Can ozone take care of my iron problems?
Yes. One of the difficulties in removing iron with conventional water
treatment technologies arises when iron is present in its soluble, ferrous
form. Standard filters are not capable of removing the soluble iron, unless
treatment prior to filtration is used to convert the iron to an insoluble
state. Ozone acts very quickly on soluble forms of iron. The reaction changes
the iron to its ferric state, which is unable to remain dissolved in the water
and is therefore easily filtered. Due to the rapid conversion, ozone is an
extremely economical treatment technology.
What are the advantages of ozone over chemicals like chlorine?
The answer depends greatly on the intended usage; however, generally
speaking, ozone has the following advantages over chlorine: *Is an effective
disinfectant over a much wider spectrum of microorganisms than chlorine.
Requires drastically lower contact times than chlorine, thereby allowing
decreased contact vessel sizes, higher flow rates and increased throughput.
*Does not remain in the water after it has satisfied the oxidation demand;
chlorine remains in the water, requiring possible treatment to remove excess.
*Does not create the byproducts (i.e., chloramines, trihalomethanes) that
chlorine creates. Increasing regulations for both potable water and discharge
of wastewater will soon allow lower levels of these byproducts, requiring
addition of more efficient treatment technologies to remove them. *Since ozone
is generated on-site and on-demand, there is no requirement to transport,
store and train workers in safe handling as there is with chlorine. There is
also no risk of an accidental ozone spill. *Ozone generation equipment is
purchased once. Chlorine treatment mandates ongoing chlorine purchase.
How do you get ozone into the water?
Ozone is a gas that is only partially soluble. This means that getting
the ozone to dissolve in the water, rather than be present in large bubbles,
is difficult. Two methods of ozone injection dominate in the industry,
although there are many others. They are injected through a differential
pressure eductor (commonly called a venturi injector), or by fine bubble
diffusion. In venturi injection, water enters the venturi injector and is
immediately constricted as it enters the injection chamber. This causes the
water to speed up dramatically, forming a high velocity "jet stream". The
increase in velocity results in a low pressure condition in the injection
chamber, which draws in the ozone gas. As the fast moving stream moves toward
the injector outlet, it expands and slows down again. This rapid action of
compression, injection of gas and recompression aggressively mixes the water
and dissolves the ozone. Fine bubble diffuser methods involve a relatively
tall (10-15 feet) column of water, with a porous diffuser located at the
bottom. As ozone is forced through the diffuser, bubbles are formed, which
rise to the top of the column. Ozone is dissolved as the bubbles rise.
Greatest efficiencies are achieved by designs allowing the slowest bubble
rise, and therefore the maximum amount of time for ozone to water contact.
Why must I have my water analyzed before my ozone requirements can be
There are many potential contaminants in ground water supplies that can
be oxidized by ozone. Each contaminant in a given water supply can "demand" a
certain amount of ozone. Unless all contaminants, and their concentrations in
the water are known, available ozone can be consumed before the job is done.
Conversely, relatively high quality water containing very few contaminants, or
containing very low concentrations of contaminants may require only a very
small amount of ozone. In these cases, cost can be kept to a minimum by
providing just enough ozone, and prevent paying for ozone that is not needed.
What does the term "ozone demand" mean?
Oxidizable contaminants in water supplies place a demand on the amount
of ozone available. For example, in a water supply containing 3 ppm of ozone,
and a service flow rate of 10 gallons per minute, the required amount of ozone
can be calculated only if the iron's ozone demand is known. Iron's ozone
demand is .43 ppm ozone for 1 ppm iron. To calculate the ozone requirement, in
the common output measurement of Grams Ozone / Hour, the following formula is
used: (Flow (pm)X(Iron ppm)X(Ozone demand ppm)X(.227) = Grams Ozone/Hour
EXAMPLE: (10gpm)x(3ppm)x(.43ppm)x(.227) = 2.93 Grams Ozone/Hour The importance
of knowing the total ozone demand of a water supply should now be evident.
We've calculated the ozone demand for the above example, with iron as the only
contaminant placing a demand on the ozone. There is no ozone available to
oxidize any other contaminant that may be present.
To the best of our knowledge, and published in the Water Quality
Associations 1997 book, "Ozone for Point-of-Use, Point-of-Entry and Small
Water System Water Treatment Applications: A Reference Manual", there has
never been reported a permanent disability or death from the use of ozone,
despite more than 100 years of use. The primary area of concern is ozone in
the gaseous state. The use of ozone gas air purifiers should be applied with
discretion. OSHA, the FDA and the EPA have established safe operating
parameters for ozone in the gaseous state and should be heeded at all times.
The use of ozone air purifiers in deodorization of hotel/motel rooms is a huge
market, however, product instructions should include warnings that the ozone
equipment should only be used when humans and animals are not present. Water
and wastewater applications that result in potential excessive ozone off-gas
problems should be considered in the design stage. Ozotech, Inc. manufactures
a full line of ozone destruct modules (terminator series) that are used to
destroy any excess ozone off-gas as a by-product of the treatment process. In
smaller applications, it is perfectly okay to vent the ozone off-gas to
Isn't ozone a major factor in the smog pollution in our major cities?
Ozone is a purifier and not a pollutant! Ozone is an active form of
oxygen and contains no other compounds. Human or animal life cannot exist
without oxygen or ozone. Most large cities erroneously report the pollution
level in parts per million of "ozone", and these reports are usually announced
when the range reaches 3.0-5.0 PPM. Scientists have proven that the highest
concentration of ozone possible in polluted air is approximately 1.0 PPM, and
rarely exceeds .3 PPM. What is being misinterpreted as ozone are levels of
photochemical oxidants such as nitric oxide generated by auto and truck
How is ozone made?
Ozone is generated by the exposure of air or another gas containing
normal oxygen to a high energy source which in commercial production is a high
voltage electrical discharge or ultraviolet radiation. Molecular oxygen is
split into atomic oxygen and resulting oxygen atoms combine with oxygen
molecules, as illustrated below: 3 O2 < > 2 O3 + heat Typically high voltage
electrical discharge, also known as corona discharge, is the technology of
choice for most applications as the ozone concentration levels achieved are
several times greater than those of ultraviolet radiation. Ozone must be
manufactured on site for immediate use because it is unstable and quickly
decomposes to normal oxygen.
What is meant by "cold spark plasma"?
Traditional corona discharge ozone generators use a metal or metal
coated electrode. They are then operated at high voltage and low or medium
frequency (60-1000 Hz). In addition, these electrodes often require precise
alignment and special maintenance. As a consequence, internal temperatures are
high, causing ozone decomposition, as well as electrode stress and failure.
Ozone Engineering Cold Spark Plasma technology does not have these short
comings. Ozone Engineering, Inc. uses an ozone cell that is filled with a
special mixture of gases. When electric current is applied to the electrode,
the gas becomes a plasma... a gas like substance that conducts electricity.
This causes a virtual plasma field and corona to form on the outside of the
electrode. This virtual plasma and corona imparts electrons with sufficient
energy to dissociate oxygen molecules into ozone molecules. Most importantly,
the Cold Spark Plasma technology does not generate substantial amounts of heat
thus making it the most economical and reliable ozone generator on the market
What are the benefits received from using an air ozonator in my home?
The answer to this question depends largely on the intended use. For a
homeowner curious about general benefits, one can expect a marked increase in
the overall quality of indoor air. Ozone has been proven to oxidize molds,
yeast's and fungus. It is effective in neutralizing the offensive odor
causing compounds in cigarette and cigar smoke. It can even oxidize
contaminants released by carpets, wallpaper, paints and varnishes, and aid in
reduction of airborne dust.
More specialized uses and benefits include elimination of household pet
odors, and recovery of smoke damaged carpets, drapes and furnishings. At
least one local real estate agent (my mother), uses an ozone generator to
eliminate odors from homes on the market. A clean, fresh smelling home is
simply more attractive to a buyer.
the use of ozone in food processing F.D.A. approved?
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved ozone in direct
contact with food. Rather, they have ACCEPTED a declaration of Generally
Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status for the application. It's a bit confusing,
but here's the low-down in plain english. An FDA provision allows for
immediate use of a technology, provided that the technology has been declared
GRAS by qualified experts.
In 1995, a panel of experts in the food industry was assembled by the
Electric Power Research institute (EPRI). Their assignment was to sift
through scores of technical papers, application reports and case studies
dealing with ozone's history in food processing. Their findings supported
the case for GRAS declaration. In 1997, they submitted a report to the FDA,
declaring ozone as GRAS technology for food processing applications. Much of
the basis for this declaration came from decades of safe and effective
application in food processing in Europe. (European food industry has not
been restricted, as has the US food industry). Additionally, ozone has been
used under GRAS status, in the US, for applications in meat storage and in the
disinfect ion of poultry processing waters.
The FDA provision mentioned earlier states that any proven effective
technology, provided it has been used for related applications prior to 1958,
requires no specific FDA approval. This revision, coupled with the GRAS
declaration, effectively opened the doors for industry to immediately use
zone in their food contact applications.
Why would I use ozonated water to wash my food and counter tops?
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently accepted the
declaration of Generally Recognized as Safe status for the use of ozone in
food processing applications. One of the criteria required prior to this
acceptance was proof that ozone is effective in controlling bacteria levels
on food and food contact surfaces.
The benefits to washing your food items and food contact surfaces
(counter tops, cutting boards, knives, dishes, etc.), are the same benefits
that researches were required to prove in order to attain GRAS status. These
benefits include: reduction of bacteria, including dangerous pathogens like
salmonella, listeria, e.coli, and shigella. The result is food that is safer
Further benefits include reduction of bacteria that causes food
spoilage. In other words, perishable food products (such as fresh fruits and
vegetables) can be washed with ozonated water to reduce the organisms that
cause them to spoil. The result is food that keeps longer.
Why might I need to add an air dryer to my ozone system?
Quite simply, dried air allows any ozone generator to make more ozone.
The key to air drying is in the removal of Hydrogen (H) found in
ambient air. When atoms of Hydrogen and Nitrogen (which comprises 78% of our
air) are subject to Corona Discharge, by-products such as Nitrous acid (HNO2)
and Nitric acid (HNO3) are formed. The formation of these compounds
inhibits performance and increases the frequency of maintenance.
To understand how performance is affected, we must evaluate how ozone
generators work. Ozone generators create ozone by splitting intact oxygen
(O2) molecules into free oxygen atoms (O). In the air we breathe, only 21%
of the volume is made up of O2. The remaining volume is comprised mainly of
Nitrogen (N), at 78%. Water in vapor form also comprises a significant
amount of any given air sample. Water vapor contains hydrogen (H).
After being subject to Corona Discharge, some of the Hydrogen and
Nitrogen atoms will attach themselves to intact ozone molecules, forming
HNO3, or Nitric acid. Other's will attach themselves to oxygen molecules,
forming HNO2, or Nitrous acid. The formation of these compounds is one of the
reasons that performance potential of an ozone generator is reduced. It is
simple to understand why. If ozone molecules were not being "used" by
Hydrogen and Nitrogen in the formation of acids, more would be available to
Likewise, if the percentage of water vapor in a given volume of air was
reduced, there would be more "room" for oxygen. It is this function, that of
increasing the relative ability to force more oxygen in the same space, that
comprises the most significant benefit to enhanced ozone production.
Increased service life and reduction in maintenance are gained due to
the same principle. With less HNO2 and HNO3 being formed, corona discharge
cell maintenance, or cleaning the cell, can be reduced without the risk of
acid buildup. Since both HNO2 and HNO3 are highly conductive (and corrosive),
they are capable of producing a path for corona (electrical arcs) outside of
the Corona Discharge Cell and Manifold. Reducing the chance of electrical
arcs decreases probability of ozone generator failure.
Why might I need to add an oxygen concentrator to my ozone system?
Because it may be economical to do so. The key to oxygen concentration
in terms of ozone production is in the removal of Nitrogen (N), and water
(H2O) found in ambient air. This is of benefit because it increases the ozone
production capacity of any ozone generator. To understand how performance is
affected, we must recall that ozone is created by passing oxygen molecules
through an electrical arc (corona). Imagine that in addition to oxygen
molecules, your feed gas also contains water vapor (H20) and Nitrogen atoms.
Both take up space. It is easy to see that in a given volume of space, there
is " more room" for oxygen molecules if no Nitrogen or water vapor is present.
So, the relative concentration of oxygen in the same volume is increased. If
that volume of oxygen-rich feed gas is fed to an ozone generator, the amount
of ozone created is also increased.
Increased service life and reduction in maintenance are also gained due
to the removal of nitrogen and hydrogen. With less HNO2 and HNO3 being
formed, corona discharge cell maintenance, or cleaning the cell, can be
reduced without the risk of acid buildup. Since both HNO2 and HNO3 are highly
conductive, they are capable of producing a path for corona (electrical arcs)
outside of the Corona Discharge Cell and Manifold. Once an arc has started,
catastrophic failure is the usual result.
Why is a contact or holding tank needed?
While ozone is an extremely fast acting oxidizer and disinfectant, as
compared to other available agents, it does require some time to work.
Contact tanks are the means to assuring that the proper amount of time is
Another reason is to minimize the amount of ozone required to perform a
specific task, by making certain that the maximum percentage of available
ozone is dissolved into the water being treated. It has been established
that one of the mechanisms available to increase this percentage is by
increasing the amount of time that ozone is in contact with the water.
Again, contact tanks are the means to assure maximum ozone to water contact
Why can't I hook up any ozone generator to my aquarium?
Because you may kill your fish. Excessive concentrations of ozone is
believed to damage the gill hyphae of fish, sometimes resulting in
mortality. A properly sized ozone generator, and a properly engineered ozone
treatment approach are required to maximize ozone's benefits in hobby or
commercial aquaria, as well as to prevent unsafe ozone levels from entering
the animals environment.
Why do I still need a filter on my water supply if I'm using ozone?
You do not always need a filter on your water supply when using ozone.
However, in the case where ozone is used to oxidize certain contaminants such
as iron and manganese, a filter will be a necessary stage in your water
treatment system. This is because the iron and manganese are oxidized with
ozone from the soluble state to the insoluble state thus allowing these
common contaminants to to filtered out. Without the oxidation stage the iron
and manganese will remain soluble in water and will not be removed.
there any industry standard for quantifying how much ozone a generator makes?
Yes! The Water Quality Association has recently established
guidelines/specifications as to what and how the data is to be displayed on
ozone generator production. At a minimum, this must include ozone volume in
grams per hour or pounds per day, the ozone concentration by weight and the
amount of air or oxygen flow utilized to obtain the volume and concentration
readings. If any one of these three parameters are missing from the displayed
data, the ozone generator manufacturer is providing misleading information and
the data should be treated as suspect. Other conditions such as atmospheric
pressure, dew point, correction factors for altitude, etc., should also be
Why does bottled oxygen make more ozone on the same ozone generator?
Elemental oxygen is the source gas utilized in the generation of ozone.
As opposed to ambient or dried air that contains approximately 20% oxygen,
bottled oxygen typically contains 97% to 100% oxygen purity. Since this s
almost 4 times the amount of oxygen, this increase in oxygen content will
therefore translate to 3 or 4 times more ozone production with the same ozone
generator. Ozone Engineering also carries a line of oxygen concentrators that
produce from 40% to 90% oxygen with dew points as low as -100 degrees. Oxygen
concentrators are typically utilized for most installations as compressed
oxygen tanks are often not allowed by regulatory agencies due to safety
concerns with bottled oxygen.
Why doesn't Ozone Engineering cold spark generators need to have the cells
replaced periodically like everyone else's do?
Ozone Engineering patented technology provides for the production of
ozone with less heat than other technologies utilized on the market today.
This, in turn, leads to considerably less thermal stress on the electrodes. In
addition, the electrical conductivity of the plasma gases is a major
benefactor in the reduction of excess strain on both the electrodes and the
dielectric material thus providing better reliability and longevity. Ozone
Engineering cells have been in the field for as many as fourteen years without
degradation in ozone production. The above comparison is made against other
corona discharge technologies as comparison to ultraviolet based generators is
deemed unnecessary. This is due to the fact that it is a well known fact that
all ultraviolet ozone generators begin losing ozone production immediately
upon applied power and continue to lose ozone production the longer they are
used. Most ultraviolet cells require replacement within the first year or two
depending on actual hours of on-time.