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Günther [A.] 1864:371 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. v. 5
Current status: Synonym of Pristobrycon aureus (Spix & Agassiz 1829).
FROM FRANK MAGALLANES
Genus Pristobrycon has taxonomic problems because there are a few species that are not fully described and most of the types are lost. The descriptions themselves are problematic and could fit one of several Pristobrycon types like serrulatus, eigenmanni, aureus and striolatus. Indeed, French Systematician M. Jegu error in confusing S. spilopleura for one of these Pristobrycon types shows one the potential problems historical taxonomists have had.
gymnogenys, Serrasalmo Günter [A.] 1864:371 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. v. 5; Guyana. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 19220.127.116.11 (1) British Guiana [Guyana], 1849.11.8 [or 3].33 (1) Rio Capin [= Capim], Pará State, Brazil. •Synonym of Serrasalmus aureus (Spix & Agassiz 1829), but a valid subspecies -- (Géry 1972:218). •Synonym of Pristobrycon aureus (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Jégu in Reis et al. 2003:188).
11. Serrasalmo gymnogenys. F Serrasalmus
humeralis, Casteln. Anim. Amir. Sud, Potts,
pi. 37. fig. 2 *. D. 16. A. 33-36. V. 7. L. lat. 95.
The height of the body is contained once and two-thirds in the total length (without caudal), the length of the head thrice and onehalf; the abdominal profile is very convex, the upper profile of the head, above the eyes, concave. Snout obtuse, the length of the upper jaw, before the eye, being equal to that of the orbit. The second infraorbital is longer than high, and separated from the neopercular limb by a broadish strip of naked skin, which is half as wide as the infraorbital itself. The origin of the dorsal fin is midway between the extremity of the snout and the posterior end of the lateral line. Pectoral extending to the root of the ventral. Abdominal serrature composed of thirty or thirty-one spinous plates. Gill-rakers short, lancelet. Body with small blackish spots; an indistinct blackish blotch behind the gill-opening; caudal fin dark on its base, with a light posterior margin.
Brazil, Guiana. a-b. Adult (8 inches long) and young. River Capin. Purchased of Mr. Stevens, c. Adult. British Guiana. Presented by Sir R. Schomburgk.
Eigenmann, C. H. 1910 (12 Feb.) Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of tropical and south temperate America. In: Reports of the Princeton University expeditions to Patagonia 1896-1899.
pg. 234. Serrasalmo gymnogenys Giinther.
? Salmo aureus (not of Spix) Muller and Troschel, in Schomburgk, Reisen, III,1848, 637 (Essequibo; Rupununi).
Serrasalmo gymnogenys Gunther, Catalogue, V, 1864, 371 (River Capin; British Guiana).—Eigenmann and Eigenmann, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XIV, 1891, 60.—Ulrey, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., VII, 1895, 298 (Marajo).—? Perugia, Ann. Mus. Genova, (2a), X, 1891, 650 (Resistencia, Chaco Centrale).—Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. d'Hist, Nat., V, 1899, 157 (Apure).—Eigenmann, Repts. Princeton Univ. Exp. Patagonia, III, 1910, 442. Twenty-six specimens, 31-144 mm. Rockstone. (C. M. Cat. Nos. 1108a-c and 1122a-d; I. U. Cat. No. 11646.) One specimen, 57 mm. Wismar. (C. M. Cat. No. 1111.) One specimen, 47 mm. Tumatumari. (C. M. Cat. No. 1112a.) Two specimens, 37-125 mm. Crab Falls. (C. M. Cat. No. 1130a; I. U. Cat. No. 11647.) Four specimens, 104-141 mm. Below Packeoo. (C. M. Cat, No. 1133a; I. U. Cat. No. 11645a-o.)
Head 3.1-3.25; depth 1.6-1.7; D. 15 or 16; A. 32-37; ventral seme 22-33, of which one is bifid before the anus and one grooved with two antrorse and two retrorse spines behind the anus; lateral line 77-80; eye 3.25 in the head, 1.3 in the interorbital, .6 in the snout. Deep; snout obliquely truncate, the chin projecting; second suborbital leaving from one-third to two-sevenths of the cheek naked; opercles and suborbitals profusely striate; gill-rakers minute, about 10 + 10; teeth oblique, usually with a notch on one side, sometimes on both sides on those of the premaxillary; premaxillary with seven teeth, of which the third is very much smaller than the rest; lower jaw with seven slightly graduated teeth. Dorsal short, rounded, its base a little longer than its distance from the adipose; adipose short; caudal lunate; anal with a slight lobe in front; ventrals reaching to the anal groove or a little shorter; pectorals to, or a little past, the vertical from the origin of the ventrals.
First few scales of the lateral line larger than the neighboring scales, becoming smaller on the sides than those above or below the line, but of the same number as there are transverse series; scales regularly imbricate. A large diffuse humeral spot; sides variously spotted; caudal with a basal V-shaped black band, increasing in width with age; opercles rosy in life, the color most intense on the lower corner of the opercle, the red sometimes extending over the lower part of the sides and breast; anal tinged with orange in front, I have examined one of the specimens mentioned as aureus by Muller and Troschel. It agrees with specimens taken by me in all but the color of the caudal, which, in addition to the basal band, has a submarginal black band, a narrower margin being hyaline.
Serrasalmus aureus (Spix & Agassiz 1829), but a valid subspecies -- (Géry 1972:218
Pristobrycon aureus (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Jégu in Reis et al. 2003:188
Günther, A. 1864 (10 Dec.) Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Physostomi, containing the families Siluridae, Characinidae, Haplochitonidae, Sternoptychidae, Scopelidae, Stomiatidae in the collection of the British Museum. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. v. 5: i-xxii + 1-455.
Eigenmann, C. H. 1915 (Mar.) The Serrasalminae and Mylinae. Ann. Carnegie Mus. v. 9 (nos. 3-4): 226-272, Pls. 44-58.
Géry, J. 1972 (19 Dec.) Poissons characoïdes des Guyanes. I. Généralités. II. Famille des Serrasalmidae. Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) No. 122: 1-250, Pls. 1-16.
Reis, R. E. , S. O. Kullander, and C. J. Ferraris, Jr. 2003 [ref. 27061] Check list of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. CLOFFSCA. Check list of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. CLOFFSCA. 2003: i-xi + 1-729.
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