A move like:  23.Ra1, "~"  {Diagram?}  is just an admission that White's 
       attack is over ... and definitely was not the great Janowski's style. ]   



"The execution of White's attacking plans forces him to allow the massacre 
  of his Q-side, so that Marshall obtains two passed Pawns there." 
  - GM Siegbert Tarrasch.  


     [ Interesting was:  23...Qd3!? ]  


24.h5 h6;    
This is a wise precaution. (And practically forced.)  

    '!' - GM Andrew Soltis.  



     [ To show how easily Black gets into trouble here, I offer a line 
        that was played by one of my Internet students in 1996:  
        24...Rc2?!25.h6 g6!?26.Qh4{Diagram?}  
        This is the correct way to pursue the attack here.  

          ( After   26.Qf6!? Qf8;  "~"  {Diagram?} it is not clear that the first       
             player has accomplished anything. )       

        26...Rac8??27.Be7! Qd3?!28.Qf6,  ("+/-")  {Diagram?}  
        and Black cannot prevent mate.  


       The funny thing was that this particular student's rating was over 1800 USCF.  
       (And he had used a lot of time to find his moves in this line.) ]   



White really has no choice, the sacrifice on h6 would be completely unsound at this point.  

     [ After the moves:  </=   25.Bxh6? gxh626.Qxh6 Qf827.Qg5+ Qg7; 
        28.Qf4 Bc629.g3 Bd5;  "/+"  ("-/+")  {Diagram?}  
        White's game is nearly resignable. ]   


The correct move says Tarrasch, who also points out that Marshall 
had to prevent Re3. 


     [ Black can easily fall under an attack if he is careless:  
        </=  25...Be8!?; ('?!')   26.Re3 Qa227.Rbb3 Qa1+!?;  
        28.Kh2 a5?{Diagram?}  
        Thinking about promoting a Pawn.   

          ( Probably better is:  >/=  28...Rc1!; "/+" {Diagram?}      
            & Black is clearly for choice. )      

       29.Rg3, ''   ("+/")  {Diagram?}  
       and White's King-side assault has reached frightening proportions. 


       After the moves:  
       </=  25...Qc3!?26.Re3! Qc2!27.Rbe1! a5!?    
       28.Bf6!!; "/\"  {Diag?}  White's attack really heats up. ]    


White now tries to maneuver his Rook over to the King-side. But it is difficult, as he has 
to get his Queen out of the way first, and has other problems to deal with as well. 
26.Qg4 Rac8;  27.Kh2!,   {See the diagram, just below.}   
Avoiding an exchange of Rooks on the c1-square. 



  marsh_jan-vs-m_pos3.gif, 41 KB



The game is building to a crisis point, White will shed Pawns without any 
care - concentrating all of his energies on attacking his opponent's King!   


     [  If  27.Bf6!?,  then simply  27...Qf8; "/+"  {Diagram?}  
         (Black is clearly much better.);   


        But NOT:  </=  27.Re3? Rxe328.fxe3 Rc1+29.Rxc1,   
        29...Qxc1+30.Kh2 Kf8!;  "/+"  {Diagram?}     
        after which Black - effectively - has a won game.  


        Also  NOT  satisfactory for White was the following continuation: 
        27.Ra1!? Qf8;  {Box?}  {Diagram?}    
        Black must guard against the possibility of White playing Bf6. 
        (Which would win if Black removes his Queen form the a3-f8 diagonal.) 

        28.Rxa7 R8c729.Rea1!? b5;  "="  {Diagram?}   
        Black has complete equality ... and more importantly, White's King-side 
        attack has fizzled. 

        {Editorial comment:  REMEMBER ... a draw did NOT help Janowski ... 
          only a win would enable him to have a chance of catching Marshall here.} 



This is a really good move, (!) Black helps defend his King (g7) 
and also gets the Queen out of the way. 
(In some lines, White had the threat of Ra1 followed by Rxa7.)
But I was still surprised to see that Soltis lavished so much praise on 
basically a fairly obvious (and relatively forced) move.
{And failed to really appreciate some of the more subtle plays by Black.} 

   '!' - GM Andrew Soltis.   


     [ </= 27...Bc6?28.Ra1, "+/=" ]    


28.Re4 Bc6!?;    
This looks both reasonable and also promising. 
(Black plans on bringing his Bishop to the nearly impregnable d5-square.) 
But several writers have pointed out that Bishop-to-Rook's-Five!! ...  
(immediately), was an improvement, (and a fairly significant one, at that);  
over the game. 

Soltis condemns this move, (...Bc6)  but his analysis of this game is very poor 
and can therefore be ignored. 

   (I also must make a point here, that I hate the "super-modern" school of annotation.     
    What I mean is when a player misses an exclam move, he is automatically rewarded    
    with a full question mark. See the book,   " G.K. on 'My Great Predecessors,' "    
by  GM G. Kasparov  for hundreds of examples of this kind of approach to older      
    chess games.)       


     [ A much better move would have been:  >/=  28...Ba4!{Diagram?}  
        and Black has a large advantage.  - GM Siegbert Tarrasch. ]   



29.Rf4 Kh7;   
This was forced, White now threatened Bf6, followed by f3, 
and 'stacking up' on the g-file. (Q-to-g3 and R-g4.)  

     [ The continuation of:  
        29...Bd530.Ra1 a5;  "/+"  {Diagram?} 
        is not quite as accurate  ...  the second player will be required to play ...Kh7; 
        (or even ...Kh8); sooner or later.  (To avoid the risk of losing.) ]   


30.f3,  {Diagram?}   
Janowski definitely gets high marks here for his enthusiasm and his persistence. 

 "In order to play Qg3 and Rg4."  - Siegbert Tarrasch.  

     [ Or  30.Ra1!? a5{Diagram?}  is practically winning for Black. ]   


30...Bd5;  31.Qg3 Bc4;  32.Ra1 a5;  33.Rg4,    
White is trying to get something going.  

      [ The continuation of:  33.Rb1?! b534.Ra1? a4; "/+"  {Diagram?}  
         is a complete waste of time for David Janowsky. ]   


The Bishop is most useful on this diagonal here ... as an obvious and 
added defense to the beleaguered Black Monarch. 

   '!' - Georg Marco.   '!' - GM Andrew Soltis.   


34.Bf6, ('!')  {See the diagram just below.}  
"White has finally obtained the desired attacking position."  - GM Siegbert Tarrasch. 



  marsh_jan-vs-m_pos4.gif, 41 KB



He goes on to comment that the move Bf6 is the only way of really continuing the attack, 
but it does present real and definite danger (!) to Frank J. Marshall. (our hero)  

   '!' - GM Andrew Soltis.   

The position after Bf6 is one the computers completely fail to appreciate. 
White's ONLY hope is to attack - passive and routine play will simply lose. 
And even advanced students fail to grasp the amount of danger that is 
presented to the Black King. 

(This is one of those ... very rare ... positions where I can defeat most of my students ... 
  ... NO MATTER WHICH COLOR PIECES {or which side} ... I play!) 

     [ 34.Rf4!?,  - Olomouc. ]    


Marshall takes up the gauntlet.  

     [ Maybe playable was:  34...g6!?; "=/+"  {Dm?}  
        but Marshall's method is better. ]   


This is forced  ...  but now White threatens Rg7+ and Qf4 winning in some lines.  

     [ 35.Re1?? Bf5; "-/+" ]    


35...Rd8!;  (Maybe - '!!')  {Diagram?}    
An extremely good defensive maneuver Black will meet Rg7+, 
...Kh8;  Qf4, with ...Qd6; pinning White's Queen to his King and 
forcing the exchange. 

   '!' - GM Siegbert Tarrasch.   '!' - G. Marco. 
   '!' - GM Andrew Soltis. 

     [ Possible was:  35...e5!?; "=/+" ]   


36.Re1 Kh8;  37.Re5!?,  {Diagram?}   
  "Up to this point, Janowski has conducted the attack under adverse conditions 
    with the greatest skill,  ... "  - Siegbert Tarrasch.  (The book of the tournament.)  

He goes on to say that Janowski should have played Q-B4! While this might have been true, 
(It is definitely a better/trickier try by White.); it would NOT have changed the end result ... 
not one iota. (I think Soltis simply mimics Tarrasch here.)  


     [ One author gives the following continuation: 
        >/=  37.Qf4 Rd538.Re5 Rxe539.Qxe5! Rb3!;   40.Qe3{Diagram?}  
        This is probably best. ('!')  

           ( Or  40.Rg7!? Rb5; 41.Qf4 Rxh5+; 42.Kg1 Bg6; "+/-" )     

       40...Bf5!41.Qxb3 Bxg442.fxg4!? Qd6+43.g3 Qxd4;  "-/+"  {Diag?} 
       and Black should win.  - GM Siegbert Tarrasch.  

       (He claims that White has some {slight} drawing chances here, but a computer 
        analysis reveals that White's game is lost, and completely without hope.) ]   



37...Bf538.Rg7 Rxd4{See the diagram ... just below.}     
"This repulses the attack by White, as Janowsky's Queen now has no avenue 
  to attack KR6."  - Tarrasch. (Schach Zeitung.)  



  marsh_jan-vs-m_pos5.gif, 41 KB



The defense is still not easy. I have tried this position on a few of my lower-rated students, 
and most greatly under-estimate the number of threats to the Black King here. 

39.Rb5,  {Diagram?}   
"White has no real means of continuing the attack, in fact he can hardly move any of his pieces!  
 All the more astonishing is the ingenuity which Janowski displays in creating something out of 
 nothing and in placing obstacles in his opponent's path."  - Siegbert Tarrasch
 (The Reinfeld Book of this tourney.)  

     [ He could also try  39.Re1!?{Diagram?}  
        but the position looks very bad for White - at least to me.  
        {A.J.G.} ]  


This is excellent, and the move  ...Rc6;  was (also)  good enough to win. 
(But it is not better than the text as two other authors claim. The computers 
 see very little difference between the two lines. In fact, the great Siegbert 
 Tarrasch awards this move an exclam!)  

   '!' - GM Siegbert Tarrasch.   
   '!' - George Marco.  
   '!' - GM Andrew Soltis.   


     [ After the moves:  39...Rc6!?40.f4 Rcd641.Re5 Rd2;  "-/+"  {Diag?}  
        Black is also (obviously) winning. ]    


"White must prepare a flight square for his King, and this is about the only move 
  available for that purpose."  - GM Siegbert Tarrasch(The Reinfeld book.)  



     [ Possible was:  40.Kg1!?{Diagram?} 
        and now ...Rc1+; followed by ...R/c1-c4 is just a repetition of moves. 
        (But Black probably has an improvement over this!);  


       One student grabbed the pawn here, but after the moves:  
       </=  40.Rxb6?? Rh4+41.Kg1?! Qc5+42.Kf1 Rh1+43.Ke2 Rc2#. 
       was quick to admit he had made a terrible error. ]   



40...Qd6;  41.g4 Qxe5+;  42.Rxe5 Bxg4!;  {Diagram?}    
"The strongest continuation," says Tarrasch, as it forces an exchange of Rooks. 
(It is also correct according to the formula that Capablanca would later devise for 
 'won'  positions, i.e. that the defender should not be afraid to simplify and even give 
 back material. One Pawn is often sufficient to gain a victory!)  

   '!' - GM Andrew Soltis.   

     [ After the moves:  42...Bd3!?43.Rxf7 a4?('??')  {Diagram?} 
       (This is a natural-looking move, yet it is also a mistake,  ...  
        but I do it to demonstrate the VERY REAL DANGER that Marshall faced, 
        and how one mis-step could have cost him the game.)  

            ( Best is probably:  >/=  43...Rc8; "/+"  (Maybe "-/+")  {Diagram?}     
              and Black should  {eventually} win this game. )      

       44.Rf8+ Kh745.Rxe6 Rc2+46.Kg3 Re247.Rxb6!,  "+/-"  {Diag?}  
        ... it is  WHITE  who is winning this position!!! (White's threat is simply  
       R/b6-to-b8, with a mate to follow. It is difficult to see how Black can now 
       prevent this.) ]     


In his notes - which were later put in the magazine, "The American Chess Bulletin," 
Janowski AND Marshall stated they felt taking with the pawn ... and keeping Black's 
King boxed in ... was the only real hope for White. 

It is a very simple idea ... when you are ahead in material, you want (and need) to 
exchange pieces. Here Janowski MUST try to keep the Rooks on the board. 

     [ After the moves:  </=  43.Rxg4?! Rxg444.fxg4 Rxg4;  ("-/+")  {Diag?}  
        Black is simply winning. (If Rb5, then simply ...Rb4.) ]   


Now we are in two-Rook or a double-Rook ending. These endings are  EXTREMELY 
complex  ...  even the world's very best players, {"Super GM's") ... have gone sadly astray 
in this difficult type of end-game.

Marshall now shows that he has evolved a fairly simple and effective plan ... 
... to win the game


All my students want to grab the pawn here, but this is better. 
(Benko gives ...Rd2+ here, but that is really only a transposition.)


     [ After the moves:  43...Rxg4!?44.Rxf7 Rg8!;  "/+"  {Diagram?}  
        Black is still clearly better. (And possibly still winning.)  ]   



44.Kg3 [],  {Diagram?}   
This is obviously  forced,  yet the great Siegbert Tarrasch awards the move an exclam
This might seem a bit of a paradox until you realize he is simply praising Janowsky's 
will and his ability to continue this magnificent struggle. 

   '!' - GM Siegbert Tarrasch.  (and ... '!' - GM Andrew Soltis.)   

"White's Rook is stalemated and the hostile RP cannot be stopped. One would think that White 
  is just on the point of resigning, but Janowski still continues to find something. Now he is going 
  to (try and) force checkmate  ...  with his King!"  - GM Siegbert Tarrasch.  
  (The Reinfeld book again.)  


     [ Of course not:  </=  44.Kg1?? Rd1+45.Re1 Rxe1#{Diagram?}  
        (A relatively simple mate.) 


       Also very bad is:  </=  44.Kh3?? Rd3+45.Kh4 Rh2#{Diagram?} 
       (Yet another "edge-of-the-board" mate!)  ]   



44...Rd3+;  45.Kf4 Rc4+?!;  (Probably - '?')    {See the diagram below.}     
This move is given without any comment by Reinfeld ... or anyone else, for that matter. 
But the move - while still winning - is  NOT  the best move here! 

In Marshall's defense, he may have been a little short of time here. 
(The local newspaper column reported he used a lot of time "extricating himself" 
  from Janowsky's attack.)



  marsh_jan-vs-m_pos6.gif, 41 KB



The idea of ...Rf2+; followed by the simple  ...RxP/f6; is much superior. 
Marshall may have seen his Rook hanging, but missed that White's Rook is also 
'en prise' at the end of this rather tricky line. 

   '!' - GM Andrew Soltis.   

I was VERY shocked to see that GM Andy Soltis gave this move an exclam ... but (also) 
did NOT give the move any commentary at all. (I consulted Soltis's book  LAST  when I 
was annotating this game!! See game # 36, beginning on page number 64.)

It also appears that G. Marco gave this move an exclam, but my copy is of a very poor quality, 
and I cannot be completely sure. 




     [ It was obviously better for Black to play the sequence:  
        >/=  45...Rf2+; ('!')  46.Ke4 Rd1!!;    {Diagram?}   
       Another VERY intricate move, and one that is not all that easy to see 
       over the board. The point is that Marshall now threatens a Rook check 
       from behind, (e1); followed by a Rook check on f4, WINNING White's 
       Rook on e5! 

       The other point here is that if White tries  47.Ke3, simply 47...R/f2-f1!; 
       renews the threat to win the Rook. (ALSO! - don't forget that after the  
       capture of the White Pawn on the f6-square, White's Rook on g7 is    
       trapped and has no moves.)    


           ( Marshall may have only calculated:  
              46...Rxf647.g5!?{Diagram?}  with continuing complications. 
              (See the second line, just below.) 


                 ( White's best chance may be:  47.Rxf7 Rxf7; 48.Kxd3 Re7;     
                    49.Kc4 Kg7; 50.Kb5 Kf6;  but Black should win. ("-/+");       


                   After the moves:  47.g5 Kxg7!; 48.gxf6+ Kxf6; 49.Kxd3,        
                   49...Kxe5; "-/+" {Diagram?}  White should simply resign.       
                   (I am betting this is what Marshall may have missed, especially 
                    if he was short of time.) )   )        


       (Returning to the main analysis line that began with ...Rf2+; instead of  45...Rc4+. 
        White's next move is relatively forced, otherwise Black plays ...RxP/f6; and White's 
        Rook on g7 is lost.)  

       47.Rxf7 Re1+;  48.Kd4 Rf4+;  49.Kc3 Rxe5;  ("-/+")  {Diagram?}    
        White's position here is hopeless. (He is a Rook down!)  ]   




The next few moves look to be relatively best. 
46.Re4 Rxe4+;  47.Kxe4 Rd7;    
This is forced. Now Marshall's plan has been revealed. He simply plans to shove his 
Queen-side Pawns up the board and win the game. Janowski is very hard-pressed to 
find a method of generating counterplay. (White's Rook is bottled up.) 


48.Kf4 a4;  49.g5 hxg5+;  {Diagram?}   
Black should not allow White to play the move, Pawn/g5-to-g6. 

     [ Not  </=  49...a3?;  as  50.g6!; "<=>" ('cp')  {Diagram?} 
       gives White tremendous play. 

        ( I.e.  50.g6! a2?; 51.Rxf7; "+/-")  ]   


50.Kxg5 a3;  51.Kh6 Ra7!;  {See the diagram - just below.}    
The reason for this move is NOT  at all immediately obvious! 

   '!' - GM Andrew Soltis.  



    This position is the most important one of the whole R+P endgame.  (marsh_jan-vs-m_pos7.gif, 41 KB)

  (The key position for the whole of the R+P endgame.)  



It is hard to believe that the reason for this move is to provide a (later) 
flight square for Marshall's King!  


     [ After the (seemingly, very natural) moves:  
        </=  51...a2?;  (Really - '??')  {Diagram?}  
        Believe it or not, this seemingly harmless pawn push throws 
        away Black's win!!!  

        52.Rh7+ Kg853.Rg7+ Kh8This is forced!  


        ( Of course not:  </= 53...Kf8??;  54.Kh7!; "+/-"  {Diagram?}     
          and Black will be mated!!      
          {About a dozen of my students fell into this trap, and/or did      
            not see this coming.} )     


        54.Rh7+ Kg855.Rg7+,  ("=")  {Diagram?}    
        the game is drawn by a simple repetition of the position. 
         - GM Siegbert Tarrasch. ]    



52.Rh7+ Kg8;  53.Rg7+ Kf8;  54.Kh7 Ke8[];   
This is naturally forced.  

     [ Not  </=   54...a2 ???55.Rg8# ]   


Both sides now hurry to promote. 
(Soltis gives White's 55th move here an exclam - believe it or not.) 

To me, this is somewhat artificial, without this move, White should resign.

55.Kg8, a2;  56.h6, a1=Q;  {See the diagram just below.}    



  marsh_jan-vs-m_pos8.gif, 41 KB



57.h7,   {Diagram?}  
This is the only (reasonable) move that White can make.

This is such a complex ending, it is easy to miss a trick or a tactic, 
especially if you are trying to rush through it. 

"An astonishing position for a game upon which the first prize hung." 
  - GM Andrew Soltis.   

     [ </=  57.Kh7?? Qxf6; "-/+" ]   


Now Marshall has a nearly problem-like win.  

This is good enough for victory, (But  ..."too routine," says Tarrasch.); 
so it is hard to really criticize it.  
(And it finally turns the trick ... in the very end.) 


     [ Black had a VERY interesting win, but even as a Master; it is not all that easy to 
       find some of these particular moves: 

       57...Ra8!('!!')  {Diagram?}  
       GM Andy Soltis  gave this move TWO exclams ... and for once, 
       I am  inclined to agree with him! 

       58.Rxf7 Qg1+!{Diagram?}  
       At first, this looks rather pointless. 
       (I checked this line with about five of my students, NONE found this 
        sequence of moves!) 

       59.Rg7[]  Qxg7+!!; {Diagram?}  
I think that this move is really and truly shocking.  (Very much so.) 

       After you think about it a bit, you will see that this move was - and is - forced. 

          (The moves: </= 60.fxg7??,  60...Ke7#;  {Diagram?}     
             are good - only for a laugh.)    

       This follow-up was hard to see, at least in my opinion. 

       61.Kg6 Rxh7!{Diagram?}  
       The last "sneak" ... in a very tricky and difficult line! 
       (I think you have to  < see >  this position ... 'in your head'  ... before even beginning 
        the combination. Otherwise there is no point in playing any of these moves.)

       62.Kxh7 Kf7; ("-/+")  {Diagram?}  
       Black has a simple, but a very effective (K+P) win here. 
       (I am quite sure if this position had been reached, D. Janowski would 
        have instantly resigned.)

       This truly stunning and VERY brilliant analysis of this line is all (originally) the 
       work of the great  Siegbert Tarrasch.  
       (And also verified by several strong computer programs.) ]    



58.h8Q,  {Diagram?}  
One of the greatest players and writers who ever lived, provides the very insightful comment: 
 --->  "Janowski has won a moral victory: don't resign, for you can never tell what will happen. 
But here Black's advantage is so considerable that even the new Queen cannot affect the
outcome."  - GM Siegbert Tarrasch

(The Reinfeld book of the tourney.) 

     [ 58.Rg1?? Ke7; "-/+" ]  


58...Ke7;  59.Qh1,    {See the diagram, just below.}      
I think this is forced.  




  marsh_jan-vs-m_pos9.gif, 41 KB



The position is interesting and surely merits a diagram.

     [ </=  59.Rg4?? Ra8+60.Kh7 Rxh8#  ]  


59...Rd7;  60.Kh7 Qf5+;  61.Kh6 e5;    
Now Black threatens a devastating check on d6 with the Rook, and he also has the idea 
of ...Rd8; with the threat of winning the White Queen with an X-RAY Attack. (...Rh8+) 



     [ Interesting was:  61...Rd8!?; "/+"  {Diagram?}  
       Black is probably better/winning.  ("-/+") 


       Most students want to play the rather obvious check:  
       61...Qf4+!?;  ("-/+")  {Diagram?}  
       but this play is also very good for Black as well. 
       (It is hard to go wrong when you are only three whole Pawns ahead!) ]  



62.Rg1 Rd8;   
With the idea mentioned in the last note. 
(The check on d6 looked good for Black as well.)  


     [ Very interesting was:  62...Rd6+!?63.Kg7 Rg6+64.Rxg6{Diag?}  
       White had no choice here.  

          ( </= 64.Kh7?? Rxg1+; ("-/+") )     

       64...Qxg6+65.Kh8 e4;  "-/+"  {Diagram?}  
       with a won game for Black. 
       (The main point is that the Rooks have been swapped off.) ]    



63.Qb7+ Qd7;  64.Qf3,   
White continues to squirm here.  



     [ If  </=  64.Qxb6?,  then simply  64...Qd6+;  {Diagram?}  
       and the Queens come off the chess board. ("-/+")  


       Of course a move like:  </=   64.Qxd7+?,  {Diagram?}  
       is simply admitting defeat.  
       (A R+P end-game with a whole three pawns deficit should appeal 
        to almost no one.) ]   



64...Qe6+!?;  {Diagram?}   
This looks like a good move here. 
(Tarrasch criticizes this move, but his remarks here are plain wrong.)  



     [ Tarrasch recommends the  VASTLY  INFERIOR  line of:  
        </=  64...Qh3+?!;  ('?')  {Diagram?}  
       A panic reaction to dump the Queens that costs Black 3-5 points 
       in the box's evaluations of this position. 

       65.Qxh3 Rh8+66.Kg5 Rxh367.Rb1{Diagram?}  
       and while Black is probably still winning, White gains considerable 
       counterplay ... mainly because he wins a Pawn ... AND activates his 
       King!!  {A.J.G.};   (The  "point differential"  between this line ... and the 
       line actually chosen by Marshall is vast, at least by computer standards!) 


       The best move was:  >/=  64...Qd4!{Diagram?}  
       centralizing the most powerful piece on the board. 
       (This move is also the first choice of close to 10 different strong programs!) ]   



65.Kh7 Qd5;   
Black offers an exchange.  

According to several sources, the game was adjourned around here and was not completed 
until several days later. (Most books don't even mention this fact!)  

     [ It is very possible that:  (>/=)  65...e4; ('!')  {Diagram?}  
        is an improvement over the actual game. ]   


66.Qa3+ Qd6!;   
The correct move.  


     [ After:  66...Qc5!?67.Qg3{Diagram?}   
        is harder to meet properly. 


       And after:  66...Ke8!?67.Qa7{Diagram?}  
       White threatens Rg8# next. ]   



White is quickly running out of moves here.  


     [ An old book I have - in German - gives the following line:  
        67.Qa7+ Rd768.Qa2 Qd3+69.Kg7 f5!70.Rg6 Kd8+;  
        71.Kf8 Qd5!72.Qxd5 Rxd573.Rxb6 Kd7!?;  ("-/+")  {D?}  
        and Black is obviously winning this endgame. ]  



67...e4!?;  {Diagram?}  
This threatens ...Qh2+; winning.  

"Very powerful," says Tartakower.  


     [ Probably the move:  >/=  67...b5!;  ("-/+")  {Diagram?}  
       represents a small improvement over the actual game. 
       (This makes sense too, just win by shoving home a passer!);   


       The move:  >/=  67...Qd4;  ("-/+")  {Diagram?}  
       is also probably {slightly} better than what was played in the game. ]    



68.Rg2 Qc5!;   {See the diagram, just below.}   
This wins ... as now the exchange of Queens is virtually forced.  



  marsh_jan-vs-m_pos10.gif, 41 KB



(Soltis {also} awards this move an exclam.)
   '!' - GM Andrew Soltis.  


Not much choice anymore. 


     [ But definitely not:  </=  69.Qh6?? Qf5+;  ("-/+")  {Diagram?}  
        and Black wins easily.  


       Also failing is: </=  69.Qf4? Qh5+!70.Qh6{Diagram?}  
       This is forced. 

           (Not  </= 70.Kg7?? Qh8#)    

       This wins nice, of course a swap of the ladies should also do the trick for Marshall.

       This horrid-looking move could be completely forced.  

          (Of course not: </= 71.Kg7?? Qe5+;  {Diagram?}      
           and White is mated ... in very short order.)      

       71...Qxg6+!?72.Qxg6 fxg673.Kxg6 e3; ("-/+")  {Diagram?}  
        and White should resign. 


       The continuation of:  </=  69.Qg5+!? Qxg570.Rxg5 Rd6!; {Diagram?}  
       is just losing for White. ("-/+")  ]   



The rest really needs no comment.  
69...bxc5;  70.Rg5 Kf6!?;    {See the diagram -  just below.}       
This is probably best.
( Several authors give it an exclam,  ... so it probably fully deserves one!  
 {An old German book I have gives this move a question mark, but I 
   am not sure why. A 'typo?'} )   

   '!' - GM Andrew Soltis.  



  marsh_jan-vs-m_pos11.gif, 41 KB



The point of Marshall's move is he sacrifices his QBP to contain the White King and 
obtain two healthy, connected, and passed pawns. 

      [ Black could also win another way with something like:  
        70...Rc8; {Diagram?} 
        Another book gives this an exclam ... and while this method proves fully adequate, 
        it is definitely less than best. (IMOHO) 

        71.Re5+ Kf6{Diagram?}  
        This is obviously better than the grossly passive ...Kf8?  

        72.Rxe4 c473.Rf4+ Ke674.Kg7 Rc775.Rf6+ Ke576.Rf1 f5+;  
        77.Kg6 f478.Re1+ Kd479.Rf1 Ke380.Kg5 c381.Kg4 Rg7+;  
        82.Kf5 c283.Re1+ Kd2;  "-/+"  {Diagram?} 
        and Black is obviously winning.  
        (But Marshall's method is MUCH more efficient!)  ]   


71.Rxc5 Re8;  72.Rc1 e3;  73.Rf1+ Ke5;  74.Kh6 f5;  
75.Kh5 Ke4;  76.Ra1 f4; 
{See the final diagram.}   
White Resigns (0-1)  ...  his position is completely hopeless. 



  marsh_jan-vs-m_pos12.gif, 41 KB



"A truly masterly game, abounding in exceedingly fine and instructive play - 
  which does credit to both players."  - the great  GM Siegbert Tarrasch  

"One of the greatest Rook-and-Pawn endings in all of the pantheon of chess." 
  - Georgi Marco. 
 (I think that Lasker- from what he wrote in his U.S. magazine - was basically 
  agreeing with Marco here.) 

Marshall was very proud of this ... "difficult, but grueling victory,"  which virtually 
guaranteed him first place. 

The World Champion said: 
Of his excellent score of ELEVEN  wins, only FOUR draws, and NO losses, (!!) 

"This is a tournament of the highest order. This marvelous performance now holds all the 
  records in International Chess."  - Lasker's Chess Magazine.  
  (Shortly after this tournament, Marshall went 6-0 in Sylvan Beach, and then 9.5 {out of 10} 
   in St. Louis, MO; in the Seventh American Chess Congress. Thus, Marshall established 
   himself as the King of American Chess!) 

A "titanic battle"  ...  "in which White's attacking resources seem to be inexhaustible, but are 
thwarted by an ingenious and sound defence." - GM S. Tartakower and J. Du Mont 



I used many different sources to annotate this game ... but my main and most helpful ones were copies of old German magazines. 
(I was also sent some copies of  'The ACB'  and also Lasker's Chess magazine.) My sources are listed in the order that I used 

# 1.)  Schach Zeitung, 1904. (old magazines, photo-copies) 

# 2.)  Cambridge Springs, 1904.  Historical Chess Tournaments, # 018.  
          By D. Olomouc. (c) 1998. Published by Caissa 90, Czech. Rep. 
          ISBN:  # 80-7189-234-3 

# 3.)  "Cambridge Springs (1904)International Chess Tournament." 
           (The only real book of the event.)  By  Fred Reinfeld. (c) 1935. 
          Published by Black Knight Press. (New York City, NY / U.S.A.) 

# 4.)  "My Fifty Years Of Chess." ('The Triumphs of an American Chess Champion.') 
           By GM Frank J. Marshall. (A Hardinge-Simpole re-print.) 
           Published in Great Britain. (2002)  ISBN:  # 1-84382-053-6 

# 5.)  "500 Master Games of Chess," by GM Savielly Tartakower and also James Du Mont.  
           Copyright (c) 1952, by the authors.  (A 1975 Dover re-print.) 

# 6.)  "FRANK MARSHALL, United States Chess Champion," ('A Biography with 220 Games.');  
           by GM Andrew Soltis. (c) 1994 Published by McFarland Books. (hard-back)
           ISBN: #  0-89950-887-1  

               (Note: This ending is also analyzed by GM Pal Benko in his "Endgame Lab" column. See the December 2004 issue  
                of the magazine, "Chess Life." {Page # 46.} I don't see anything new worth mentioning that I did not cover.)  



  Copyright (c) A.J. Goldsby I. Copyright (c) A.J. Goldsby, 1989-2004. 
  Copyright (c) A.J.G;  2005.  
(All rights reserved.)  


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 All games ... HTML code (initially):  Generated with  ChessBase 8.0 

(The diagrams were created with the aid of the program, Chess Captor.)

I really don't think this is one of Marshall's greatest games, but it was a ROUSING struggle!!!


This is a game that I worked on annotating for an almost inestimable amount of time. I annotated it a long time ago, but lost these files in a computer crash. When I began this project anew, I even purchased two books I did not have in order to be able to the best job possible. The computer was consulted constantly as well. Before chess programs became so strong, it was possible to argue endlessly over which line was better. Now a machine - with no ego - gives a completely honest evaluation. And if there is a very dramatic difference in the "point score" of the two lines, well ... it is not too difficult to tell which line is the best. (There are also certain principles a Master draws upon as well, such as: "When ahead in material - exchange pieces." {But NOT Pawns!})  

This game would not have been possible without the contributions of many different people. (There are too many to name, some have asked that I not use their name.) In particular, I would like to (again) thank Steven W. Etzel. He spent an untold amount of time going over my CB copy of this game and offered literally dozens of suggestions. Nearly all of these were used in some fashion. 

I am very proud of this effort. It probably took over six months just to annotate the game, (the second time);  ...  and then it took many more weeks of labor to prepare the final HTML document you are now viewing. In many cases, I have discovered new ideas and variations, in others - I have corrected the false assumptions many other authors have made as concerns this amazing and timeless struggle. 

  This (web) page was created in (mid) September, 2003.   This page was last updated on 11/29/14 .  
  (Diagrams were re-done on Sunday;  June 27th, 2004.)  


  Click  HERE  to go (or return) to my Java-Script  (re-play) page  for this game.  


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      Copyright ()  A.J. Goldsby, 1985 - 2014.  All rights reserved.