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The Opening of the Eyes

- Kaimoku Sho -

Part One [snack one]

There are three categories of people that all men and women should respect. They are the sovereign, the teacher, and the parent. There are three types of doctrines that are to be studied. They are Confucianism, Brahmanism, and Buddhism.

Confucianism describes the Three Sovereigns1, the Five Emperors2 and the Three Kings3, whom it calls the Honorable Ones of Heaven. These men are depicted as the heads of the government officials and the bridges for the populace. In the age before the Three Sovereigns, people were no better than birds and beasts in that they did not even know who their own fathers were. But from the time of the Five Emperors on, they learned to know what both their father and mother were to themselves, treating them according to the dictates of filial piety. Thus Chung-hua served his father with reverence, though the latter was stubborn and hardheaded. Also, the governor of P’ei, after he became the emperor, continued to pay great respect to his father, the Venerable Sire. King Wu4 of the Chou dynasty made a wooden image of his father, the Earl of the West, and Ting Lan5 fashioned a statue of his mother. All of these men are models of filial piety.

The high minister Pi Kan6, seeing that the Yin dynasty was on the path to ruin, strongly admonished the ruler, though it cost him his head. Hung Yen7, finding that his lord, Duke Yi, had been killed, cut open his own stomach and inserted the duke’s liver in it before he died. These men may serve as models of loyalty.

Yin Shou was the teacher of Emperor Yao, Wu Ch’eng was the teacher of Emperor Shun, T’ai-kung Wang8 was the teacher of King Wen, and Lao Tzu was the teacher of Confucius9. These teachers are known as the four sages. Even the Honorable Ones of Heaven bow their heads to them in respect, and all people press their palms together in reverence. Sages such as these have left behind writings that run to over three thousand volumes in such works as the Three Records, the Five Canons and the Three Histories10. But all these writings in the end do not advance beyond the three mysteries. The first of the three mysteries is Being11. This is the principle taught by the Duke of Chou and others. The second mystery is Non-Being12 which was expounded by Lao Tzu. The third is Both Being and Non-Being13, which is the mystery set forth by Chuang Tzu. Mystery denotes darkness. Some say that, if we ask what existed before our ancestors were born, we will find that life was born out of the primal force, while others declare that eminence and ignobility, joy and sorrow, right and wrong, gain and loss occur simply as part of the natural order.

These are theories that are cleverly argued, but which fail to take cognizance of either the past or the future. Mystery, as we have seen, means darkness or obscurity, and it is for this reason that it is called mystery. It is a theory that deals with matters only in terms of the present. Speaking in terms of the present, the Confucians declare that one should abide by the principles of benevolence and righteousness14 and thereby insure safety to oneself and peace and order to the state. If one departs from these principles, they say, then one’s family will be doomed and one’s house overthrown. But although the wise and worthy men who preach this doctrine are acclaimed as sages, they know nothing more about the past than an ordinary person unable to see his own back, and they understand as little about the future as a blind man who cannot see what lies in front of him.

If, in terms of the present, one brings order to one’s family, carries out the demands of filial piety, and faithfully practices the five constant virtues of benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom and good faith, then one’s associates will respect one and one’s name will become known throughout the country. If there is a wise ruler on the throne, he will invite such a person to become his minister or his teacher, or may even cede his position to him. Heaven too will come to protect and watch over such a person. Such were the so-called Five Elders15 who gathered about and assisted King Wu of the Chou dynasty, or the twenty-eight generals of Emperor Kuang-wu of the Later Han, who were likened to the twenty-eight constellations of the sky16. But since such a person knows nothing about the past or the future, he cannot assist his parents, his sovereign or his teacher in making provisions for their future lives, and he is therefore unable to repay the debt he owes them. Such a person is not a true worthy man or sage.

Confucius declared that there were no worthy men or sages in his country, but that in the land to the west there was one named Buddha who was a sage17." This indicates that non-Buddhist texts should be regarded as the first step toward Buddhist doctrine. Confucius first taught the doctrine of rites and music18 so that, when the Buddhist scriptures were brought to China, the concepts of the precepts, meditation and wisdom19 could be more readily grasped. He taught the ideals of ruler and minister so that the distinction between superior and subordinate could be made clear, he taught the ideal of parenthood so that the importance of filial piety could be appreciated, and he explained the ideal of the teacher so that people might be taught to follow.

The Great Teacher Miao-lo says: "The propagation of Buddhism truly depends on this. First the teachings on rites and music were expounded, and later the true way was introduced.20" T’ien-t’ai states: "In the Konkomyo Sutra it is recorded that ‘All the good teachings that exist in the world derive from this sutra. To have a profound knowledge of this world is itself Buddhism.21’" In the Maka shikan we read: "I [the Buddha] have dispatched the Three Sages22 to educate the land of China." In the Guketsu, we read: "The Shojohogyo Sutra states that Bodhisattva Gakko appeared in that land under the name Yen Hui, Bodhisattva Kojo appeared there as Confucius, and Bodhisattva Kashyapa appeared as Lao Tzu. Since the sutra is speaking from the point of view of India, it refers to China as ‘that land.’ "

Secondly, we come to the non-Buddhist teachings of India. In Brahmanism we find the two deities Shiva, who has three eyes and eight arms, and Vishnu. They are hailed as the loving father and compassionate mother of all living beings and are also called the Honorable One of Heaven and sovereign. In addition, there are three men, Kapila, Uluka and Rishabha23, who are known as the three ascetics. These ascetics lived somewhere around eight hundred years before the time of the Buddha. The teachings expounded by the three ascetics are known as the four Vedas, and number sixty thousand.

Later, in the time of the Buddha, there were the six non-Buddhist teachers, who studied and transmitted these non-Buddhist scriptures and acted as tutors to the kings of the five regions of India.24 Their teachings split into ninety-five or ninety-six different lines, forming school after school. The banners of their pride were lifted up higher than the heaven where there is neither thought nor no thought, and their dogmatic rigidity was harder than metal or stone. But in their skill and depth of understanding, they surpassed anything known in Confucianism. They were able to look into the past and perceive two, three, or even seven existences, a period of eighty thousand kalpas, and they could likewise know what would happen eighty thousand kalpas in the future. As the fundamental principle of their doctrine, some of these schools taught that causes produce effects, others taught that causes do not produce effects, while still others taught that causes both do and do not produce effects. Such were the fundamental principles of these non-Buddhist schools.

The devout followers of the non-Buddhist teachings observe the five precepts25 and the ten good precepts26, practice the kind of meditation that is still accompanied by outflows and, ascending to the worlds of form and formlessness27, believe they have attained nirvana when they reach the highest level of heavens. But although they make their way upward bit by bit like an inchworm, they fall back from the heaven where there is neither thought nor no thought, and descend instead into the three evil paths. Not a single one succeeds in remaining on the level of heavens, though they believe that once a person has attained that level, he will never descend from it. Each approves and practices the doctrines taught by his teacher and stoutly abides by them. Thus some of them bathe three times a day in the Ganges even on cold winter days, while others pull out the hairs on their head, fling themselves against rocks, expose themselves to fire, burn their bodies, or go about stark naked. Again there are those who believe they can gain good fortune by sacrificing many horses, or who burn grasses and trees, or make obeisance to every tree they encounter.

Erroneous teachings such as these are too numerous to be counted. Their adherents pay as much respect and honor to the teachers who propound them as the various deities pay to the god Taishaku or the court ministers pay to the ruler of the empire. But not a single person who adheres to these ninety-five types of higher or lower non-Buddhist teachings ever escapes from the cycle of birth and death. Those who follow teachers of the better sort will, after two or three rebirths, fall into the evil paths, while those who follow evil teachers will fall into the evil paths in their very next rebirth.

And yet the final conclusion of these non-Buddhist teachings constitutes an important means of entry into Buddhism. Some of them state, "A thousand years from now, the Buddha will appear in the world,"28 while others state, "A hundred years from now, the Buddha will appear in the world."29 The Nirvana Sutra remarks: "All scriptures or teachings, from whatever source, are ultimately the revelation of Buddhist truth. They are not non-Buddhist teachings." And in the Lotus Sutra it is written, "Before the multitude they seem possessed of the three poisons or manifest the signs of heretical views. My disciples in this manner use expedient means to save living beings."

Thirdly, we come to Buddhism. One should know that the World-Honored One of Great Enlightenment is a great leader for all living beings, a great eye for them, a great bridge, a great helmsman, a great field of good fortune. The four sages and three ascetics of the Confucian and Brahmanical scriptures and teachings are referred to as sages, but in fact they are no more than ordinary people who have not yet been able to eradicate the three categories of illusion. They are referred to as wise men, but in fact they are no more than infants who cannot understand the principles of cause and effect. With their teachings for a ship, could one ever cross over the sea of the sufferings of birth and death? With their teachings for a bridge, could one ever escape from the maze of the six paths? But the Buddha, our great teacher, has advanced beyond even transmigration with change and advance30, let alone transmigration with differences and limitations31. He has wiped out even the very root of fundamental darkness,32 let alone the illusions of thought and desire that are as minor as branches and leaves.

This Buddha, from the time of his enlightenment at the age of thirty until his passing at the age of eighty, expounded his sacred teachings for a period of fifty years. Each word, each phrase he spoke is true; not a sentence, not a verse was false. The words of the sages and worthy men preserved in the scriptures and teachings of Confucianism and Brahmanism, as we have noted, are free of error, and the words match the spirit in which they were spoken. But how much more true is this in the case of the Buddha, no speaker of false words from countless kalpas in the past! In comparison to the non-Buddhist scriptures and teachings, the doctrines that he expounded in a period of fifty or so years represent the great vehicle, the true words of the great man. Everything that he preached, from the dawn of his enlightenment until the evening that he entered into nirvana, is none other than the truth.

However, when we examine the eighty thousand teachings of Buddhism33 expounded during a period of fifty or more years and recorded in scriptures, we find that they fall into various categories such as Hinayana and Mahayana, provisional and true sutras, exoteric and esoteric teachings, detailed and rough discourses, true words and false words, correct and incorrect views. But among these, the Lotus Sutra alone represents the correct teachings of Shakyamuni Buddha, the lord of teachings, the truthful words of the Buddhas of the three existences and the ten directions. The World-Honored One of Great Enlightenment designated a specific period of the preceding forty years and more, and defined the various sutras preached during that period, numerous as the sands of the Ganges, as the sutras in which he had "not yet revealed the truth."34 He designated the Lotus Sutra preached during the eight years as the sutra in which he "now must reveal the truth."35 Thus Taho Buddha came forth from the earth to testify that "All that you have expounded [in the Lotus Sutra] is the truth,"36 and the Buddhas that are emanations of Shakyamuni gathered together and extended their long tongues up to the Brahma heaven in testimony.37 These words are perfectly clear, perfectly understandable, brighter than the sun on a clear day or like the full moon at midnight. Look up to them and believe them, and when you turn away, cherish them in your heart!

The Lotus Sutra contains two important teachings.38 The Kusha, Jojitsu, Ritsu, Hosso and Sanron sects have never heard even so much as the name of these teachings. The Kegon and Shingon sects, on the other hand, have surreptitiously stolen these doctrines and made them the heart of their own teachings. The doctrine of ichinen sanzen,39 or three thousand realms in a single moment of life, is found in only one place, hidden in the depths of the Juryo chapter of the essential teaching of the Lotus Sutra. Nagarjuna and Vasubandhu were aware of it but did not bring it forth into the light. T’ien-t’ai Chih-che alone embraced it and kept it ever in mind.

The doctrine of the three thousand realms in a single moment of life begins with the concept of the mutual possession of the Ten Worlds. But the Hosso and Sanron sects speak only of eight worlds40 and know nothing of the entirety of the Ten Worlds, much less of the concept of their mutual possession. The Kusha, Jojitsu and Ritsu sects derive their teachings from the Agon sutras. They are aware only of the six worlds and know nothing of the other four worlds. They declare that in all the ten directions there is only one Buddha, and do not even preach that there is any other Buddha in any of the ten directions. Of the principle that "all sentient beings alike possess the Buddha nature,"41 they of course say nothing at all. They refuse to acknowledge that even a single person possesses the Buddha nature. In spite of this, one will sometimes hear members of the Ritsu and Jojitsu sects declaring that there are Buddhas in the ten directions or that all living beings possess the Buddha nature. This is because the teachers of these sects who appeared after the passing away of the Buddha had stolen these Mahayana doctrines and incorporated them into the teachings of their own sects.

To illustrate, in the period before the appearance of Buddhism, the proponents of the non-Buddhist teachings in India were not so bound up in their own views. But after the appearance of the Buddha, when they had listened to and observed the Buddhist teachings, they became aware of the shortcomings of their own doctrines. They then conceived the clever idea of appropriating Buddhist teachings and incorporating them into their own doctrines, and as a result they fell into even deeper error than before. These are examples of the type of heretical teachings known as "appropriating Buddhism" or "misunderstanding Buddhism.[fubukkya and gakubuppaja]"42

The same thing occurred in the case of non-Buddhist scriptures in China. Before Buddhism was brought to China, Confucianism and Taoism were rather naive and childish affairs. But in the Later Han, Buddhism was introduced to China and challenged the native doctrines. In time, as Buddhism became more popular, there were certain Buddhist monks who, because they had broken the precepts, were forced to return to secular life, or who elected to join forces with the native creeds. Through such men, Buddhist doctrines were stolen and incorporated by the Confucian and Taoist teachings.

In volume five of the Maka shikan we read: "These days there are many devilish monks who break the precepts and return to lay life. Fearing that they will be punished for their action, they then go over to the side of the Taoists. Hoping to gain fame and profit, they speak extravagantly of the merits of Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu, usurping Buddhist concepts and reading them into their erroneous scriptures. They twist what is lofty and force it into a mean context, they destroy what is exalted and drag it down among the base, striving to put the two on an equal level."

Miao-lo, in his Guketsu comments on this passage as follows: "Though they are monks, they destroy the teachings of Buddhism. Some break the precepts and return to lay life, as Wei Yuan-sung43 did. Then, as laymen, they work to destroy the teachings of Buddhism. Men of this kind steal and usurp the correct teachings of Buddhism and use them to supplement and bolster the heretical writings. The passage on ‘twisting what is lofty...’ means that, adopting the outlook of the Taoists, they try to place Buddhism and Taoism on the same level, to make equals of the correct and the heretical, though reason tells us that this could never be. Having once been followers of Buddhist teachings, they steal what is correct and use it to bolster what is heretical. They twist the lofty eighty thousand teachings of the twelve divisions44 of the Buddhist canon and force them into the mean context of Lao Tzu’s two chapters and five thousand words, using them to interpret the base and heretical teachings of that text. This is what is meant by ‘destroying what is exalted and dragging it down among the base.’ " These comments should be carefully noted, for they explain the meaning of the foregoing description of events.

The same sort of thing happened within Buddhism itself. Buddhism was introduced to China during the Yung-p’ing era (AD. 58-75) of the Later Han dynasty, and, in time, established its supremacy over Confucian and Taoist teachings. But differences of opinion developed within Buddhism, resulting in the three schools of the south and seven schools of the north, which sprang up here and there like so many orchids or chrysanthemums. In the time of the Ch’en and Sui dynasties, however, the Great Teacher Chih-che overcame these various schools and returned Buddhism once more to its primary objective of saving all living beings.

Later, the teachings of the Hosso and Shingon schools were introduced from India, and the Kegon school also made its appearance. Among these schools, the Hosso school set itself up as an arch opponent of the T’ien-t’ai school, because their teachings are contradictory to each other like fire and water. However, when the Tripitaka Master Hsuan-tsang and the Great Teacher Tz’u-en45 closely examined the works of T’ien-t’ai, they came to realize that the views of their own school were in error. Although they did not openly repudiate their own school, it appears that in their hearts they switched their allegiance to the T’ien-t’ai teachings.

From the beginning the Kegon and Shingon schools were both provisional schools based upon provisional sutras. But the Tripitaka masters Shan-wu-wei and Chinkang-chih [who introduced the esoteric Shingon teachings to China] usurped the T’ien-t’ai doctrine of the three thousand realms in a single moment of life and made it the core of the teachings of their school, adding the practice of mudras and mantras46 and convincing themselves that their teachings surpassed T’ien-t’ai’s. As a result, students of Buddhism, unaware of the real facts, came to believe that the doctrine of the three thousand realms in a single moment of life was to be found in the Dainichi Sutra that had been brought from India. Similarly, in the time of the Kegon patriarch Ch’eng-kuan, the T’ien-t’ai doctrine of the three thousand realms in a single moment of life was surreptitiously incorporated and used to interpret the passage in the Kegon Sutra that reads, "The mind is like a skilled painter." People were unaware that this was what had happened.

[next snack]

Gosho background information

Translated into Serbian by Mića Mijatović 07/16/2002 in Belgrade
Source: Major Writings of Nichiren Daishonin; Vol. 2. Page 86.

Otvaranje očiju

- Kaimoku Šo -

Prvi deo [prvo parče]

Postoje tri kategorije ljudi koje svi muškarci i žene treba da poštuju. To su vladar, učitelj i roditelj. Postoje tri tipa doktrina za proučavanje. To su konfučijanizam, brahmanizam i budizam.

Konfučijanizam opisuje Tri Vladara1, Pet Careva2 i Tri Kralja3, koje zovu Nebeski Cenjeni. Ovi ljudi su prikazani kao čelnici vladinih službenika i kao mostovi za stanovništvo. U doba pre Tri Vladara, ljudi ne behu bolji nego ptice i zveri po tome što nisu znali čak ni ko im behu vlastiti očevi. Ali od vremena Pet Careva pa nadalje, naučili su da znaju ko su im bili i majka i otac, odnoseći se prema njima po nalozima detinje ljubavi {pobožnosti}. Tako je Čung-hua s poštovanjem služio svog oca, mada ovaj poslednji beše jogunast i tvrdoglav. Takođe, guverner P'ei, pošto je postao car, nastavio je da se odnosi prema svom ocu sa velikim uvažavanjem, obraćajući mu se sa Prečasni Oče. Kralj Vu4 dinastije Čou napravio je drveni lik svog oca, Grofa od Zapada, a Ting Lan5 oblikovao je statuu svoje majke. Svi ovi ljudi su uzori detinje ljubavi.

Visoki ministar Pi Kan6, videvši da je dinastija Jin na putu propasti, strogo je ukorio vladara, mada ga je to koštalo glave. Hung Jen7, našavši da je njegov gospodar, Vojvoda Ji, bio ubijen, rasporio je vlastiti stomak i ubacio vojvodinu jetru u njega pre nego što je umro. Ovi ljudi mogu da posluže kao uzori lojalnosti.

Jin Šou beše učitelj cara Jaoa, Vu Č'eng beše učitelj cara Šuna, T'ai-kung Vang8 beše učitelj kralja Vena, a Lao Ce beše učitelj Konfučija9. Ovi su učitelji poznati kao četiri mudraca. Čak i Nebeski Cenjeni im klanjaju glavama u poštovanju, i svi ljudi sklapajući dlanove iskazuju isto. Mudraci kao što su ovi, ostavili su za sobom spise koji imaju preko tri hiljade tomova u takvim delima kao što su Tri zapisa, Pet kanona i Tri istorije.10 Ali svi ti spisi na kraju ne idu dalje od tri misterije. Prva od ove tri misterije je Biće.11 Ovo je princip podučavan od strane Vojvode od Čoua i drugih. Druga misterija je Ne-Biće12 koja je izložena od strane Lao Cea. Treća je I Biće i Ne-Biće13, misterija koju je dalje izneo Čuang Ce. Misterija naznačava tamu. Neki kažu, ako pitamo šta je postojalo pre nego što su se naši preci rodili, da možemo naći da je život rođen iz primarne sile, dok drugi izjavljuju da se eminentnost i niskost, radost i patnja, ispravno i pogrešno, dobitak i gubitak jednostavno dešavaju kao deo prirodnog poretka.

Postoje teorije koje su vešto argumentovane, ali koje ne primaju k znanju niti prošlost niti budućnost. Misterija, kao što smo videli, znači tamu ili opskurnost, i s tog razloga zove se misterija. To je jedna teorija koja se bavi stvarima jedino u izrazima sadašnjosti. Govoreći u terminima sadašnjosti, Konfučijevci izjavljuju da se treba prodržavati principa dobronamernosti i ispravnosti14 i time sebi obezbediti sigurnost, i red i mir državi. Ako neko odstupi od ovih principa, kažu, onda će njegova porodica biti osuđena, a njegova kuća uništena. Ali mada se mudri i pažnje vredni ljudi koji propovedaju ovu doktrinu proglašavaju mudracima, oni ne znaju ništa više o prošlosti nego običan čovek nesposoban da vidi svoja vlastita leđa, i shvataju budućnost onoliko malo koliko i slepac koji ne može da vidi šta se nalazi ispred njega.

Ako, u terminima sadašnjosti, neko donosi red svojoj porodici, ispunjava zahteve detinje ljubavi i sa verom praktikuje pet stalnih vrlina dobronamernosti, ispravnosti, prikladnosti, mudrosti i dobre vere, onda će ga poštovati i njegovo će ime postati poznato širom zemlje. Ako je neki mudar vladar na prestolu, pozvaće takvu jednu osobu da postane njegov ministar ili učitelj ili će mu čak ustupiti svoj položaj. Nebo će takođe doći da zaštiti i pazi takvu jednu osobu. Takvi su bili takozvanih Pet Starešina15 koji su se okupili oko kralja Vua iz dinastije Čou i pomagali mu, ili dvadeset osam generala cara Kuang-vua potonje dinastije Han, koje su poredili sa dvadeset osam nebeskih konstelacija.16 Ali sve dokle takva osoba ne zna ništa o prošlosti ili budućnosti, ona ne može da pomogne svojim roditeljima, svom vladaru ili svom učitelju u stvaranju uslova za njihov budući život, i ona je prema tome nesposobna da otplati dug koji im duguje. Takva osoba nije pravi čovek vredan poštovanja niti mudrac.

Konfučije izjavljuje da nije bilo poštovanja vrednih ljudi niti mudraca u njegovoj zemlji, ali da je u zemlji na zapadu bio jedan koji se zvao Buda koji je bio mudrac.17 Ovo ukazuje na to da ne-budistički tekstovi treba da budu uzeti u obzir kao prvi korak prema budističkoj doktrini. Konfučije je prvo podučavao doktrinu ceremonijâ i muzike18 tako da bi, kad budistički spisi budu doneti u Kinu, načela i propisi, meditacija i mudrost19 mogli biti spremnije shvaćeni. Podučavao je idealima vladara i ministra tako da bi razlika između nadređenog i podređenog bila jasnija, podučavao je idealu roditeljstva tako da bi važnost detinje ljubavi mogla biti cenjena, i objasnio je ideal učitelja tako da bi narod mogao biti podučavan da sledi.

Veliki Učitelj Miao-lo kaže: "Propagacija budizma doista zavisi od toga. Prvo su učenja o ceremonijama i muzici bila izložena, a kasnije je bio predstavljen istinski put."20 Tjen-tai tvrdi: "U Konkomjo sutri, zapisano je da 'Sva dobra učenja koja postoje na svetu izvode se iz te sutre. Imati duboko znanje o ovom svetu je sâm budizam'".21 U Maka šikan čitamo: "Ja [Buda] imam izaslana Tri Mudraca22 da obrazuju zemlju Kinu." U Guketsu čitamo: "Šođohogjo sutra tvrdi da se Bodisatva Gako pojavio u ovoj zemlji pod imenom Jen Hui, Bodisatva Kođo se pojavio ovde kao Konfučije, a Bodisatva Kašjapa se pojavio kao Lao Ce. Pošto ova sutra govori sa tačke gledišta Indije, ovo se odnosi na Kinu kao na 'ovu zemlju.'"

Drugo, došli smo do ne-budističkih učenja Indije. U brahmanizmu nalazimo dva božanstva: Šivu, koji ima tri oka i osam ruku, i Višnua. Oni su pozdravljeni otac pun ljubavi i saosećajna majka svih živih bića i takođe se zovu Poštovani Neba i vladar. Uz to, postoje tri čoveka, Kapila, Uluka i Rišabha23, koji su poznati kao tri askete. Ove su askete živele negde oko osam stotina godina pre Budinog vremena. Učenja koja su izložena od strane ove trojice asketa poznata su kao četiri Vede i broje šezdeset hiljada.

Kasnije, u vreme Bude, bilo je šest ne-budističkih učitelja, koji su studirali i prenosili ove ne-budističke spise i ponašali se kao tutori kraljeva pet regiona Indije.24 Njihova učenja se razdvajaju na devedeset pet ili devedeset šest različitih pravaca, formirajući školu za školom. Barjaci njihovog ponosa behu dignuti više od neba gde nema ni misli ni ne-misli, a njihova dogmatična rigidnost beše tvrđa od metala ili kamena. Ali svojom veštinom i dubinom razumevanja, prevazišli su sve poznato u Konfučijanizmu. Bili su sposobni da pogledaju u prošlost i da opaze dva, tri ili čak sedam postojanja, period od osamdeset hiljada kalpi, i mogli su isto tako da znaju šta bi se desilo za osamdeset hiljada kalpi u budućnosti. Kao temeljni princip svoje doktrine, neke od tih škola podučavale su da uzroci proizvode posledice, druge su podučavale da uzroci ne proizvode posledice, dok su neke druge podučavale da uzroci i proizvode i ne proizvode posledice. Takvi su bili temeljni principi ovih ne-budističkih škola.

Posvećeni sledbenici ne-budističkih učenja pridržavaju se pet propisa25 i deset dobrih propisa26, praktikuju vrstu meditacije koja je još uvek popraćena istakanjima i, uzlazeći prema svetovima oblika i bezobličnosti27, veruju da su dostigli nirvanu kada dostignu najviši nivo nebesa. Ali mada napreduju na svom putu naviše malo po malo kao neka gusenica, padaju unazad s neba gde nema ni misli ni ne-misli, i idu silazno na tri zle staze. Ni jedan jedini nije uspeo da ostane na nivou neba, mada veruju da kad se jednom dostigne taj nivo, nikada se neće spustiti s njega. Svako dokazuje i praktikuje doktrine kojima ga je podučavao njegov učitelj i krepko ih se pridržava. Tako se neki od njih kupaju tri puta dnevno u Gangu, čak i tokom hladnih zimskih dana, dok ostali čupaju kosu sa svojih glava, bacaju se na stene, izlažu se vatri, pale svoja tela ili idu naokolo potpuno goli. Opet, ima onih koji veruju da mogu steći dobru sreću žrtvujući mnogo konja, ili onih koji pale travu i drveće, ili se klanjaju svakom drvetu na koje naiđu.

Pogrešna učenja kao ova što su, suviše su brojna da bi se nabrojala. Njihove pristalice ukazuju učiteljima koji ih ističu onoliko poštovanja i časti koliko ih i razna božanstva ukazuju bogu Taišakuu ili dvorski ministri vladaru carstva. Ali niko od onih koji su uz ovih devedeset pet tipova viših ili nižih ne-budističkih učenja nikada ne umakne iz kruga rođenja i smrti. Oni koji slede učitelje bolje vrste će, posle dva ili tri ponovna rođenja, pasti na zle staze, dok će oni koji slede zle učitelje pasti na zle staze u svom sledećem rođenju.

Pa ipak konačni zaključak ovih ne-budističkih učenja sačinjava jedno važno sredstvo stupanja u budizam. Neka od njih tvrde: "Hiljadu godina od sad, Buda će se pojaviti u svetu,"28 dok druga tvrde: "Za sto godina od sad, Buda će se pojaviti u svetu."29 Nirvana sutra napominje: "Svi spisi ili učenja, iz bilo kog izvora, krajnje su otkrovenje budističke istine. To nisu ne-budistička učenja." A u Lotos sutri je zapisano: "Pred mnoštvom oni izgledaju zaposednuti trima otrovima ili manifestuju znake jeretičkih nazora. Moji učenici na taj način koriste svrsishodna sredstva da bi spasli živa bića."

I kao treće, dođosmo do budizma. Treba znati da je Svetski Uvaženi Velikog Prosvetljenja veliki vođa svim živim bićima, njihovo veliko oko, veliki most, veliki kormilar, veliko polje dobre sreće. Četiri mudraca i tri askete konfučijanskih i brahmanističkih spisa i učenja se pominju kao mudraci, ali u stvari oni nisu ništa više do običnih ljudi, koji još nisu bili u stanju da iskorene tri kategorije iluzijâ. Pominju se kao mudri ljudi, ali u stvari nisu ništa više nego deca koja ne mogu razumeti principe uzroka i posledice. Sa njihovim učenjima kao brodom, da li bi iko ikada mogao preći preko mora patnje rođenja i smrti? Sa njihovim učenjima kao mostom, da li bi iko ikada mogao pobeći iz lavirinta šest staza? Ali Buda, naš veliki učitelj, prevazišao je čak i transmigraciju promena i napredovanja30, da ne pominjemo transmigraciju razlika o i ograničenja.31 Izbrisao je čak i sam koren osnovne tame,32 da ne pominjemo iluzije misli i želje koje su beznačajne koliko i grane i lišće.

Ovaj Buda, od kad se prosvetlio kad mu je bilo trideset dok nije preminuo kad mu je bilo osamdeset, izložio je svoja tajna učenja u periodu od pedeset godina. Svaka reč, svaka rečenica koju je izgovorio je istina; nijedna rečenica, nijedan stih nije bio netačan. Reči mudracâ i poštovanja vrednih sačuvane u spisima i učenjima konfučijanizma i brahmanizma, kao što smo pomenuli, bez greške su, a reči odgovaraju duhu u kome su izgovorene. Ali koliko je ovo istinitije u slučaju Bude, onoga ko nije lažno govorio još od nebrojenih kalpi! U poređenju sa ne-budističkim spisima i učenjima, doktrine koje je izložio tokom pedesetak godina predstavljaju veliko vozilo, istinske reči velikog čoveka. Sve što je propovedao, od zore svog prosvetljenja do večeri kada je stupio u nirvanu, nije ništa drugo do sama istina.

Međutim, kada ispitujemo osamdeset hiljada učenja budizma33 izloženih tokom pedeset ili više godina i zapisanih u spisima, nalazimo da spadaju u kategorije kao što su hinajana i mahajana, privremene i istinske sutre, egzotična i ezoterična učenja, detaljna i gruba predavanja, istinite i lažne reči, ispravne i neispravne poglede. Ali među njima, Lotos sutra sama predstavlja ispravna učenja Šakjamuni Bude, gospodara učenjâ, istinske reči budâ triju egzistencija i deset pravaca. Svetski Uvaženi Velikog Prosvetljenja označio je jedan poseban period prethodnih pedeset i više godina, i odredio razne sutre propovedane tokom tog perioda, brojne poput zrna peska Ganga, kao sutre u kojima "još nije otkrio istinu".34 Označio je Lotos sutru propovedanu tokom osam godina, kao onu u kojoj "sada mora otkriti istinu".35 Tako je Taho Buda iskrsnuo iz zemlje da posvedoči da "sve što si izložio [u Lotos sutri] je istina",36 a bude koje su emanacije Šakjamunija okupile su se i ispružile svoje duge jezike do neba Brahme da posvedoče.37 Ove su reči savršeno jasne, savršeno razumljive, vedrije od sunca jasnog dana ili kao pun mesec u ponoć. Pogledaj ih i veruj im, a kada se okreneš, neguj ih u srcu!

Lotos sutra sadrži dva važna učenja.38 Sekte Kuša, Đođitsu, Ritsu, Hosso i Sanron nikad nisu čule čak ni imena ovih učenja. Sekte Kegon i Šingon, s druge strane, potajno su ukrale ove doktrine i učinile ih srcem svojih vlastitih učenja. Doktrina ičinen sanzena,39 ili tri hiljade područja u jednom jedinom trenutku života, nalazi se na samo jednom mestu, skrivena u dubinama poglavlja Đurjo esencijalnog učenja Lotos sutre. Nagarđuna i Vasubandu behu svesni toga, ali ga nisu izneli na videlo. Tjen-tai Či-če sâm prihvatio ju je i uvek imao na umu.

Doktrina tri hiljade područja u jednom jedinom trenutku života počinje pojmom uzajamnog posedovanja Deset Svetova. Ali Hosso i Sanron sekte govore jedino o osam svetova40 i ne znaju ništa o celini Deset Svetova, manje više o pojmu njihovog uzajamnog posedovanja. Kuša, Đođitsu i Ritsu sekte izvode svoja učenja iz Agon sutri. Svesni su jedino šest svetova i ne znaju ništa o ostala četiri. Izjavljuju da u svih deset pravaca postoji samo jedan buda, a čak i ne propovedaju da postoji ijedan drugi buda u bilo kom od deset pravaca. O principu da "sva bića koja osećaju poseduju buda prirodu",41 naravno, ne kažu uopšte ništa. Odbacuju da prime k znanju da čak i jedna jedina osoba ima buda prirodu. Uprkos tome, mogu se ponekad čuti članovi Ritsu i Đođitsu sekti kako izjavljuju da postoje bude u deset pravaca ili da sva živa bića poseduju buda prirodu. To je usled toga što su učitelji ovih sekti koje su se pojavile pošto je Buda preminuo, ukrali ove mahajana doktrine i uneli ih u učenja svojih vlastitih sekti.

Radi ilustracije, u periodu pre pojave budizma, zastupnici ne-budističkih učenja u Indiji nisu bili toliko povezani u svojim vlastitim pogledima. Ali posle pojave Bude, kada su slušali i osmotrili budistička učenja, postali su svesni nedostataka svojih vlastitih doktrina. Tada su začeli duhovitu ideju prisvajanja budističkih učenja i njihovog uvršćavanja u svoje vlastite doktrine, a kao rezultat pali su u još dublju grešku nego ranije. To su primeri tipa jeretičkih učenja poznatih kao "prisvajanje budizma" ili "nerazumevanje budizma [fubukkya and gakubuppaja]".42

Ista se stvar desila u slučaju ne-budističkih spisa u Kini. Pre nego što je budizam bio donet u Kinu, konfučijanizam i taoizam su bili pre naivne i detinje stvari. Ali tokom Kasnijeg Hana, budizam je bio uveden u Kinu i predstavljao je izazov za domaće doktrine. S vremenom, kako je budizam postao popularniji, bilo je izvesnih budističkih kaluđera koji su, s toga što su bili prekršili propise, bili prinuđeni da se vrate svetovnom životu, ili onih koji su izabrali da se pridruže snagama domaćih verovanja. Preko takvih ljudi, budističke doktrine su bile ukradene i ugrađene konfučijanskim i taoističkim učenjima.

U petom tomu Make šikan čitamo: "Ovih dana ima mnogo đavolskih kaluđera koji krše propisa i vraćaju se laičkom životu. Plašeći se da će biti kažnjeni za svoja dela, oni tada prelaze na stranu taoista. Nadajući se da će steći slavu i profit, govore ekstravagantno o zaslugama Lao Cea i Čuang Cea, prisvajajući budističke pojmove i unoseći ih u svoje pogrešne spise. Izvrću ono što je uzvišeno i silom ubacuju u beznačajni kontekst, uništavaju ono što je visoko i odvlače ga među niske stvare, težeći da ih postave na jednak nivo."

Miao-lo, u svom Guketsuu komentariše ovaj odeljak na sledeći način: "Mada su kaluđeri, uništavaju ova budistička učenja. Neki krše propise i vraćaju se laičkom životu, kao što je Vei Juan-sung43 učinio. Zatim, kao laici, rade na tome da unište budistička učenja. Ljudi takve vrste kradu i uzurpiraju ispravna budistička učenja i koriste ih da dopune i podupru jeretičke spise. Odeljak o 'izvrtanju onoga što je uzvišeno...' znači da, usvajajući poglede taoista, pokušavaju da postave budizam i taoizam na isti nivo, da učine jednakim ispravno i jeretičko, mada nam razum govori da tako nešto nikada ne bi moglo biti. Budući jednom sledbenici budističkih učenja, kradu ono što je ispravno i koriste ga da podupru ono što je jeretičko. Izvrću uzvišenih osamdeset hiljada učenja dvanaest podela44 budističkog kanona i silom ih ubacuju u beznačajni kontekst Lao Ceova dva poglavlja i pet hiljada reči, koristeći ih da tumače niska i jeretička učenja ovog teksta. To je ono na šta se mislilo pod 'uništavanjem onog što je uzvišeno i njegovim odvlačenjem među niske stvari'". Ovi komentari treba da budu zapaženi s pažnjom, zato što objašnjavaju značenje gorepomenutog opisa događaja.

Ista vrsta stvari desila se u samom budizmu. Budizam je predstavljen u Kini tokom Jung-p'ing ere (58-57 p.n.e.) za vreme Kasnije Han dinastije, i, vremenom, ustanovio je svoju premoć nad konfučijanističkim i taoističkim učenjima. Ali razlike u gledištima razvijene u budizmu samom, imale su za posledicu tri škole na jugu i sedam škola na severu koje su nicale tu i tamo kao mnoštvo orhideja ili hrizantema. U vreme Č'en i Sui dinastija, međutim, Veliki je Učitelj Čih-če prevazišao ove razne škole i vratio budizam još jednom njegovom primarnom cilju spasavanja svih živih bića.

Kasnije, učenja Hosso i Šingon škola behu uvedena iz Indije, a Kegon škola se takođe pojavila. Među ovim školama, Hosso škola se postavila kao najveći protivnik Tjen-tai škole, jer su njihova učenja suprotna jedno drugom kao vatra i voda. Međutim, kada su Majstor Tripitake Hsuan-tsang i Veliki Učitelj C'u-en45 pobliže ispitali dela Tjen-taja, shvatili su da su pogledi njihovih vlastitih škola bili pogrešni. Mada se nisu otvoreno odrekli svojih vlastitih škola, izgleda da su u duši svoju odanost poklonili Tjen-tajevim učenjima.

Od početka su Kegon i Šingon škole bile obe privremene, zasnovane na privremenim sutrama. Ali majstori Tripitake, Šan-vu-vei i Činkang-či [koji je uveo ezoterično Šingon učenje u Kinu] uzurpirali su Tjen-tajevu doktrinu o tri hiljade područja u jednom jedinom trenutku života i učinile je jezgrom učenja svojih škola, dodajući praksu mudri i mantri46 i ubeđujući sami sebe da njihova učenja prevazilaze Tjen-tajevo. Kao rezultat, učenici budizma, nesvesni stvarnih činjenica, došli su do toga da veruju da se doktrina o tri hiljade područja u jednom jedinom trenutku života nalazila u Dainiči sutri, koja je bila donesena iz Indije. Slično ovome, u vreme Kegon patrijarha Č'eng-kuana, Tjen-tajeva doktrina o tri hiljade područja u jednom jedinom trenutku života je bila krišom uneta i korišćena da tumači odeljak iz Kegon sutre koji kaže: "Um je kao vešt slikar". Ljudi nisu bili svesni da je to bilo ono što se dogodilo.
[sledeće parče]

Podaci o poreklu gošoa

Preveo Mića Mijatović 16. 07. 2002. u Beogradu
Izvor: Major Writings of Nichiren Daishonin; Vol. 2. Page 86.


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