After meeting former WWII vets in Morris and the surrounding area (some who've been in the Philipines), I (Salvador) started to do some re"search" (google) on the internet about historical events in my parents' homeland-Philippines. I took advantage visiting my parents (April 7th-17th of 2005-see Salvador's Family) by asking about their experience in WWII. Each story on my dad's side various because of different experiences between my dad (younger) and his brother (older). My dad (Cansiano) shared about grandpa-Benedicto (his dad), who was taken prisoner during the infamous Bataan Death March. Benedicto was fortunately made a cook in the prison camp, so he was able to eat and survive unlike the rest of the others. He did this for 2 years and returned home when the Japanese were defeated. Unfortunately, my great grandpa died fighting against the Japanese takeover
During the Japanese occupation, my dad told me that he fled to the mountains with his family to hide from the Japanese. "Grandpa" Benedicto went back to continue his regular job as bus inspector.
Great Grandfather Taken
I told Mr. Harla about my great-grandfather who was never seen (was actually seen after 3 years of captivity) after being taken away as a prisoner from my famiy during the infamous "Bataan March". I decided to reflect on what my dad told me of this sad time:
My Dad's Story
When I was growing-up, I remember stories of my dad about World War II. He told me that during WWII, he (4 years old at the time) remembered when the Japanese stormed into their county-particularly their hometown of Laguna. His family had to hide in the basement of their house located in the mountains in the city of Narcarlan. When they heard of the Japanese coming, dad told them all to hide (in the basement). However, my grand-father decided to come out of hiding and check above ground to see if the Japanese where still around their neighborhood. He was taken by the Japanese and walked with fellow prisoners during the infamous Bataan March. Fortunately, he survived 3 years (survived with the help of being a cook for the prisoners) in captivity and returned home. This wasn't so with my great-grandfather, who actually fought (with bamboo) against the Japanese and was killed.
My Mom Story
I interviewed my Mom last week (Friday, July 6th of 2007) at Papa's Restaurant (awesome Italian sandwiches-gyros..hmm!-located on the corner of Maryland and White Bear Ave.) on her personal family's experience during WWII. She was born during the Japanese were landing in the Lingayen Gulf in the province of Labrador, so she couldn't personally tell any personal direct experiences. However, she shared some stories that her parents would later tell her as she got older. Her family was "forced" to house Japanese soldiers, which they were not a threat at all-as long as my mom's family was "nice". Like my dad's family, they escaped to the mountains for refuge. However, my mom's family somehow went back to their home during the Japanese occupation.
My Uncle's Story (father's brother)
Today (Wednesday, August 29th of 2007), I was able to interview my uncle about his WWII experience. My Uncle (6 years old) Totoy (older brother of my dad's) wasn't able to go to school for 3 years, so he was behind the curiculuum by 3 years by the time he started back to school after the war. According to my Uncle Totoy, he told me his dad was working for the bus company when taken by the Japanese. He was part of the "Bataan Death March" and was walking to Tarlac. Along the walk, his co-worker was shot because he couldn't walk. My grandpa fell too, pretending he died too. When he returned home, he became part of the Filipino Guerillas to help fight against the Japanese. His family would escape to the forest whenever Japanese were around the vicinity. Grandma would cook plenty of food at times to make sure they had enough food to eat whenever they hid in the forest. He would carry my dad and Aunt Toni at times when they would run to the forest because they were so small.
Towards the end of the war, the Japanese started hiding where they would hide-in the mountains. The Japanese would start burning towns, but my uncle's family's town was saved. It was a miracle to have their town saved, which he believes patron Saint Bartalame (sp?) was the reason for the town's protection. Unfortunately, many people were killed, which there were mass graves of Filipinos that died. My uncle remembered smelling the "dead" as the Japanese didn't cover the mass graves well. When the Americans came, they would cover the mass graves completely.
The schools in their town became a military camp for the Japanese until the Americans took over it. My Uncle was very pleased of the Americans, which he told me that they were very considerate (e.g. gave medicine, food, etc...). Ironically, just this past summer (2007), my uncle was walking around Battle Creek Park and met some WWII American Vets that fought in the Philippines. He met 3 (83, 86, 80's years old) of them walking together alone by the tennis courts.
Stories of Americans that Walked with the Filipinos Captured
"...Marine Staff Sergeant Thomas R. Hicks, a field clerk in the 4th Marines, kept a “Record of Events” from 8 December
1941 to 2 May 1942 on Corregidor. It was apparently shipped off the island on the following day on the submarine Spearfish and arrived at Headquarters Marine Corps in Washington on 13 August 1942.
When Bataan fell to the enemy on 9 April 1942, Staff Sergeant Hicks enumerated six officers and 71 enlisted personnel (including Navy medical) as presumed prisoners of war. An additional Marine from an antiaircraft unit had contracted polio and was left at Bataan’s Hospital No.
The majority of captured Marines belonged to two organizations, the USAFFE-USFIP (finally Luzon Force) guard detachment and the Marine Air Warning Unit (an SCR-270B mobile, long-range radar unit). The first was composed of 43 enlisted Marines and two officers. The latter also had two officers and 28 communications personnel. Nearly all made the Death March.
Former Lieutenant Michiel Dobervich considers himself among the more fortunate of the prisoners. For reasons unknown to him, he was selected to drive a GMC truck loaded with sugar to Camp O’Donnell.
En route, Dobervich was witness to the initial looting, face slapping, beating, and bayoneting of American and Filipino captives. Guarded by a Japanese captain and a soldier with a bayonet at his back, he was helpless in the rage that welled in him. At Balanga, he saw an Army brigadier general and other senior staff officers run through a gauntlet of enemy privates, slapped and beaten as they were robbed of their possessions. At the same time, Dobervich lost 500 Philippines pesos, his wrist watch, two fountain pens, and $40 in U.S. currency. A friend from USAFFE’s motor pool and four others were beheaded when a Japanese found occupation money on their persons.
Bataan Survivor, Minnesotan Veteran of WWII finally shares his story after 55+ years online
" "A terrible silence settled over Bataan about noon on April 9," remembered General Jonathan Wainwright, the man who had assumed MacArthur's command after he left for Australia. On that day, Luzon Force commander Gen. Edward King, without informing Wainwright, surrendered to the Japanese. Numbering more than 70,000 (Filipinos and Americans), it was the largest American army in history to surrender. Some refused to become prisoners and fled, joining a significant resistance movement which grew to perhaps 180,000 guerrillas throughout the Philippines."
"After rescue of the 6th Rangers in January 1945, in the office of General Douglas MacArthur in Manila, Abie agreed to stay in the Phillippines and exhume the remains of KIA's and murdered Americans, many of whom SGT Abraham knew in the flesh. The next 2-1/2 years were spent in the jungle eluding mines, booby traps, natural dangers, communists, and the Ghosts of Bataan.. Sgt. Abraham walked the fine line between sanity and insanity.
In the above 2-1/2 years, Sgt Abraham was the key witness against Supreme Japanese Commander Lt. General Matasura Homma who was found guilty of war crimes and shot by a firing squad. During exhuming of graves on Bataan, a Japanese-Filipino came over to Abraham stating that the Japanese in the jungles wanted to surrender knowing the war was over and many were sick.
Abraham promised the Japanese Major protection from the Filipinos. Abraham called the Army camp at the San Fernando, telling them about the Japanese wanting to surrender two days later a platoon from the anti-tank company arrived and took the Japanese to a prison camp. At a ceremony Abraham accepted the Japanese Samarai saber.
Martinez among 70,000 American and Filipino troops who surrendered on Bataan Peninsula in April 1942
LAS CRUCES — Clifford “Smokey” Martinez, one of New Mexico’s last survivors of the Bataan Death March, has died. He was 88.
Martinez died Thursday at Memorial Medical Center, his family said.
“Smokey was our American hero, a true American hero for everyone,” Joe Garcia, Martinez’s son in-law, said Friday. “He was a very special guy who went through a lot for this country. He really put his life on the line for America.”
Much of Martinez’s early life was spent overcoming adversity, and he wrote a book titled Hard Knocks, in which he described some of his tough experiences.
During World War II, Martinez was among the 70,000 American and Filipino troops who surrendered on the Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines in April 1942 and were forced to march 65 miles without food or water to Japanese prison camps. Those who collapsed along the way were shot or bayoneted.
About 1,800 of the captives were from New Mexico. Fewer than 900 survived the march or the prison camps.
Born on Jan. 20, 1919, in Perrin, Texas, Martinez jumped on a train when he was 11 and ran away from home. In 1933, he was adopted by Pedro and Antonia Martinez of Carlsbad.
He moved to Las Cruces in 1940 and enlisted in the Army. He was assigned to the 7th Cavalry at Fort Bliss.
“We got up one morning and checked the bulletin board and it had volunteers for overseas duty,” Martinez told the Las Cruces Sun-News in a 2000 interview. “It had Alaska, which we thought was gonna be too damn cold. They had Panama, that was too close to home. Hawaii, we didn’t like the sound of it. Puerto Rico, didn’t like it, and the Philippines.
“So we figured that was pretty far away. At this time the war was getting pretty strong in Europe. We said, ’Well hell, we’ll go to the Philippines, nothing going (on there).”
After the surrender at Bataan, Martinez initially escaped, but he was recaptured a few days later. For 41 months, he was imprisoned.
In his book, Martinez said his experiences as a runaway helped him survive his time as a prisoner of war.
“He told us stories about it all the time,” Garcia said. “We would listen for hours as he told us about the horrors he and the other Americans went through. He talked about his early life, too, and because of those stories we kind of understood why he made it through.”
"Their case was probably made most clearly back in 1946, before their sacrifice had been relegated to a distant memory. "There can be no question," said a former World War I artillery captain named Harry Truman, "but that the Philippine veteran is entitled to benefits bearing a reasonable relation to those received by the American veteran, with whom he fought side by side."
"WW2 in The Philippines : Eyes of a Soldier"
"The idea to honor those who participated in the Bataan Death March originated in the late 1990’s. While meeting with New Mexico Senator Pete Domenici, Las Cruces businessman J. Joe Martinez mentioned the Death March and how it was often overlooked. Domenici agreed and plans to build a memorial ensued. Martinez - whose uncles John and Joe were prisoners of the Japanese army during World War II and at one time presumed dead - became the inspiration behind the memorial.
Two of the soldiers bear the faces of Martinez’ uncles, while the third face is that of Command Sergeant Major Gilbert L. Canuela, who is stationed at White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces. Canuela, who is of Filipino heritage, also had a family participate in the Bataan Death March.
"But they weren't farm boys from Kansas and California, or Italian-Americans from New Jersey as depicted in the black and white movies made during and after the war years. They were mostly Filipinos serving as enlisted soldiers in United States Army units commanded by American officers. They were special men in special units, officially designated "Philippine Scouts." At the beginning of World War II, General Douglas MacArthur's U.S. Army Forces in the Far East, spearheaded by the Philippine Division, were mostly Filipinos." Bataan Diary "The Philippine Scouts lived up to their reputation in combat, and were the backbone of General MacArthur's United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE). While the Japanese swept through the rest of Southeast Asia at the beginning of the war in the Pacific, General MacArthur's troops held out on Bataan Peninsula and Corregidor Island for more than four months, spearheaded by the Philippine Scouts. When the U.S. Army on Bataan surrendered on April 9, 1942, and Corregidor surrendered on May 6, 1942, virtually all of the Philippine Scout soldiers and officers became prisoners of the Japanese. Large numbers of them, more than half, would die in Japanese prison camps over the next three years...."
Frank was one of those who did not surrender with the army on 9 April 1942. He moved into the mountains in the northern part of the peninsula and, with the help of various Americans and many Filipinos, survived bouts of malaria and dysentery that almost completely disabled him. In an era when malaria has retreated into a distant, peripheral threat, it is instructive to read just how serious and painful the untreated disease can be. He also kept up his diary on tiny scraps of paper, stuffed the pages into jars and other receptacles and either buried them or gave them to friends to keep for him. Amazingly, he recovered most of them."
'Mr. Luciano Dimaano, a Filipino World War II veteran who escaped the Bataan Death March recalls "bombs were dropping on the shores of our frontlines. Boats were landing and the Japanese soldiers were coming ashore firing at us. There were so many of them like ants. We were out numbered." After a somber retreat, Mr. Dimaano was ordered to Bataan. Despite courageous efforts by U.S. forces, Bataan fell on April 9, 1942. Mr. Dimaano explains solemnly that "It was the loneliest days of my life." U.S. forces, including hundreds of Filipino soldiers were forced to surrender and suffer from this harrowing experience: leaving them to go without food or supplies, having to suffer without medicine for the wounded and sick soldiers, stumbling from utter exhaustion, and watching comrades be killed by the Japanese.
Fortunately, Mr. Dimaano was able to escape the Bataan Death March but suffered from malaria and dysentery for eight months. Despite, his suffering and courageous war efforts, he still waits for equity and recognition. "We Filipinos have the longest fightâ€¦until now we are fighting. Why do we veterans have to suffer? I urge Congress and the President to give us your blessing before we close our eyes forever."
On July 26, 1941, approximately 250,000 Filipino soldiers were inducted into the U.S. Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) by military order of President Roosevelt during World War II. The subsequent enactment of the 1946 Rescission Act unjustly stripped these brave soldiers of their veterans' status and instantly deemed their service as "inactive." Today, only 20,000 of these soldiers remain still waiting for their recognition and equity."
" Many families evacuated the town proper or the poblacion to go to the barangays or the mountains to hide and to elude the Japanese. The Japanese soldiers were notorious for conducting juez de cuchillio, so called because anyone they met— men, women, children, aged persons and animals— they would bayonet or cut off the heads with samurai swords (Cabatuan Historical Society, 1977: 16). Lucrecia Murga recalled an incident that happened towards the end of the world war: “In our farm in Bulay (a barangay in the municipality of Cabatuan), there were many members of the Janiga and Parreño families who evacuated there. At first we were living near one another, but later on we (including her sister, Lucia Murga) left the barrio and went back to the town because we learned that the Japanese were retreating. I heard the news that when the Japanese retreat, everyone should be careful not to be caught on their way because they will kill everyone. The Japanese were on foot because the retreat point then was the mountainous portion of Ma-asin (a neighboring town of Cabatuan). The Japanese passed by Pavia and went through Bulay. At that time, the Jainga and Parreño families hid themselves in holes dug for that purpose but then a child cried. The passing Japanese soldiers heard the baby so that they came to investigate. They massacred all the people there, the women were sliced in two daw ginpakas, (from the Jaingas, there were many and the Parreño sisters daw gin pakas), and the heads were cut off. Lucky for us we had a place to go but for them they did not have any alternative, thus it happened.....
Women in the town were designated to monitor enemy movements, like the number of Japanese military personnel and tanks present, as well as the movement of troops. They would notify resistance fighters of the information gathered.
"Beginning in 1931 or 1932 and continuing throughout the duration of the Asian/Pacific wars, the Japanese Government instituted a system of sexual slavery throughout the territories it occupied. During that time, women were recruited by force, coercion, or deception into sexual slavery for the Japanese military. These women were euphemistically referred to as "comfort women" by the Japanese Imperial Army. Although historians often disagree about the number of "comfort women," the most widely used figure is estimated at 200,000. The majority (approximately 80%) came from Korea, then a Japanese colony, and another large percentage came from Japanese-occupied China. Others were taken from, among other countries, the Philippines, Burma, and Indonesia. In addition, some women who were Netherlands' subjects were included in the immense roundup. The women were drawn primarily from those the Japanese considered racially inferior and virgins were actively sought."
Philippine Scout Heroes of WWII-Willibald C. Bianchi
by John A. Patterson "was assigned to the 45th Infantry (PS) at the time of the action (February 3, 1942) for which he was awarded the Medal of Honor. He entered the service from his hometown of New Ulm, Minnesota. As noted in the Medal of Honor citation, Bianchi received the nation's highest award "for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy ... near Bagac, Province of Bataan. When the rifle platoon of another company was ordered to wipe out two strong enemy machine-gun nests, 1st Lt. Bianchi voluntarily and of his own initiative, advanced with the platoon leading part of the men. When wounded early in the action by two bullets through the left hand, he did not stop for first aid but discarded his rifle and began firing a pistol. He located a machine-gun nest and personally silenced it with grenades. When wounded the second time by two machine-gun bullets through the chest muscles, 1st Lt. Bianchi climbed to the top of an American tank, manned its antiaircraft machine-gun, and fired into the strongly held enemy position until knocked completely off the tank by a third severe wound."
*currently (June-July 2007) reading this book
-American Soldiers Mentioned: "General Wainwright" [pp. 93] "The tank commander, Sgt. Herbert Strobel, fell out past the driver into my arms. I knew that [He] was mortally wounded. At about 3:00 P.M-he died-the first whom I had known intimately. He was from Brainerd, Minnesota, my hometown. He had a milk route before the war, and the tought kept repeating itself in my mind, "Herb won't deliver milk any more."-[pp. 97] "Sergeant Danforth-led his point into the town, under cover and unobserved. Three Filipinos and himself made up the point. He was equipped with both rifle and pistol. on rounding the corner of a building, he was confronted by four Jap soldiers. They were so suprised that they stood motionless and just gaped...Danforth threw his rifle up to fire. The gun missed fire. Dropping the rifle, he drew his pistol. It is quite positive that he killed two of the japs and wounded a third. The fourth took to his heels and escaped. The Japs did not fire a single shot!"-[pp. 176 Ch. 19 "U.S. Propoganda"] "The graves registration division at this camp did wonderful work. ...First Lt. Fred W. Koenig, Graves Registration, was largely responsible for the splendid service."-[pp.238 Ch. 25 "Camp O' Donnell-Offspring of Hell"]
*I mentioned this name because I went to school with a Josh Koenig, and thought that this former classmate of mine might've been related
"Some of the men had reached a state of mind closely bordering insanity, from the lack of water. In desperation, they would scoop it up from stagnant pools in the road ditches...
Some Filipinos appeared and we called them over and asked for water. A miracle took place. The Filpinos brought buckets of it and we drank until we could hold no more."-[pp 221-222 Ch.24 "March of Death"] "It is my opinion that the normal body could not have taken the abuse of the Death March...It was apparent that Quinlen and I could not go much further. I could hardly bear any weight, whatever, on my left foot. I even tried walking on my toes and heels.
We made up our minds, as we hobbled along, that we would try to make Lubao. And then, we agreed, let happen what would. If the turn of life's wheel meant that our number was up, it was all right with us. We knew that we would not go on in the condition we were in. OUr minds were steadfast, on that. It is most fortunate that the human mind has the ability of adjustment, both to varied conditions and shock...
Suddenly a Filipino bus came clattering down the road, from the direction of Bataan. In it were quite a number of Americans. The bus stopped close to us. The Americans said they had been picked up in southern Bataan and had been ordered by the Japs to get into this bus, and told the driver to go to San Fernando...
Quinlen climbed on and found a seat. I started in after him when one of the Jap guards hit me a stunning blow on the jaw with his gun butt.
I paid no attention to the guard, but simply climbed in the bus alongside Quinlen. The guard grunted, and walked off. The only explanation I am able to produce is, that the guard thought I was trying to leave the bus when it stopped. And so he hit me with the gun butt to get me back inside again!
It was a miracle from the Lord Almighty and I have always regarded it as such."- [pp. 224-227 Ch. 24 "March of Death"]
-Blessings! "At about 4:00 o'clock the next morning, December 25, 1941-Christmas-Capt. Spoor and I went to the rear, to check on our supply and maintenance echelon at Geona...Across the street from the bivouac, was an old Catholic church...Nearly everyone was kneeling. Mass had not yet started. We looked at Christ upon the Cross. It seemed that He moved. We sat-almost paralyzed..A very old Filipina lady was approaching, hobbing on a cane....She smiled-the most beautiful smile I have ever seen-and said, "Merry Christmas" God bless you." She disappeared, within the church. All of my previous Christmases flashed through my mind. I suppose Spoor had the same thoughts. He broke the spell when he said, "That ought to carry us through Christmas!"-[pp. 91 Ch. 11 "The Agno River Rat Trap"] "..After marching a short distance, we were herded into Zentsuji Prison Camp...We arrived at about 10:00am, January 16, 1943. For nearly to and one-half years, this was to be our home.
Another shakedown was in store for us...Inwardly, my prayers were feverent that the deception would pass again. It did!"-[pp. 279-280 Ch.29 "The Session on Food"] "Never, do I expect to find the Christmas spirit anywhere, that was displayed at Zentsuji. It is almost indsecribable in its beauty and its sheer strength. It was a spirit fashioned by men who had a so little with which to work-a spirit that was close to Christ. We felt His presnce."-[pp. 331 of Ch. 34-Christmas at Zentsuji] "On Christmas night, both 1943 and 1944, the American staged "A Christmas Carol." It was a distinct success each time and the audience was truly appreciative. It had been rehearsed quite carefully. Even the Jap interpreters, who, under cam regulations had to be present, seemed to enjoy it. And the the day ended.
Without doubt, none of us ever experienced a Christmas such as that, before or since. The expensive gifts were missing, to be sure. But in their place was the real spirit of Christmas. It was a spirit, exemplified, in the small, homely offerings from one friend to the other-the shedding of arguments and petty dislikes which come to people living too close togehter. The important part was, what the spirit of the Christmas Child Himself was present, in that prison camp."-[pp 334]
-Camp Zentsuji Lawrence Journal World Zentsuji POW Camp, Center for Research
Allied POWS Under the Japanese Zentsuji, Kagawa, from Wikipedia
-Filipino People "We began to see Filipino civilians along the road. They were very sympatheti, noting our misery. They risked death, by covertly tossing raw turnips to us."-[pp. 225 Ch. 24 "March of Death"] "We left Cabanatuan Prison Camp at about 3:00am, November 5, 1942. Arriving at the town, we were herded into the hated box cars...
Whether or not we stopped at stations enroute, the blessed Filipinos were on hand to throw foodstuffs to us. At one station where we stopped, they had brought buckets of a kind of fruit drink. It was delicious. Very strangely, the Japs did not bother anyone at this station."-[pp. 259 Ch. 27 "The Hell Ship"]
-Filipino Scouts "The Philippine Scouts (part of our regular army) had numbered 6,000 as a maximum...No finer soldeir was ever found. It was the highest ambition of the Filipino to become a Scout."-[pp. 77 Ch. 9 "The Rice Storage at Cabanatuan"] "The Scouts immediately followed up, killing many Japs on either side of the beach, and putting the rest on the run. This was accomplished before the tanks could even make their way up the trail!'-[pp 200 Ch. 21 "Help is On the Way"]
Related Sites: Philippine Scouts Philippine Scout Heroes of WWII,
by John A. Patterson "Those who know the history of the Philippine Scouts stand in awe of their exploits during World War II. Even though they performed extraordinarily well before the war as regular U.S. Army soldiers charged with the defense of the Philippines, it is their spirited combat against the Japanese in one action after another from early December 1941, until the fall of the Philippines in May of 1942, for which they are most famous." Wikipedia "In the midst of the Battle of Bataan, on 11 March 1942, President Roosevelt had General Douglas MacArthur spirited out of the Philippines by PT boat and airplane. With the U.S. Navy at Pearl Harbor in shambles, and the Japanese Navy blockading the Philippines, there was no way to send adequate amounts of food, medicine, ammunition or reinforcements to Bataan. Even early on in the campaign, in January 1942, because the Fil-American military's food-stocks were judged as insufficient for the planned six-month siege, General MacArthur ordered that his forces be fed one-half daily rations. Of course, such a diet did not provide enough calories for men working and fighting in the tropical heat of the Philippines' Dry season. Nonetheless, the Scouts and the other soldiers held out for more than four months without adequate food or medicine, while malaria, dysentery and malnutrition ravaged their ranks, and Japanese attacks drove them further down the Bataan Peninsula."
-Hell Ships Hell Ships, from harrisonheritage.com Hell Ships Memorial Wikipedia "As Allied forces closed in, the Japanese began transferring POWs by sea. Similar to conditions on the Bataan Death March, prisoners were often crammed into cargo holds with little air, food or water for journeys that would last weeks. Many died due to asphyxia, starvation or dysentery. Some POWs in the heat, humidity, lack of oxygen, food, and water became delirious and unresponsive to their environment. Unlike weapons transports which were sometimes marked as Red Cross ships, these prisoner transports were unmarked and were targeted by Allied submarines and aircraft, unaware of their real purpose."
-KGEI (Raio station from San Francisco) American Forces
Radio and Television Service-The First Sixty Years "The first radio broadcasts, however, were short-wave transmissions beamed to the Philippines by KGEI in San Francisco beginning in 1939. The response from the field was encouraging. In Asia, it was an answer to Japanese Radio Tokyo broadcasts that covered most of the continent. When McArthur was struggling to save Philippines from the Japanese KGEI broadcasts were the only sources of news and information coming from America. McArthur’s people set up a transmitter at Baatan and then rebroadcast KGEI programs. When the transmitter was, however, moved to
Corrrgidor with Macarthur it was used solely for propaganda purposes that did not do anyone any good. In any case, MacArthur’s “Voice of Freedom” was an important step in the right direction." The History Of KTAB and KSFO
San Francisco, California
By John F. Schneider
*KGEI mentioned by E.B. many times "KSFO's importance as a broadcast station did not end when it parted company with CBS. With the start of World War II, KSFO produced war news that rivaled, and occasionally surpassed, the networks. As the key station for the Universal Broadcasting Company, a new but short-lived network, KSFO provided extensive news coverage, as well as regular news commentator reports, to the rest of the nation. The station broadcast fifteen-minute newscasts hourly, emphasizing the national and world news, along with in- depth reporting and feature stories. And, in the mid and late forties, KSFO provided live coverage of many major news events. For example, the station had its own reporter on the scene to cover the Japanese surrender in 1945"
Related Sites: Company C, 194th Tank Battalion in the Philippines, 1941-42, from military museum "The 194th Tank Battalion was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel (LTC) Ernest B. Miller and was comprised of M3 tanks, half-tracks, jeeps, and motorcycles. For nearly a month, the 194th Tank Battalion had fought along a series of phase, obstacle, and holding lines, executing a retrograde delay from both North and South Luzon. It had fought a number of sharp actions and contributed significantly to the success of the orderly delay of American and Filipino forces back to the Bataan Peninsula." Miller Range Complex, pdf format from minnesota national guard Japanese PSYOP During WWII, various leaflets/propoganda to deceive the countries they bombed!
*E.B. Miller mentions this in his book
Reviews: West Point-Publications
*other good books on this subject listed here too "Lt. Boyt, 201st Engr. Bn. (PA), was stationed at Clark Field at the beginning of the war. It tells of his time during the defensive campaign on Bataan, his participation in the Death March and conditions at all the POW Camps he was at in the Philippines (Camp O'Donnell and Cabanatuan) and Japan (Tanagawa, Zentsuji and Roku Roshi). In November 1942 he went from Manila to Japan aboard the Nagato Maru. It also goes into his eventual rescue by American Forces and his trip home. Many names are mentioned in the story itself along with several different POW camps"
-War Ends "The announcement was made to the prisoners, in short terse words...Who won?...Prisoners screamed and danced and wept and prayed. They shook hands and pounded one another on the back. They whislted and stomped. It was stark pandemonium. You talked to yourself, to everyone else-and the Lord. You tried to sing "America" and a lump in your throat knocked the tune apart. But it was there just the same. And so was "Praise God From Whom All Blessings Flow" and the heartfelt thankfulness of men who knew the true meaning of thanksgiving"-[pp. 351 Ch. 36 "The War is Over!"] "..Any attempt for revenge on the Japs at Rokuroshi was discouraged...It may be suprising, that the great majority of the prisoners, wished only to see the guilty punished, but by legal process. That, to me, speaks well for the code of ethics of Americans."-[pp 358 Ch. 37 "Freedom"] MY FARAWAY HOME: An American Family's WWII Tale of Adventure and Survival in the Jungles of the Philippines
Mary McKay Maynard
The Lyons Press
ISBN: 1585742619, from bookreporter.com "We hear a lot about the bombing of Pearl Harbor these days, and for good reason. When it actually happened, there was nothing to compare it to. Unfortunately, Mary McKay and her family were not even on U. S. shores at the time in order to deal with the consequences of this act --- instead they were in the Philippines, the next place on Japan's attack plan, living with other mining families. They fled their comfortable home for a jungle flight that they hoped would last simply days. Instead, they found themselves on the run in the tropics for two years, escaping on submarines dodging torpedoes, surviving natural disasters --- even her brother managed to survive a long stay in a prison camp after being taken in after the bombing of Manila. MY FARAWAY HOME is a memoir that few of us would like to repeat, but it does raise interesting questions about the fights for freedom and how far one must go and what one must suffer in order to preserve our American way of life."--- Reviewed by Jana Siciliano
Related Sites: Book near, order Books About Our War
Written by Family & Friends, from HarrisonHeritage
"A few hours after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, the Japanese launched air raids in several cities and US military installations in the Philippines on December 8, and on December 10, the first Japanese troops landed in Northern Luzon.
General Douglas MacArthur, commander of the United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE), was forced to retreat to Bataan. Manila was occupied by the Japanese on January 2, 1942. The fall of Bataan was on April 9, 1942 with Corregidor Island, at the mouth of Manila Bay, surrendering on May 6 (an act which completely delayed the Japanese war timetable).
The Commonwealth government by then had exiled itself to Washington, DC, upon the invitation of President Roosevelt; however many politicians stayed behind and collaborated with the occupying Japanese. The Philippine Army continued to fight the Japanese in a guerrilla war and were considered auxiliary units of the United States Army. Several Philippine military awards, such as the Philippine Defense Medal, Independence Medal, and Liberation Medal, were awarded to both the United States and Philippine Armed Forces.
As the Japanese forces advanced, Manila was declared an open city to prevent it from destruction, meanwhile, the government was moved to Corregidor. In March 1942, U.S. General Douglas MacArthur and President Quezon fled the country. The cruelty of the Japanese military occupation of the Philippines is legendary. Guerrilla units harassed the Japanese when they could, and on Luzon native resistance was strong enough that the Japanese never did get control of a large part of the island. Finally, in October 1944, McArthur had gathered enough additional troops and supplies to begin the retaking of the Philippines, landing with Sergio Osmena who had assumed the Presidency after Quezon's death. The battles entailed long fierce fighting; some of the Japanese continued to fight until the official surrender of the Empire of Japan on September 2, 1945.
After their landing, American forces also undertook measures to suppress the Huk movement, which was originally founded to fight the Japanese Occupation. The American forces removed local Huk governments and imprisoned many high-ranking members of the Philippine Communist Party. While these incidents happened, there was still fighting against the Japanese forces and, despite the American measures against the Huk, they still supported American soldiers in the fight against the Japanese.
Over a million Filipinos had been killed in the war, and many towns and cities, including Manila, were left in ruins. The final Japanese soldier to surrender was Hiroo Onoda, in 1974."
"The Bataan Death March"
Directed By: Kris Oskierko
*saw this on Memorial Day (Monday, May 28th of 2007)
Reviews: IMDB"Taking place towards the end of WWII, 500 American Soldiers have been entrapped in a camp for 3 years. Beginning to give up hope they will ever be rescued, a group of Rangers goes on a dangerous mission to try and save them." "It's too bad this movie won't do well at the office because it doesn't cater to the teens and their expendable income. The limited wide release also won't help it but I know for those who watch it they'll be touched. They'll know that there were and are sacrifices being made to ensure that the country they live in are safe and protected."
"Great Raid" (actual footages) from Youtube.com
Wikipedia "is a 2005 war film which tells the story of the January 1945 liberation of the Cabanatuan Prison Camp during World War II. It is directed by John Dahl and stars Benjamin Bratt, Joseph Fiennes, James Franco and Connie Nielsen with Filipino actor Cesar Montano. In the United States, it is rated R for strong war violence and brief language. The principal photography took place from July 4, to November 6, 2002, but its release was delayed several times from the original target of fall 2003.
The film opened in theaters across America on August 12, 2005, three days before the 60th anniversary of V-J Day, to widely mixed reviews. Film critics[attribution needed] pointed out that it was too much like classic war movies that simply glorified American troops and demonized the enemy through predictable stereotypes and plot devices.
"Even audiences predisposed to sagas of American valor or nostalgic for the good old days of unswerving wartime coalitions will find little here beyond the retro patina to grab their attention", wrote TheHollywoodReporter.com.
The film has a notable difference in tone from other World War II films. Instead of a chaotic battle sequence (such as the one in Saving Private Ryan), it shows a carefully choreographed U.S. Army Rangers raid in the climactic scene, paralleling more closely the actual raid.
The real-life efforts of Filipino National Forces are also specifically highlighted, especially a courageous stand at a bridge that delayed Japanese reinforcements. These units fought alongside Americans against Japanese occupiers during the war.
Some critics[attribution needed] complained that the Japanese soldiers were portrayed as uniformly brutal and inhumane. While it is true that there are no positive Japanese characters in the film, it should be noted that the film uses historical footage of the captives after they are freed, that inhumane treatment by Japanese troops of American POWs was widespread, in part because of Japanese occupation practices, and a Japanese cultural belief that it was shameful to surrender." Raid at Cabanautan, from Wikipedia "Two days later, MacArthur's forces landed on Luzon, and began a rapid advance towards the capital, Manila. During this time, Lt. Gen. Walter Krueger, the U.S. Sixth Army commander, was notified of the Cabanatuan camp's existence by Major Robert Lapham, the senior USAFFE guerrilla leader in Luzon.
By 26 January, with Sixth Army forward units nearing Cabanatuan, Gen. Krueger became increasingly concerned of the situation at the camp, and with his intelligence officer, Col. Horton White, called in the special reconnaissance unit attached to his Sixth Army—the Alamo Scouts—for a briefing. The next day, Krueger assigned Lt. Col. Henry Mucci and his 6th Ranger Battalion the mission to raid Cabanatuan and rescue the POWs." 6th Ranger Battalion, from Wikipedia "The 6th Rangers were to lead the invasion of the Philippines. The battalion left Finchhaven for Leyte in the Philippines on 10 October 1944. It was to secure the islands of Dinagat, Homonhon and Suluan, located in the entrance to the Leyte Gulf. These islands had the potential to disrupt 6th Army's landing operations if they remained in Japanese hands. After initial delays due to bad weather, the operation went ahead on 18 October, and was a success. The 6th Rangers on Dinagat raised the first American flag on Philippine soil as part of General Douglas MacArthur's 'Return to the Philippines'." Captain Robert Prince, from PBS Medal of Freedom Recipient Margaret Elizabeth Utinsky
War heroine's life story is the stuff of history ... and mystery
By Elizabethe Holland
Of the Post-Dispatch
05/31/2004 " While trying to track her husband, she undertook a remarkable mission. She organized and led a secret network that smuggled food, medicine, money, shoes - anything that might help - to American prisoners. Her code name was Miss U.
While her work and that of the numerous people who helped her is credited with saving the lives of many injured, starving Americans in death camps, her story is far from fairy-tale caliber. Suspected of helping prisoners, she was interrogated and tortured in a prison for a month. But worst of all, her search for Jack only yielded heartbreak. She learned he had survived the Death March only to die of starvation in a prison in August 1942."
"The name of the province was derived from the Malay word “Samba” meaning to worship as the inhabitants were found by the Spaniards to be “worshipping spirits” called “Anitos”. The inhabitants were then referred to as “Sambali” or the hispanized form “Zambals”."
-Spanish -American War, from Wikipedia "..On August 13, with American commanders unaware that a peace protocol had been signed between Spain and the United States on the previous day, American forces captured the city from the Spanish. This battle marked an end of Filipino-American collaboration, as Filipino forces were prevented from entering the captured city of Manila, an action which was deeply resented by the Filipinos and which later led to the Philippine-American War."
-Philippine-American War, from Wikipedia "Admiral George Dewey, having engaged and defeated the Spanish fleet at Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, ferried Aguinaldo back to the Philippines on May 19. In a matter of months, the Philippine Army conquered nearly all of Spanish-held ground within the Philippines. With the exception of Manila, which was completely surrounded by the Philippine Army of 12,000, the Filipinos now controlled the Philippines. Aguinaldo also turned over 15,000 Spanish prisoners to the Americans, offering them valuable intelligence. On June 12, Aguinaldo declared independence at his house in Cavite El Viejo.
By August, the Spaniards had surrendered Manila, and the Americans had occupied it. Governor-General Fermin Jaudenes had made a secret agreement with Dewey and General Wesley Merritt. Jaudenes specifically requested to surrender only to the Americans. In order to save face, he proposed a mock battle with the Americans preceding the Spanish surrender; the Filipinos would not be allowed to enter the city. Dewey and Merritt agreed to this, and no one else in either camp knew about the agreement. On the eve of the mock battle, General Thomas M. Anderson telegraphed Aguinaldo, “Do not let your troops enter Manila without the permission of the American commander. On this side of the Pasig River you will be under fire”.
The June 12 declaration of Philippine independence was not recognized by the United States or Spain, since the Spanish government ceded the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris, which was signed on December 10, 1898, in consideration for an indemnity for Spanish expenses and assets lost."
American opposition to the war
American Opposition to the war: "Some Americans, notably William Jennings Bryan, Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, Ernest Crosby, and other members of the American Anti-Imperialist League, strongly objected to the annexation of the Philippines. Other Americans mistakenly thought that the Philippines wanted to become part of the United States. Anti-imperialist movements claimed that the United States had betrayed its lofty goals of the Spanish–American War by becoming a colonial power, merely replacing Spain in the Philippines. Other anti-imperialists opposed annexation on racist grounds. Among these was Senator Benjamin Tillman of South Carolina, who feared that annexation of the Philippines would lead to an influx of non-white immigrants, thus undermining white racial purity in America. As news of atrocities committed in subduing the Philippines arrived in the United States, support for the war flagged.
English Education: "In August of 1901, hundreds of American teachers arrived in Manila aboard the U.S.S. Thomas. These "Thomasite" teachers quickly founded schools all over the Philippines. As soon as the Thomas anchored, the destruction of American power and control of the Philippines was preordained. It was inevitable once the Americans chose to allow – indeed, helped and supported – education in the Philippines that they could not long remain in control of the islands. The Americans, in a sense, planted the seeds of education and in planting those seeds ensured a harvest of freedom and an understandable disdain among Filipinos for conquerors."
Mark Twain famously opposed the war by using his influence in the press. He felt it betrayed the ideals of American democracy by not allowing the Filipino people to choose their own destiny.
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