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SERRASALMIDAE

CLASSIFICATION LIST

 

FROM FRANK MAGALLANES

 

The term "TRUE PIRANHA or TRUE CARIBE" is applied solely for genus Pygocentrus. The remainder of the genera are loosely called the following; CARIBE, CARIBITO, GUACARITOS, ENCARNADA, MUDA, MUFURA, PALOMETA, PAÑA, PINCHES, MUCURA, PIRAMBEBA, and  PIRANHA

 

This list is comprised of all known scientific species names and their current bionomic standing. In some situations, I have placed the original (portions of) historical citation with a reference link to the actual species now recognized as valid. These fish herein are accepted by their native common name of pirambeba, caribito, palometa, paña and loosely called piranha or caribe. This native common name has validity and placement by historical authors to differentiate from the other loose name; piranha and caribe (MYERS, 1972 et al and State of Oregon vs. Magallanes, Case No. 93-CR-0124VI 1993), which I have restricted to those known to be potentially dangerous to man, genus Pygocentrus.

 

The Serrasalmus species primary diet is; fins, pieces of fish with one or two species eating fruit/seeds as part of the diet. Majority of photos are representative of the species described. Breeding information is based on in-country information and hobbyists reports. In some cases, I have taken water chemistry information and habitat using this for a guide to create the breeding information portion.

 

Valid species list - Current as of  April 2012

 

S. altispinis

Merckx, Jégu & Santos 2000

Amazon Basin, Uatumã River, Brazil

S. elongatus

Kner 1858

Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela

S. humeralis

Valenciennes 1850

Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil and Peru

S. nalseni

Fernández-Yépez 1969

Orinoco River basin, Venezuela

S. sanchezi

Géry1964

Ucayali River basin, Peru

S. altuvei

Ramirez 1965

Orinoco River basin, Venezuela

S. geryi

Jégu & Santos 1988

Tocantins River basin, Brazil

S. irritans

Peters 1877

Orinoco River basin, Venezuela

S. neveriensis

Machado-Allison, Fink, López Rojas & Rodenas 1993

Coastal rivers of Venezuela

S. serrulatus

Valenciennes 1850

Amazon River basin and (?) Essequibo River basin: Amazon(?), Brazil, Guyana(?) and Peru; Argentina

S. auriventris

Burmeister 1861

(likely Pygocentrus) Poor description. Whereabouts unknown. Province of Entre Ríos, west of city of Paraná, Río Paraná Argentina

S. gibbus

Castelnau 1855

Tocantins river basin, Brazil

S. maculatus

Kner 1858

Amazon and Paraguay-Paraná River basin; Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay

S. nigricans

Spix & Agassiz 1829

Amazon River basin, Brazil

S. spilopleura

Kner 1858

Guaporé River basin, Paraná River basin: Argentina and Brazil

S. brandtii

Lüken 1875

São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

S. gouldingi

Fink & Machado-Allison 1992

Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil and Venezuela

S. manueli

Fernández-Yépez & Ramirez 1967

Amazon and Orinoco River basins; Brazil and Venezuela

S. nigricauda

Burmeister 1861

No types known (poor description)

Argentina, province of Santa Fé, city of Rosario, Río Paraná

Serrasalmus species

Under description - pending release (name withheld)

Bolivian Amazon plain

S. compressus

Jégu, Leao & Santos 1991

Middle Amazon River Basin: Bolivia, Brazil and Peru.

S. hastatus

Fink & Machado-Allison 2001

Negro River basin, Brazil

S. marginatus

Valenciennes 1837

Paraguay-Paraná and Uruguay

S. odyssei

Hubert [N.] & Renno [j.-F] 2010

rio San Martin and Rio Paraga, Bolivia

Serrasalmus species

Under description - pending release (name withheld)

Amazon Delta

S. eigenmanni

Norman 1929

Amazon River Basin and northern and eastern Guiana shield rivers: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela

S. hollandi

Eigenmann 1915

Madeira River basin and (?) Guyana rivers: Brazil and Guiana(?)

S. medinai

Ramirez 1965

Orinoco River basin, Venezuela

S. rhombeus

Linnaeus 1766

Amazon and Orinoco River basins, northern and eastern Guiana Shield, and northeastern Brazilian coastal rivers; Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela

Serrasalmus species

Under description  - pending release

(name withheld)

Venezuela

CURRENT SPECIES AND THE COUNTRY RANGE,  1987-2012

Antonio Machado-Allison, William L. Fink, Michel Jégu, Nicholas Hubert

Species listed with a question mark (?) are those that have not been authenticated by current rehabilitations. In this regard both S. hollandi and S. humeralis are species that have not been completely rehabilitated. Some questions need to be answered in regard to its actual range and a better description. Confusion seems to be centered on photographs purported to be S. humeralis v S. manueli. S. hollandi, is also a sketchy species that is uncertain.

NOTE: Bolivia; presently, S. rhombeus is wide spread, but is also proving to be a very complex species. Its variety of body color and pattern markings provide evidence then this species needs to be carefully reviewed. Dr. Michel Jégu, a French ichthyologist is presently examining some Bolivian species of S. rhombeus-morph types that are unusual.

ARGENTINA

BOLIVIA

BRAZIL

COLUMBIA

ECUADOR

FRENCH GUIANA

GUYANA

PARAGUAY

S. eigenmanni

S. rhombeus

1S. humeralis? (misidentification per Jegu 2003)

 

PERU SURINAME URUGUAY VENEZUELA

1Jégu, M. 2003 Serrasalminae (Pacus and piranhas). p. 182-196. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

 

Other historical names (synonyms) and questionable species

Compiled from California Academy of Sciences Catalog list

Some links below have images

A

aesopus synonym of Serrasalmus spilopleura altispinis valid name, Serrasalmus altispinis aureus valid name, Pristobrycon aureus
albus synonym of Serrasalmus cariba altuvei valid name, Serrasalmus altuvei auriventris valid name, Serrasalmus auriventris


B

Pygocentrus bilineatus synonym of Pristobrycon calmoni

brasiliensis Serrasalmus braziliensis, synonym of Serrasalmus spilopleura
boekeri Serrasalmus boekeri, synonym of Serrasalmus rhombeus brandtii : valid name, Serrasalmus brandtii

 

C

cariba valid as Pygocentrus cariba.

caribe synonym of Serrasalmus cariba

coccogenis synonym of Pristobrycon calmoni
compressus valid name, Serrasalmus compressus

 

D

dulcis , Pygocentrus dolcis, synonym of Serrasalmus spilopleura

E

eigenmanni : valid name, Serrasalmus eigenmanni emarginatus; Species inquirenda in Serrasalmus
elongatus : valid name, Serrasalmus elongatus  

 

F

fernandezi Serrasalmus synonym of Serrasalmus irritans

 

G

geryi valid name, Serrasalmus geryi

gibbus valid name, Serrasalmus gibbus

gymnogenys

gymnogenys, Serrasalmus synonym of Serrasalmus humeralis
gibbosus synonym of Serrasalmus striolatus. gouldingi valid name, Serrasalmus gouldingi  

 

H

hastatus valid name, Serrasalmus hastatus humeralis valid name, Serrasalmus humeralis
hollandi valid name, Serrasalmus hollandi humeralis-gracilior, synonym of Serrasalmus rhombeus

I

immaculatus synonym of Serrasalmus rhombeus irritans valid name, Serrasalmus irritans
iridopsis synonym of Serrasalmus humeralis  

 

M

maculatus valid name, Serrasalmus maculatus marginatus valid name, Serrasalmus marginatus melanurus  synonym of Serrasalmus maculatus
manueli :valid name, Serrasalmus manueli medinai valid name, Serrasalmus medinai  

 

N

nalseni  valid name, Serrasalmus nalseni niger synonym of Serrasalmus rhombeus nigricauda valid name, Serrasalmus nigricauda

notatus

synonym of Serrasalmus cariba

neveriensis valid name, Serrasalmus neveriensis nigricans valid name, Serrasalmus nigricans normani :  synonym of Serrasalmus rhombeus  


O

odyssei valid name, Serrasalmus odyssei

 

P

paraense : Questionably synonym for Serrasalmus rhombeus punctatus : synonym of Pygopristis denticulata.
pingke synonym of Serrasalmus elongatus  

R

rhombeus valid name, Serrasalmus rhombeus rhombeus-marginatus  synonym for Serrasalmus marginatus

 

S

sanchezi valid name, Serrasalmus sanchezi scapularis, synonym of Pristobrycon striolatus spilopleura valid name, Serrasalmus spilopleura

stigmaterythraeus,

Pygocentrus  synonym  of Pygocentrus cariba

serrulatus valid name, Serrasalmus serrulatus scotopterus, species inqurenda in Serrasalmus. stagnatilis, No types known.

 

 

T

ternetzi moved to  genus Pygocentrus, synonym of Pygocentrus nattereri tizoura : synonym of Serrasalmus humeralis

 

U

undulatus -  No types known

 

UNKNOWN (undescribed) Serrasalmus species and About SPILO CF:

REFERENCES

 

Eschmeyer, W. N. & Fricke, R. (eds.) Catalog of Fishes electronic version (30 November 2011). VIEW

 

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UPDATED: 05/23/2012