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Notes and Documents


African-Americans Impressed for Service

on the Nashville and North Western Railroad, October 1863

Contributed by Gale Williams Baniman, C.G.*

In the early stages of the Civil War, Confederate officers often took their favorite slaves to war with them as personal servants; but the general impressment of slaves without the master's consent was not tolerated in Confederate Tennessee. At a selling price of$ 1,300 to $1,400 each, slaves were deemed too valuable to be put at risk. Instead, Tennessee pulled from the ranks of freedmen for additional manpower.'

After the fall of Nashville to Union forces on 24 February 1862, fugitive slaves (contrabands) began to gather around the Army camps for protection, clothing, and food. Realizing that these people could be a valuable source of military labor, the Union Army began to hire their time. General William T. Sherman's General Order No.67, on 8 August 1862, set the pattern for the employment of African-Americans as official Union Army laborers:

All able-bodied Negroes who apply are to be put to work at Fort Pickering by the chief engineer. Slaves and owners' names are to be registered. Each Negro laborer is to be given rations as all soldiers, clothing, and one pound of chewing tobacco each month. Wages are to be withheld until the slave is legally free. No master will be allowed to search the fort, but slaves can return voluntarily at the end of any week to masters.... The Quartermaster Department can use Negroes to work levees, load and unload ships, and shovel coal:2

One specific job in which Negroes were employed in large numbers was the completion of the Nashville and North Western Railroad, which prior to the war had seen the laying of only twenty-one miles of track-from Nashville west to Kingston Springs. The Union Army recognized the benefit that would result in extending this rail line to the Tennessee River, where steamboats could unload men and supplies that in turn could be transported by rail to Nashville and then distributed as needed.3

The following impressment rolls dated 10 and 13 October 1863 show that these particular men had been drawn from several Middle Tennessee counties, as well as from southern Kentucky and even central Alabama. In addition to identifying the slave, the rolls cite the names and residences of the slaves' owners. The fact that slave surnames were identical to those of owners in 86.9 percent of the cases raises speculation as to whether the surnames may have been arbitrarily assigned at the time of impressment.

The service chronicled here was not an isolated situation. Uncounted numbers of African- Americans eventually were enrolled as laborers by the Union Army. Many were released, some deserted, but thousands were retained and mustered into volunteer regiments. The Tennessee State Library and Archives has cataloged the following data as Confederate records. However, since the state was under Federal control at the time this set of rolls was created, these would seem to be Union papers that found their way into Confederate holdings.4 Similar registers exist at the National Archives in Record Groups 92 (Quartermaster General's Office), 94 (Adjutant General's Office), and 109 (Captured Confederate Records).5

These rolls are significant in several ways. They link a substantial number of African- American bondsmen with their owners and pre-emancipation residences. The physical descriptions are priceless bits of personal information that all genealogists hope for but usually do not find. The time period, the pre-1870s, is an era of great difficulty in black family research-one in which efforts so often break down. Consequently, the rare bridge to the antebellum period that is provided here will doubtless be welcomed by those engaged in African-American genealogical research.


ROLL OF NEGROES IMPRESSED FOR SERVICE ON THE NORTH WESTERN RAILROAD 

Showing Name, Age, Height, Complexion, Name of Owner, County, Town, Remarks

10 OCTOBER, 1863

Anderson, Daniel; 17, 5'6 , black; owner: William Anderson; Centerville, Hickman Co.

Amos, James; 19, 5'9 , black; owner: William Amos; Columbia, Maury Co.

Anderson, Nathen, Sr.; 33, 5'lO , black; owner: John Anderson; Centerville, Hickman Co.

Anderson, Nathen, Jr.; 28, 5'9 , black; owner: John Anderson; Centerville, Hickman Co.

Remarks: retained as blacksmith.

Anderson, Beverly; 33, 5'S , black; owner: William Anderson; Centerville, Hickman Co.

Bryant, John; 16, 55 , black; owner: Fine Bryant; Centerville, Hickman Co.

Boyd, Brutes; 49, S'7 ", black; owner: Andrew Boyd; Columbia, Maury Co.

Booker, Jim; 46, S'6 , black; owner: Mrs. Ellen Booker, Columbia, Maury Co.

Booker, Willis; 33, S'3 , black; owner: Mrs. Hellen A. Rucker; Columbia, Maury Co.

Booker, Coy; 45, 5'6 , black; owner: Mrs. Ruth Booker; Columbia, Maury Co.

Booker, Lem; 43, 5'4 , black; owner: Miss Anna Booker; Columbia, Maury Co.

Bell, Andy; 21, S'9 , black; owner: William Bell; Waynesboro, Wayne Co.

Carter, Ed; 42, S'2 , black; owner: Frank Carter, Pulaski, Giles Co.

Chers, Burrel; S4, 5'6 , black; owner: Martin Chers; Spring Hill, Maury Co.

Cregg, Sam; 35,55 , black; owner: Robert Cregg; Spring Hill, Maury Co.

Chapman, Paytan; 22, S'3 , black; owner: Phillip Chapman; Spring Hill, Williamson Co.

Cregg, Pompy; 20, S'9 , black; owner: Robert Cregg; Columbia, Maury Co.

Cregg, Ples[?J; 22, 57 , black; owner: Robert Cregg; Columbia, Maury Co.

Chers, Jesse; 46, 5'6 , black; owner: Martin Chers; Spring Hill, Maury Co.

Cannon, John; 46, 5'6 , black; owner: George Cannon; Columbia, Maury Co.

Campbell, Mat; 58, 5'3 , black; owner: Campbell Brown; Spring Hill, Maury Co.

Caldwell, Abe; 28, 5'S , black; owner: John Caldwell; Columbia, Maury Co.

Campbell, Doctor; 24, 5'4 , black; owner: Willam Dale; Columbia, Maury Co.

Duke, Mose; 18, 5'l , black; owner: John Duke; Columbia, Maury Co.

Dotsin, Steven; 55, 5'4 , black; owner: Raghlie Dotsin; Columbia, Maury Co.

Dotsin, Charles; 11, 4'6 , black; owner: Raghlie Dotsin; Columbia, Maury Co.

English, Sam; 20, 5'6 , black; owner: Thomas English; Campbellsville, Giles Co.

Evens, Soloman; 22, 5'S , black; owner: Robison Evens; Columbia, Maury Co.

Edmondson, Jerry; 59, 5'9 , black; owner: Jo Evens; Cornersville, Giles Co.

Evens, Lee; 32, 5'S , black; owner: James Evens; Columbia, Maury Co.

Flemmings, Dick; 21, 5'7 , black; owner: Alfred Fleming; Columbia, Maury Co.

Foster, Jim, Sr.; 23, 5'S 112 , black; owner: William Foster; Columbia, Maury Co.

Fulls, Jacob; 18,57 , black; owner: Washington Fult; Hickman Co.

Foster, Albert; 42, 57 , black; owner: Isaac Foster, Columbia, Maury Co.

Fryerson, Jim; 22, 5'S , black; owner: Curren Fryerson; Columbia, Maury Co.

Foster, Jim, Jr.; 21, 5'6 , black; owner: Isaac Foster; Columbia, Maury Co.

Fulson, Ceaser; 41, 57 , black; owner: Bery Fultson [sic]; Columbia, Maury Co.

Foster, Jeff; 47, 5'8 , black; owner: Tom Foster; Columbia, Maury Co.

Flemmings, Jim; 46, 5'7 , black; owner: Sidney Fleming; Columbia, Maury Co.

Fryerson, Sam; 31, 5'9 , black; owner: Curren Fryerson; Columbia, Maury Co.

Foster, Marshall; 29, 5'6 , black; owner: Tom Foster; Columbia, Maury Co.

Fryerson, Joe; 3S, 5'9 , black; owner: Curren Fryerson; Columbia, Maury Co.

Gordon, Dave; 20, 5.11 , black; owner: Powatan Gordon; Columbia, Maury Co.

Hughs, Larkin; 40, 5'4 , black; owner: Willie Hughs; Columbia, Maury Co.

Helmn, Wilson; 51, 5'6 , black; owner: Merridith Helm; Columbia, Maury Co.

Hunter, William; 40, 5'7 , black; owner: Jones Hunter; Mt. Pleasant, Maury Co.

Hunter, Henry; 16, 5'S , black; owner: Jim Hunter; Mt. Pleasant, Maury Co.

Hancock, Irvin; 26, 56 , black; owner: Steve Hancock; Columbia, Maury Co.

Hackner, Moses; 15, 5'3 , black; owner: Frank Hackner; Mt. Pleasant, Maury Co.

Helmn, John; 50, 5'6 , black; owner: D. Helmn; Columbia, Maury Co.

Hunter, Mace; 15, 4'll , black; owner: Jim Hunter, Columbia, Maury Co.

Hunt, Tom; 15, 4'll , black; owner: Widow Hunt; Columbia, Maury Co.

Heddick, Henry; 54, 5'7 , black; owner: John Heddick; Spring Hill, Maury Co.

Hedley, Isaac; 20, 5'6 , black; owner: Henry Hedley; Columbia, Maury Co.

Hughey, Sam; 49, 5'S , black; owner: James Hughey; Columbia, Maury Co.

Hodge, Jesse; 40, 5'S , black; owner: James Houghey; Columbia, Maury Co.

Hardison, Nathan; 57, 56 , black; owner: Joshia Hardison; Columbia, Maury Co.

Hadicks, Briton; 38, 5'7 , black; owner: John Hadick [sic]; Columbia, Maury Co.

Hardy, James; SO, 5'9 , black; owner: James S. Fryerson; Columbia, Maury Co.

Johnson, Ceaser; S4, 5'S , black; owner: Cosby Johnson; Columbia, Maury Co.

Jones, Henry; 17, 56 , yellow; owner: Charly Jones; Marshall Co.

Kisick, Jackson; 20, 54 , black; owner: John W. Kisick; Columbia, Maury Co.

Kisick, Jim; 18 , 5'S , yellow; owner: John W. Kisick; Columbia, Maury Co.

Kisick, Columbus; 39, 5'3 , black; owner: S-son [ink blotch] Kisick; Columbia, Maury Co.

Lawrance, Richard; 36, 5'6 , black; owner: Widow Lawrance; Columbia, Maury Co.

Linyear, Andrew; 24, 5'lO , black; owner: Louis Linyear, Mt. Plsset [Pleasant], Maury Co.

McLemore, Nathen; 28, 5'S , black; owner: Rob McLemore; Mt. Pleasant, Maury Co.

Moore, Hough; 19, 5'll , black; owner John Moore; Mt. Pleasant, Maury Co.

Moore, Jim; 33, S'3 , yellow; owner, John Moore; Mt. Pleasant, Maury Co.

Mayier, Hinsen; 26, 5'lO , yellow; owner: Mrs. Hellen Mace; Columbia, Maury Co.

Oxford, Isaac; 24, S'3 , black; owner: Mary Oxford; Columbia, Maury Co.

Pillow, Jourdon; 21, 5'7 , black; owner: Granvill Pillow; Columbia, Maury Co.

Palmer, Bob; 30, 5'8', black; owner: George Polk; Columbia, Maury Co.

Pertice, Jeff; 52, 5'4 , black; owner: Arke Partie; Columbia, Maury Co.

Potter, Louis; 29, 5'l , black; owner: Mrs. Jane Potter; Spring Hill, Williamson Co.

Pointer, Jesse; 43, 52 , yellow; owner: John H. Pointer, Pulaski, Giles Co.

Pitt, James; 34, 5'S , yellow; owner: Joseph Pitt, Waynesboro, Wayne Co.

Polk, Pilliardt?J; 27, 5'l , black; owner: Win. Polk; Columbia, Maury Co.

Pius, Ben; 16, 5'S , yellow; owner: Joseph Pitts; Waynesboro, Wayne Co.

Strong, Charly; 19, S'6 , yellow; owner: Robert Cregg; Columbia, Maury Co.

Pillow, Mingle; 50, 5'l , black; owner: Granville Pillow; Columbia, Maury Co.

Smith, Horrice; 63, 5'S , black; owner: Erecttes[?] Smith; Columbia, Maury Co.

Sikes, Emanuel; 42, 5'S , black; owner: W. 1. Sieks [sic]; Columbia, Maury Co.

Sissel, John; 17, 5'2 , black; owner: Harvy Sissle; Mt. Pleasant, Maury Co.

Thomas, John; 55, 5'2 , black; owner: James Thomas; Columbia, Maury Co.

Thompson, Jourdon; 23, 57', black; owner: Alfred Thompson; Columbia, Maury Co.

Thompson, John W; 23, 5'6 , black; owner: Alfred Thompson; Columbia, Maury Co.

Terry, Sam; 39, 5'll , yellow; owner: Widow Terry; Columbia, Maury Co.

Tedwell, Bob; 18, 5'S , black; owner: James Tedwell; Pulaski, Giles Co.

Webster, Jourdon; 66, 5'4 , black; owner: Win. Webster; Columbia, Maury Co.

Thridel[?J, John; 22, 5'4 , black; owner; Minerva Thevval[?]; Columbia, Maury Co.

Turner, Albert; 16, 5'O , black; owner: Autery Turner; Spring Hill, Maury Co.

Wade, Harry; 14, 5'2 , black; owner: Widow Wade; Spring Hill, Maury Co.

Wilson, Henry; 19, 5'6 , black; owner: Henry Wilson; Franklin, Wilson [Williamson?] Co.

Wilkison, David; 30, 57 , black; owner: Wylie Wilkison; Campbellsville, Giles Co.

Wilki son, Henry; 25, S'4 , black; owner: Wylie Wilkison; Campbellsville, Giles Co.

Walker,John; 21, 5'9 , black; owner: Mrs. Elisebeth Walker; Columbia, Maury Co. Remarks: one arm off.

Walker, Phillipp; 27, 5'6 , black; owner: Thomas E. Walker; Columbia, Maury Co.

Wade, Anthony; 12, 4'll , black; owner: Mrs. Elisebeth Wade; Spring Hill, Maury Co.

Watkins, Henry; 25, 5'S , black; owner: Wm.Watkins [no address stated].

Yorlcley, William; 16, S'4 , black; owner: Hough Yorkly; Giles Co.

Yorkley, Armstead; 19, 5'S , black; owner: Saml. Yorkly; Campbellsville, Giles Co.

Cannon, Fortune; 53, 5'6 , black; owner: Win. Cannon; Columbia, Maury Co.

Kinnady, John; 31, 5'2 , black; owner: Mrs. Martha Kennady [sic]; Columbia, Maury Co.

Kissick, Yorkinan; 24, 5'3', black; owner: John McKissick [sic]; Columbia, Maury Co.

Zelliner[?], William; 39, 5'S , black; owner: Henry Zelliner; Columbia, Maury Co. Remarks: retained as carpenter.

Williams, Romius[?J; 28, 5'S , black; owner: Sally Williams; Waynesboro, Wayne Co.

13 OCTOBER 18~3

[Note: It appears that the A-G entries of this date are lost.]

Hacher, Sam; 22, 5'S , black; owner: Widow Hatcher [sic]; Clarksville, Montgomery Co. Remarks: at work on Ft. Gillem.

Hacher, Joe; 21, 5'6 , black; owner: Widow Hatcher [sic]; Clarksville, Montgomery Co. Remarks: at work on Ft. Gillem.

Hiten, Josia; 28,5'S , black; owner: Win. L. Hiten; Clarksville, Montgomery Co. 

Remarks: at work on Ft. Gillem.

Hacher, Andrew; 36, 5'6 , black; owner: Widow Hatcher [sic]; Clarksville, Montgomery Co. Remarks: at work on Ft. Gillem.

Hillman, Bob; 29, 5'S , black; owner: Daniel Hillman; Centerville, Hickman Co.

Juson[?J, Jessy; 19, 5'6 , black; owner: Thomas Juson[?]; Trenton, Todd Co., Ky. Remarks: at work at Ft. Gillem.

Jarrett, James; 20, 5'S , yellow; owner: John Jarrett; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Jarrett, Bradley; 15, 5'l , black; owner: John Jarrett; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Jarrett, Luke; 32, 5'l , black; owner: John Jarrett; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Johnson, Randall; 22, 57 , black; owner: Matt Johnson; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Jarrett, Monroe; 22, 5'S', black; owner: John Jarrett; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Johnson, Phil; 27, 5'S , yellow; owner: Lem Johnson; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Kazee, Joe; 14, 5'l 112 , black; owner: William Kazee; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Kendrick, Sandy; 36, 5'S , black; owner: Smiley Kendrick; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Kontz, Moses; 25, 5'7', yellow; owner: George Kontz; Springfield, Robertson Co. Remarks:at work on Ft. Gillem.

Morse, Nelson; 22, S'2 , black; owner: William Morse; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Metcalf, Humphrey; 29, 5'O , black; owner: Miner Metcalf; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Manson, Bob; 36, 5'6 , black; owner: Walker Manson; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Mattson, Geo.; 23, 5'3 , black; owner: James Manson; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Mattson, Scott; 19, S'4 , black; owner: James Manson; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Nartington, Arter; 25, 56 , black; owner: Samuel Narthington; Springfield, Robertson Co.

Mitchell, Albert; 28, 5'3 , yellow; owner: Finley Mitchell; Clarksville, Montgomery Co. Remarks: at work at Ft. Gillem.

Mitchell,Joe; 32, 5'9 , black; owner: Finley Mitchell; Clarksville, Montgomery Co. Remarks: at work on Ft. Gillem.

Mitchell, Mark; 37, 59 , yellow; owner: Finly [sic] Mitchell; Clarksville, Montgomery Co. Remarks: at work at Ft. Gillem.

Nartington, Lee; 26, S'3 , black; owner: Samuel Narthington [sic]; Springfield, Robertson Co.

Nartington, Bill; 20,5'S , black; owner: Samuel Narthington [sic]; Springfield, Robertson Co.

Oldham, Geo.; 23, 5'S , black; owner: Moses Oldham; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Oneal, Anthony; 21, 5'S , black; owner: Hardy ONeal; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Old/win, Jerry; 16, 5'6 , yellow; owner: Moses Oldham; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Oneal, Isam; 40, 5'll , black; owner: Hardy Oneal; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Oneal, Henry; 22, 57 , black; owner: William Oneal; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Peacher, Monroe; 14, 4'll , black; owner: Peter Peacher; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Peacher, Ruben; 22, 58 , black; owner: Peter Peacher; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Param, John; 19, 5'4 , yellow; owner: Junius Param; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Param, Jim; 19, 5'8', black; owner: Junius Param; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Param, Henry; 19, 5'6 , black; owner: Junius Param; Clarksvjlle, Montgomery Co. Remarks: at work at Ft. Gillem.

Peterson, Facks; 33, 5'9 , black; owner: Isaac Peterson; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Param, Ben; 29,5'S , black; owner: Junius Param; Clarksville, Montgomery Co. Remarks: at work at Ft. GtIlem.

Param, Robert; 36, 5'6 , black; owner: Junius Param; Clarksville, Montgomery Co. Remarks: at work at Ft. Gillem.

Roudolph, Moser; 47, 5'6 , black; owner: William Roudolph; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Rudford, Ruben; 19, 5'4 , black; owner: Ben Rudford; Hopkinsville, Christian Co., Ky.

Roudolph, James; 34, 5'6', black; owner: Jacob Roudolph; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Reasons, Doss; 26, 5'6 , black; owner: Henry Reason; Clarksville, Montgomery Co. Remarks:  at work at Ft. Gillem.

Sadler, Sorney; 25, 5'6 , black; owner: Isaac Sadler; Tuscaloosa, Ala.

Steward, Sam; 19, 5'8 , yellow; owner: Ben Stewart; Ashland [City], Cheathaxn Co.

Steger, Major; 29, 50 , black; owner: Win. Steger, Hopkinsville, Christian Co., Ky.

Stoner,Booker; 37,5,11 , black; owner: Washington Stoner, Hopkinsville, Christian, Co., Ky.

Shields, Henry; 21, 58 , black; owner: Henry Shields; Hopkinsville, Christian Co., Ky.

Sanders, Win.; 39, 5'7', black; owner: Mrs. Harriet Martin; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Stoner, Amos; 21, 5'6 , black; owner: Washington Stoner; Hopkinsville, Christian Co., Ky.

Smith, Dick; 19, 53 , black; owner: Grandville Smith; Hopkinsville, Christian Co., Ky.

Short, Willis; 32, 5'9 , black; owner: Daniel Hillinan; Hickman, Hickman Co.

Smith, Soloman; 22, 5'4', black; owner: Doyal Smith; Trenton, Todd Co., Ky.

Smith, Alfred; 30, 57 , black; owner: Win. Smith; T~enton, Todd Co., Ky.

Smith, Jerry; 14,4'S , black; owner: George Smith; Clarksville, Montgomery Co. 

Remarks at work at Ft. Gillem.

Von, Washington; 20,54 , black; owner: Hiram Von; Clarksville, Montgomery Co. Remarks:  at work at Ft. Gillem.

Wood, Titus; 20, 5'9 , yellow; owner: Harden Wood; Trenton,Todd Co., Ky. Remarks: at work at Ft. Gillem.

Woodson, John; 17, 53 , yellow; owner: Garland Woodson; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Winn, Washington; 20, 5'9 , black; owner: Richard Winn; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Wood, Ephram; 33, 5'7 , black; owner: Harden Wood; Trenton, Todd Co., Ky. Remarks: at work at Ft. Gillem.

Wood, Charles; 23, 5'4 , black; owner: Harden Wood; Trenton, Todd Co., Ky. Remarks: at work at Ft. Gillem.

Walton, Bob; 33, 5'4 , black; owner: Mrs. B. N. Not[?]; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Wood, Cooper; 34, 5'7', black; owner: Harden Wood; Trenton, Todd Co., Ky. Remarks: at work at Ft. GilIem.

Whitfield, Demcy; 36, 5'lO', black; owner: Mrs. Hannah Whitfield; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Yancy, William; 20, 5'8 , black; owner: Thomas L. Yancey; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Yeats, George; 21, 5'3 , black; owner: Mrs. M. J. Yates; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Moore, John C.; 50, 5'4, black; owner: Benjamine Moore; Hopkinsville, Christian Co., Ky.

Smith, Cuff; 34, 55 , black; owner: Daniel Hillinan; Hickman, Hickman Co.

Thomas, Mat; 53, 5'S , black; owner: Nicholas Thomas; Clarksville, Montgomery Co. Remarks: at work at Ft. Gillem.

Kirk, Tom; 19,57 , black; owner: Rolla Kirk; fl~enton, Todd Co., Ky. Remarks: at work at Ft. Gillem.

Lockard, Gus; 19, 5'S , black; owner: Mrs. E. Lockard; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Hollins, Bill; 40, 5'3 , black; owner: Samuel Hollens [sic]; Clarksville, Montgomery Co. Remarks: at work at Ft. Gillem.

Jefferson, Andrew; 24, 5'S , yellow; owner: James Param; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.

Waltjn, Haywood; 40, 5'6 , black; owner: Mrs. Barbara Not[?]; Clarksville, Montgomery Co. Remarks: at work at Ft. Gillem.

Hackner, Moses; 15, 5'4 , black; owner: Frank Hackner; Mt. Pleasant, Maury Co. Talley, Bill; 40, 5'lO , black; owner: Gilford Talley; Clarksville, Montgomery Co.


 

NOTES AND REFERENCES

*Post Office Box 70161; Nashville, TN 37207. Mrs. Bamman is a Certified Genealogist specializing

in Tennessee research and is the co-compiler of three books (Tennessee Divorces, 1797-1858; Sumner

County. Tennessee, Probate Data, 1787-1808; Sumner County. Tennessee, Inventories, Settlements, and

Guardian Accounts, March 1808-Februa,y 1821). She is a member of both the National Genealogical

Society and the Association of Professional Genealogists.

1. Bobby L. Lovett, "The Negro in Tennessee, 1861-1866: A Socio-Military History of the Civil War Era (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Arkansas, 1978), 6.

2. W Sherman, General Order No.67, Memphis, August 8, 1862, The Negro in the Military Service of the United States: A Compilation of Official Records, State Papers, Historical Extracts, etc. Relating to His Militarj~ Status and Service from the Date of His Introduction into the British North American Colonies, National Archives and Records Administration, Microcopy T-823, vol. 2; also reprinted by Lovett, "The Negro in Tennessee, 29-30.

3. Wayne C. Moore, "Farm Communities and Economic Growth in the Lower Tennessee Valley:

Humphreys County, TN, 1785-1980 (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Rochester, 1990), 148-51.

4. Negroes Impressed for Railroad Work, Record Group 4, Army of Tennessee Records, Box 3; Manuscripts Division, Tennessee State Library and Archives, Nashville.

5. Guide to the National Archives of the United States (Washington: National Archives and Records

Service, 1983), 247; Lucille H. Pendeil and Elizabeth Bethel, Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the

Adjutant General's Office, Preliminary Inventory No. 17 (Washington: National Archives, 1949), 71-72;

Elizabeth Bethel, War Department Collection of Confederate Records, P1101 (Washington: National Archives,

1957), 37-38. 138.

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