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The Opening of the Eyes

- Kaimoku Sho -

Part One [snack two]

In the case of our own country of Japan, the Kegon and the other sects that comprised the six sects of Nara were introduced to Japan before the Tendai and Shingon sects. The Kegon, Sanron and Hosso sects argued and contended, as inimical to one another as water and fire. When the Great Teacher Dengyo appeared in Japan, he not only exposed the errors of the six sects, but also made it clear that the Shingon sect had stolen the principles of the Lotus Sutra as expounded by T’ien-t’ai and made them the heart of the teachings of its own sect. The Great Teacher Dengyo set aside the various tenets propounded by the leaders of the other sects and, solely in the light of the sutras, attacked their views. As a result, he was able to defeat eight eminent priests of the six sects, then twelve priests, then fourteen, then over three hundred, as well as the Great Teacher Kobo. Soon there was not a single person in all Japan who did not acknowledge allegiance to the Tendai sect, and the great temples of Nara, Toji and other temples throughout all the provinces became subordinate to the head temple of the Tendai sect at Mount Hiei. The Great Teacher Dengyo also made it clear that the founders of the various other schools in China, by acknowledging allegiance to the doctrines of T’ien-t’ai, had escaped committing the error of slandering the correct teachings of Buddhism.

Later, however, conditions in the world declined and people became increasingly shallow in wisdom. They no longer studied or understood the profound doctrines of the Tendai sect, and the other sects became more and more firmly attached to their prejudiced views. Eventually, the six sects and the Shingon sect turned upon and attacked the Tendai sect. The latter, growing ever weaker, in the end found that it was no match for the other sects. To aggravate the situation, absurd new sects such as Zen and Pure Land appeared and began attacking the Tendai sect as well, and more and more of its lay supporters transferred their allegiance to these erroneous sects. In the end, even those priests of the Tendai sect who were looked up to as men of eminent virtue all admitted defeat and lent their support to these sects. Not only Tendai but Shingon and the six sects as well were forced to yield their lands and estates to the new heretical sects, and the correct teachings [of the Lotus Sutra] fell into oblivion. As a result, the Sun Goddess, the God Hachiman, the Mountain King of Mount Hiei, and the other benevolent deities who guard the nation, no longer able to taste the flavor of the correct teachings, departed from the land. Demons came forward to take their place, and it became apparent that the nation was doomed.

Here, with my humble outlook, I have considered the differences between the teachings expounded by the Buddha Shakyamuni during the first forty and more years and those expounded in the Lotus Sutra during the last eight years of his life. Although both differ in many ways, contemporary scholars have already expressed the opinion, and it is my conviction as well, that the chief difference lies in the fact that the Lotus Sutra teaches that persons of the two vehicles [shomon (Learning) and engaku (Realization)], voice-hearers and cause-awakened ones, can attain Buddhahood47, and that the Buddha Shakyamuni in reality attained enlightenment at an inconceivably distant time in the past.48

When we examine the text of the Lotus Sutra, we see that it predicts that Shariputra will become Flower Glow Thus Come One, that Mahakashyapa will become Light Bright Thus Come One, Subhuti will become Rare Form Thus Come One, Katyayana will become Jambunada Gold Light Thus Come One, Maudgalyayana will become Tamalapattra Sandalwood Fragrance Buddha, Purna will become Law Bright Thus Come One, Ananda will become Mountain Sea Wisdom Unrestricted Power King Buddha, Rahula will become Stepping on Seven Treasure Flowers Thus Come One49, the five hundred and seven hundred voice-hearers [shomon and engaku disciples] will become Universal Brightness Thus Come Ones, the two thousand shomon who have more to learn or do not have more to learn will become Jewel Sign Thus Come Ones, the nuns Mahaprajapati and Yashodhara will become the Thus Come Ones Gladly Seen by All Living Beings and Endowed with a Thousand Ten Thousand Glowing Marks, respectively.50

Thus, if we examine the Lotus Sutra, we will realize that these persons are worthy of great honor. But when we search through the scriptures expounded in the period previous to the Lotus Sutra, we find to our regret that the situation is far different.

The Buddha, the World-Honored One, is a man of truthful words. Therefore he is designated the sage and the great man. In the non-Buddhist scriptures of India and China there are also persons called worthy men, sages or heavenly ascetics because they speak words of truth. But because the Buddha surpasses all these, he is known as the great man.

[When he expounded the Lotus Sutra,] this great man said, "The Buddhas, the World-Honored Ones, appear in the world for one great reason alone."51 He also said, "I have not yet revealed the truth,"52 "The World-Honored One has long expounded his doctrines and now must reveal the truth,"53 and "[I,] honestly discarding expedient means, [will preach only the unsurpassed way]."54, Taho Buddha added his testimony to the words of the Buddha, and the emanations of the Buddha put forth their tongues as a token of assent. Who, then, could possibly doubt that Shariputra will in the future become Flower Glow Thus Come One, that Mahakashyapa will become Light Bright Thus Come One, or that the other predictions made by the Buddha will come true?

Nevertheless, all the sutras preceding the Lotus Sutra also represent the true words of the Buddha. The Daihoko butsu Kegon Sutra states: "There are only two places where the Great Medicine King Tree, which is the wisdom of the Thus Come One, will not grow and bring benefit to the world. It will not grow in the vast void that is the deep pit into which persons of the two vehicles [shomon and the engaku] fall, or in the profoundly heretical and craving-filled waters wherein drown beings unfit for Buddhahood who destroy their own roots of goodness."

This passage may be explained as follows. In the Snow Mountains55 there is a huge tree that has numberless roots. It is called the Great Medicine King Tree and is the monarch of all the trees that grow in the land of Jambudvipa.56 It measures 168,000 yojanas57 in height. All the other trees and plants of Jambudvipa depend upon the roots, branches, flowers and fruit of this tree to attain their own flowering and fruition. Therefore this tree is employed as a metaphor for the Buddha nature, and the various other trees and plants stand for all living beings. But this great tree will not grow in a fiery pit or in the watery circle.58 The fiery pit is used as a metaphor for the mind of persons of the two vehicles, and the watery circle is used as a metaphor for the mind of icchantikas or persons of incorrigible disbelief. The scripture is saying that these two categories of beings will never attain Buddhahood.

The Daijuku Sutra states: "There are two types of persons who are destined to die and not to be reborn, and who in the end will never be able to understand or repay their obligations. One is the voice-hearer and the other is the cause-awakened one. Suppose that a person falls into a deep pit. That person will be unable to benefit himself or to benefit others. The voice-hearer and the cause-awakened one are like this. They fall into the pit of emancipation and can benefit neither themselves nor others."

The more than three thousand volumes of Confucian and Taoist literature of China on the whole stress two principles, namely, filial piety and loyalty to the sovereign. But loyalty is nothing more than an extension of filial piety. Filial piety may be described as lofty. Though heaven is lofty, it is no loftier than the ideal of filial piety. Filial piety may be called deep. Though earth is deep, it is no deeper than filial piety. Sages and worthy men are the product of filial piety. It goes without saying, therefore, that persons who study the teachings of Buddhism must also [observe the ideal of filial piety and] understand and repay their obligations59. The disciples of the Buddha must without fail understand the four debts of gratitude and know how to repay them.

In addition, Shariputra, Mahakashyapa and the other disciples, who were persons of the two vehicles, carefully observed the two hundred and fifty precepts60 and the three thousand rules of conduct,61 mastered the three types of meditation62-known as flavor meditation, pure meditation and free-of-outflows meditation-and carried out the teachings of the Agon sutras, and freed themselves from the illusions of thought and desire in the threefold world. They must therefore have been models in the understanding and repaying of obligations.

And yet the World-Honored One declared that they were men who did not understand obligation. He said this because, when a man leaves his parents and home and becomes a monk, he should always have as his goal the salvation of his father and mother. But these men upheld the two vehicles, and although they thought they had attained emancipation, they did nothing to benefit others. And even if they had done a certain amount to benefit others, they had led their parents to a path whereby they could never attain Buddhahood. Thus, contrary to what one might expect, they became known as men who did not understand their obligations.

In the Vimalakirti Sutra we read: ‘‘Vimalakirti63 once more questioned Monjushiri, saying, ‘What are the seeds of Buddhahood?’ Monjushiri replied, ‘All the delusions and defilement’s are the seeds of Buddhahood. Even though a person commits the five cardinal sins and is condemned to the hell of incessant suffering, he is still capable of conceiving the desire for the great way.’ "

The same sutra also says: "Good man, let me give you a metaphor. The plains and highlands will never bring forth the stems and blossoms of the blue lotus or the water lily. But the muddy fields that are low-lying and damp-that is where you will find these flowers growing."

It also says: "One who has already become an arhat and achieved the level of truth that goes with arhatship64 can never conceive the desire for the way and gain Buddhahood. He is like a man who has destroyed the five sense organs and therefore can never again enjoy the five delights that go with them."

The point of this sutra is that the three poisons of greed, anger and stupidity can become the seeds of Buddhahood, and the five cardinal sins such as the killing of one’s father can likewise become the seeds of Buddhahood. Even if the high plains should bring forth blue lotus flowers, the persons of the two vehicles would never attain Buddhahood. The text is saying that, when the goodness of the persons of the two vehicles is compared with the evils of ordinary persons, it will be found that, though the evils of ordinary persons can lead to Buddhahood, the goodness of the persons of the two vehicles never can. The various Hinayana sutras censure evil and praise good. But this sutra, the Vimalakirti, condemns the goodness of persons of the two vehicles and praises the evils of ordinary persons. It would almost appear that it is not a Buddhist scripture at all, but rather the teachings of some non-Buddhist school. But the point is that it wants to make absolutely clear that the persons of the two vehicles can never become Buddhas.

The Hodo darani Sutra states: "Monju said to Shariputra, ‘Can a withered tree put forth new blossoms! Can a mountain stream turn and flow back to its source! Can a shattered rock join itself together again! Can a scorched seed send out sprouts?’ Shariputra replied, ‘No.’ Monju said, ‘If these things are impossible, then why do you come with joy in your heart and ask me if Buddhahood has been predicted for you in the future?’ "

The passage means that, just as a withered tree puts forth no blossoms, a mountain stream never flows backward, a shattered rock cannot be joined, and a scorched seed cannot sprout, so the persons of the two vehicles can never attain Buddhahood. In their case the seeds of Buddhahood have been scorched.

In the Daibon hannya Sutra, [Subhuti] says: "All you sons of gods, if you have not yet conceived a desire for perfect enlightenment, now is the time to do so. If you should once enter the realm of the enlightenment of voice-hearers, you would no longer be capable of conceiving such a desire for perfect enlightenment. Why is this! Because you would be outside the world of birth and death, which itself would constitute an obstacle." This passage indicates that he is not pleased with the persons of the two vehicles because they do not conceive the desire for perfect enlightenment, but he is pleased with the heavenly beings because they do conceive such a desire.

The Shuramgama Sutra states: "If a person who has committed the five cardinal sins should hear of this shuramgama meditation65 and should conceive the desire for supreme enlightenment, then, he would still be capable of attaining Buddhahood. But, World-Honored One, an arhat who has put an end to outflows is like a broken vessel, and will never be capable of receiving and upholding this meditation."

The Vimalakirti Sutra says: "Those who give alms to you are cultivating for themselves no field of good fortune. Those who give alms to you will fall into the three evil paths." This passage means that the human and heavenly beings who give alms to the sage monks such as Mahakashyapa and Shariputra will invariably fall into the three evil paths. Sage monks such as these, one would suppose, must be the eyes of the human and heavenly beings and the leaders of all living beings, second only to the Buddha himself. It must have been very much against common expectation that the Buddha spoke out time and again against such men before the great assemblies of human and heavenly beings, as we have seen him do. Was he really trying to reprimand his own disciples to death! In addition, he employed countless different metaphors in expressing his condemnation of the men of the two vehicles, calling them donkey milk as compared to cow’s milk, clay vessels as compared to vessels of gold, or the glimmer of a firefly as compared to the light of the sun.

He did not speak of this in one word or two, in one day or two, in one month or two, in one year or two, or in one sutra or two, but over a period of more than forty years, in countless sutras, addressing himself to great assemblies of countless persons, condemning the persons of the two vehicles without a single extenuating word. Thus everyone learned that his condemnation was true. Heaven learned it and earth learned it, not merely one or two persons but hundreds, thousands and tens of thousands learned and heard of it, as did all the human and heavenly beings, the persons of the two vehicles and the great bodhisattvas gathered in assembly from the worlds of the ten directions, the worlds of form and formlessness, the six heavens of the world of desire66, the four continents67 and the five regions of India, and the heavenly beings, the dragon gods and the asuras of the threefold world. Then each of these beings returned to his own land, explaining the teachings of Shakyamuni Buddha of the saha world one by one to the inhabitants of his respective land, so that there was not a single being in the countless worlds of the ten directions who did not understand that Mahakashyapa, Shariputra and those like them would never attain Buddhahood and that it was wrong to give them alms and support.

In the Lotus Sutra preached during the last eight years of his life, however, the Buddha suddenly regretted and retracted his earlier position and instead taught that persons of the two vehicles can in fact attain Buddhahood. Could the human and heavenly beings gathered in the great assembly to listen to him be expected to believe this! Would they not rather reject it and, in addition, begin to entertain doubts about all the sutras preached in this and earlier periods! They would wonder if all the teachings put forward in the entire fifty years of the Buddha’s preaching were not, in fact, false and erroneous doctrines.

To be sure, there is a passage in the Muryogi Sutra that says, "In these more than forty years, I have not yet revealed the truth." Nevertheless, one might wonder if the heavenly devil had not taken on the Buddha’s form and preached this sutra of the last eight years, the Lotus Sutra. In the sutra, however, the Buddha describes quite specifically how his disciples of the two vehicles will attain Buddhahood and reveals the kalpas and the lands in which they will appear, the names they will bear, and the disciples they will teach. Thus it becomes apparent that Shakyamuni Buddha, the lord of teachings, is saying two different things. This clearly means that he is contradicting his own words. This is why the Brahmanists laugh at the Buddha and call him the great prevaricator.

But just as the human and heavenly beings in the great assembly were feeling downcast in the face of this contradiction, the Thus Come One Taho, who dwells in the world of Treasure Purity in the east, appeared in a huge tower adorned with the seven kinds of treasures68 and measuring 500 yojanas high and 250 yojanas wide. The human and heavenly beings in the great assembly accused Shakyamuni Buddha of contradicting his own words, and although the Buddha answered in one way or another, he was in considerable embarrassment, being unable to dispel their doubts, when the treasure tower emerged out of the ground before him and ascended into the sky. It came forth like the full moon rising from behind the eastern mountain in the dark of night. The tower of seven kinds of treasures ascended into the sky, clinging neither to the earth nor to the roof of the heavens, but hanging in midair, and from within the tower a pure and far-reaching voice issued, speaking words of testimony. [As the Lotus Sutra describes it:] "At that time a loud voice issued from the treasure tower, speaking words of praise: ‘Excellent, excellent! Shakyamuni, World-Honored One, that you can take the great wisdom of equality, a Law to instruct the bodhisattvas, guarded and kept in mind by the Buddhas, the Lotus Sutra of the Wonderful Law, and preach it for the sake of the great assembly! It is as you say, as you say. Shakyamuni, World-Honored One, all that you have expounded is the truth!’ "

[Elsewhere the Lotus Sutra says:] "At that time the World-Honored One, in the presence of Monjushiri and the other immeasurable hundreds, thousands, ten thousands, millions of bodhisattvas and mahasattvas who from of old had dwelled in the saha world, as well as . . . human and non-human beings — before all these he displayed his great supernatural powers.69 He extended his long broad tongue70 upward till it reached the Brahma heaven, and from all his pores71 [he emitted immeasurable, countless beams of light that illuminated] all the worlds in the ten directions.

"The other Buddhas, seated on lion seats underneath the numerous jeweled trees, did likewise, extending their long broad tongues and emitting immeasurable beams of light."72

And it also says73: "Shakyamuni Buddha caused the Buddhas who were emanations of his body and had come from the ten directions to return each one to his original land, saying: ‘. . . The tower of Taho Buddha may also return to its former position.’ "

In the past, when the World-Honored One of Great Enlightenment first attained the way74, Buddhas appeared in the ten directions to counsel and encourage him, and various great bodhisattvas were dispatched to him. When he preached the Hannya Sutra, he covered the major world system75 with his long tongue, and a thousand Buddhas appeared in the ten directions. When he preached the Konkomyo Sutra, the four Buddhas76 appeared in the four directions, and when he preached the Amida Sutra, the Buddhas of the six directions77 covered the major world system with their tongues. And when he preached the Daijuku Sutra, the Buddhas and bodhisattvas of the ten directions gathered in the Great Treasure Chamber that stands on the border between the worlds of form and desire.

But when we compare the auspicious signs that accompanied these sutras with those accompanying the Lotus Sutra, we find that they are like a yellow stone compared to gold, a white cloud to a white mountain, ice to a silver mirror, or the color black to the color blue -- the bleary-eyed, the squint-eyed, the one-eyed and the wrong-viewed will be likely to confuse them.

Since the Kegon Sutra was the first sutra to be preached, there were no previous words of the Buddha for it to contradict, and so it naturally raised no doubts. In the case of the Daijuku Sutra, the Daibon [hannya] Sutra, the Konkomyo Sutra and the Amida Sutra, the Buddha, in order to censure the ideal of the two vehicles demonstrated in the various Hinayana sutras, described the pure lands of the ten directions, and thereby inspired ordinary persons and bodhisattvas to aspire to attain them. Thus he caused the persons of the two vehicles to feel confounded and vexed.

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Gosho background information

Translated into Serbian by Mića Mijatović 07/19/2002 in Belgrade
Source: Major Writings of Nichiren Daishonin; Vol. 2. Page 86.

Otvaranje očiju

- Kaimoku Šo -

Prvi deo [drugo parče]

U slučaju naše vlastite zemlje, Japana, Kegon i druge sekte koje sačinjavaju šest sekti Nare behu uvedene u Japan pre Tendaj i Šingon sekti. Kegon, Sanron i Hosso sekte su se prepirale i borile, neprijaeljske jedna prema drugoj kao voda i vatra. Kada se Veliki Učitelj Dengjo pojavio u Japanu, nije samo izneo greške ovih šest sekti, već je takođe razjasnio da je Šingon sekta ukrala principe Lotos sutre kao što je izložio Tjen-tai i učinila ih srcem učenja svoje vlastite sekte. Veliki Učitelj Dengjo je ostavio po strani razne dogme istaknute od strane vođa drugih sekti i, jedino u svetlu sutri, napao njihove nazore. Kao rezultat, bio je sposoban da porazi šest eminentnih sveštenika ovih šest sekti, zatim dvanaest sveštenika, zatim četrnaest, zatim preko tri stotine, isto kao i Veliki Učitelj Kobo. Ubrzo u Japanu nije bilo žive duše koja nije priznala odanost Tendaj sekti, a veliki hramovi Nare, Tođi i drugi hramovi diljem svih provincija postali su podređeni glavnom hramu Tendaj sekte na planini Hiei. Veliki Učitelj Dengjo je takođe razjasnio da su osnivači raznih drugih škola u Kini, priznajući odanost doktrinama Tjen-taja, izbegli da počine grešku klevetanja ispravnih budističkih učenja.

Kasnije, međutim, okolnosti su se u svetu promenile i ljudi su postali veoma površni, što se mudrosti tiče. Nisu više proučavali niti shvatali duboke doktrine Tendaj sekte, a ostale su sekte postale sve više privržene svojim nazorima poteklim iz predrasuda. Na kraju, šest sekti i Šingon sekta su postale neprijateljske i napale su Tendaj sektu. Ova potonja, postajući sve slabija, na kraju je shvatila da nije više dorasla drugim sektama. Da situaciju bude još teža, pojavile su se apsurdne nove sekte, kao što su Zen i Čista Zemlja, i počele takođe da napadaju Tendaj sektu, a sve više njenih lačkih pristalica je postalo odano ovim pogrešnim sektama. Na kraju, čak i oni sveštenici Tendaj sekte koji su izgledali kao ljudi istaknute vrline su svi priznali poraz i ponudili svoju podršku ovim sektama. Ne samo Tendaj već i Šingon kao i šest sekti bili su primorani da predaju svoju zemlju i imanja ovimnovim jeretičkim sektama, a ispravno je učenje [Lotos sutre] palo u zaborav. Kao rezultat, Boginja Sunca, Bog Hačiman, Planinski Kralj planine Hiei i ostala milosrdna božanstva, napustili su zemlju. Demoni su pristupili da zauzmu svoje mesto, i postalo je očigledno da je naciju zadesila zla sudbina.

Ovde sam, iz moje skromne perspektive, razmotrio razlike između učenja koje je Šakjamuni Buda izložio tokom prvih četrdeset i više godina, i ona koja je izložio u Lotos sutri, tokom poslednjih isam godina svog života. Mada se i jedna i druga razlikuju na mnogo načina, savremeni naučnici su već izrazili mišljenje, a to je i moje ubeđenje, da glavna razlika leži u činjenici da Lotos sutra podučava da oni dvaju vozila [šomon (Učenja) i engaku (Shvatanja)], oni-koji-slušaju-glas i oni-probuđeni-za-uzrok mogu dostići budastvo47, a da je Buda Šakjamuni stvarno dostigao prosvetljenje u neshvatljivo dalekoj prošlosti.48

Kada ispitamo tekst Lotos sutre, vidimo da predskazuje da će Šariputra postati Takodošavši {Tatagata} Cvetnog Sjaja, da će Mahakašjapa postati Takodošavši Vedrog Svetla, Subhuti će postati Takodošavši Izvanrednog Oblika, Katjajana će postati Takodošavši Zlatnog Svetla Đambunade, Maudgaljajana će postati Buda Sandalovog Mirisa Tamalapatre, Purna će postati Buda Kralj Mudrosti Neograničene Moći Planina i Mora, Rahula će postati Takodošavši Koji Stupa Cvetovima Sedam Blaga49, pet stotina i sedam stotina onih-koji-slušaju-glas [šomon i engaku učenici] će postati Takodošavši Univerzalne Vedrine, dve hiljade šomon učenika koji još imaju da uče ili nemaju još da uče će postati Takodošavši Draguljnog Znaka, kaluđerice Mahaprađapati i Jašodara će postati Dragoviđena Od Svih Živih Bića Takodošavša i Takodošavša Obdarena sa Hiljadu Deset Hiljada Sjajećih Obeležja.50

Tako, ako ispitamo Lotos sutru, shvatićemo da su ove osobe vredne velikog poštovanja. Ali ako tragamo kroz spise izložene u periodu pre Lotos sutre, nalazimo na žalost da je situacija daleko drugačija.

Buda, Svetski Uvaženi, je čovek istinskih reči. Prema tome označen je kao mudrac i veliki čovek. U ne-budističkim spisima Indije i Kine postoje takođe osobe koje se zovu poštovanja vrednim ljudima, mudracima ili nebeskim asketama, s toga jer govore reči istine. Ali pošto ih Buda sve prevazilazi, poznat je kao veliki čovek.

[Kada je izložio Lotos sutru] ovaj je veliki čovek rekao: "Bude, Svetki Uvženi, pojavljuju se u svetu iz samo jednog velikog razloga."51 Takođe je rekao: "Još uvek nisam otkrio istinu",52 "Svetski Uvaženi je dugo izlagao svoje doktrine i sada mora otkriti istinu",53 i: "[Ja,] iskreno odbacujući svrsishodna sredstva, [propovedaću jedino neprevaziđen put]".54 Taho Buda je dodao svoje svedočenje rečima Bude, a emanacije Bude su isplazile svoje jezike u znak saglasnosti. Ko bi, onda, mogao sumnjati da će Šariputra u budućnosti postati Takodošavši Cvetnog Sjaja, da će Mahakašjapa postati Takodošavši Vedrog Svetla ili da će se ostala Budina predskazanja obistiniti?

Pri svemu tome, sve sutre kojep rethode Lotos sutri takođe predstavljaju istinite reči Bude. Daihoko butsu Kegon sutra tvrdi: "Postoje samo dva mesta na kojima Kraljevsko Drvo Velikog Leka, koje je mudrost Takodošavšeg, neće rasti i doneti dobrobit svetu. Ono neće rasti u vaskolikoj pustopoljini koja je duboka klopka u koju padaju oni dvaju vozila [šomon i engaku], ili u duboko jeretičkim i žudnjom ispunjenim vodama u kojima se dave bića nepodesna za budastvo koja uništavaju svoj vlastiti koren dobrobiti."

Ovaj odeljak može biti objašnjen ovako. Na Snežnim planinama55 postoji jedno ogromno drvo koje ima bezbrojno korenje. Zove se Kraljevsko DrvoVelikog Leka i car je svog drveća koje raste u zemlji Đambudvipe.56 Ono meri 168.000 jođana57 u visinu. Svo drugo drveće i biljke Đambudvipe zavise od korenja, grana, cvetova i plodova tog drveta, da bi dostiglo svoje vlastito cvetanje i rod. S toga je ovo drvo iskorišćeno kao metafora za buda prirodu, a razno drugo drveće i bilje za sva živa bića. Ali ovo veliko drvo neće rasti u nekoj furioznoj rupčagi ili na nekom vodnjikavom području.58 Furiozna rupčaga se koristi kao metafora za um onih dvaju vozila, a vodnjikavo područje se koristi kao metafora za um ičantika ili onih nepopravljivog neverovanja. Spis kaže da ove dve kategorije bića neće nikada dostići budastvo.

Daiđuku sutra tvrdi: "Postoje dva tipa onih koji su predodređeni da umru i da se ne rode ponovo, a koji na kraju neće biti sposobni da shvate ili isplate svoje obaveze. Jedni su oni-koji-slušaju-glas, a drugi su oni-probuđeni-za-uzrok. Pretpostavi da neko padne u duboku rupčagu. Taj neće koristiti ni sebi ni drugima."

Više od tri hiljade tomova konfučijanske i taoističke literature Kine zajedno naglašavaju dva principa, naime, detinju ljubav i lojalnost vladaru. Ali lojalnost nije ništa više do produžetak detinje ljubavi. Detinja ljubav se može opisati kao uzvišena. Mada je nebo uzvišeno, ono nije uzvišenije od detinje ljubavi. Detinja ljubav se može nazvati dubokom. Mada je zemlja duboka, nije dublja od detinje ljubavi. Mudraci i ljudi vredni poštovanja su prozvod detinje ljubavi. Prema tome, nema pogovora, da oni koji proučavaju budistička učenja moraju takođe [osmotriti ovaj ideal detinje ljubavi i] shvatiti i odužiti svoje obaveze.59 Budini učenici moraju bez greške da shvate četiri duga zahvalnosti i da znaju kako da ih oduže.

Dodatno, Šariputra, Mahakašjapa i ostali učenici, koji su bili poklonici dvaju vozila.pažljivo su osmotrili dve stotine i pedeset propisa60 i tri hiljade pravila ponašanja,61 ovladali trima tipovima meditacija62 - poznatim kao meditacija prijatnog mirisa, čista meditacija i meditacija bez istakanja - i izveli učenja Agon sutri i oslobodili se iluzija misli i želje u trostrukom svetu. Prema tome, oni mora da su bili uzori shvatanja i oduženja obaveza.

Pa ipak je Svetski Uvaženi izjavio da su oni bili ljudi koji nisu shvatili obavezu. Rekao je to s toga, jer kad čovek napusti svoje roditelje i postane kaluđer, treba uvek da ima kao svoj cilj spas svog oca i svoje majke. Ali ovisu ljudi podržavali dva vozila, i mada su mislili da su dostigli oslobođenje, ništa nisu učinili za dobrobit drugih. I čak ako su i učinili izvesnu dobrobit drugima, vodili su svoje roditelje stazom kojom ovi nikada ne bi mogli da dostignu budastvo. Tako, suprotno od onoga što bi se moglo očekivati, postali su poznati kao ljudi koji nisu shvatili svoje obaveze.

U Vimalakirti sutri čitamo: "Vimalakirti63 još jednom upita Monđuširi, govoreći: 'Šta je seme budastva?' Monđuširi odgovori: 'Sve obmane i zaprljanosti su seme budastva. Čak i ako neko počini pet kardinalnih grehova i osuđen je napakao neprestane patnje, još uvek je sposoban da začne želju prema velikom putu'".

Ista sutra takođe kaže: "Dobri ljudi, da vam dam jedno poređenje. Ravnice i brda nikada neće stvoriti peteljke i cvetove plavog lotosa ili vodenog ljiljana. Ali blatnjava polja koja su nisko položena i vlažna su mesta gde ćete naći ovo cveće kako raste."

Takođe kaže: "Onaj ko je već postao arhat i postigao nivo istine koji ide uz arhatstvo64 nikada ne može da začne želju prema putu i da postigne budastvo. On je kao čovek koji je uništio pet organa čula i prema tome nikada ponovo ne može da uživa u pet uživanja koja idu uz njih."

Poenta ove sutre je u tome da tri otrova pohlepe, ljutnje i gluposti mogu postati seme budastva, a da pet kardinalnih grehova kao što je ubistvo oca može isto tako postati seme budastva. Čak i kad bi visoke ravnice mogle rađati plave lotose, oni dvaju vozila ne bi nikada dostigli budastvo. Tekst govori da, kada se dobro onih dvaju vozila uporedi sa zlom običnih ljudi, naći će se da, mada zla običnih ljudi mogu voditi budastvu, dobro onih dvaju vozila ne može nikada. Razne hinajana sutre osuđuju zlo i hvale dobro. Ali ova sutra, Vimalakirti, osuđuje dobro onih dvaju vozila i hvali zlo običnih ljudi. Skoro da bi se pokazalo da to uopšte i nije budistički spis, već da su pre u pitanju učenja neke ne-budističke škole. No, poenta je u tome da se želi učiniti potpuno jasnim da oni dvaju vozila nikada ne mogu postati bude.

Hodo darani sutra tvrdi: "Monđu je rekao Šariputri: 'Može li svenulo drvo dati cvetove! Može li se planinski potok okrenuti i teći nazad prema svom izvoru! Može li se razmrskana stena ponovo sastaviti! Može li sprženo seme izniknuti?' Šariputra odgovori: 'Ne'. Monđu reče: 'Ako su ove stvari nemoguće, zašto onda dolaziš sa radošću u srcu i pitaš me da li ti je predskazano buduće budastvo?'"

Ovaj odeljak znači da, baš kao što sasušeno drvo ne rađa cvetove, planinski potok nikada ne teče unazad, smrskana stena ne može biti sastavljena, a sprženo seme ne može da nikne, tako ni oni dvaju vozila nikada ne mogu dostići budastvo. U njihovom slučaju, seme budastva bilo je sprženo.

U Daibon hanja sutri, [Subhuti] kaže: "Svi vi sinovi bogova, ako još niste začeli želju za savršenim prosvetljenjem, sada je vreme da to učinite. Ako biste jednom stupili u područje prosvetljenja onih-koji-slušaju-glas, ne biste više bili sposobni da začnete takvu jednu želju za savršenim prosvetljenjem. Zašto je to tako! S toga što biste bile izvan sveta rođenja i smrti, što samo po sebi čini prepreku". Ovaj odeljak ukazuje na to da nije zadovoljan onima dvaju vozila jer ne shvataju {začinju} želju za savršenim prosvetljenjem, ali je zadovoljan nebeskim bićima jer začinju takvu želju.

Šuramgama sutra tvrdi: "Ako bi onaj ko je počinio pet kardinalnih grehova čuo za ovu šuramgama meditaciju65 i ako bi začeo želju za najvišim prosvetljenjem, onda bi on ipak bio sposoban da dostigne budastvo. Ali, Svetski Uvaženi, jedan arhat koji je okončao istakanja je kao slomljena posuda i nikada neće biti sposoban da shvati i podrži ovu meditaciju".

Vimalakirti sutra kaže: "Oni koji ti daju milostinju, ne neguju sebi nikakvo polje dobre sreće. Onikoji ti daju milostinju će pasti na tri zle staze". Ovaj odeljak znači da će ljudska i nebeska bića koja daju milostinju ovakvim mudrim kaluđerima kao što su Mahakašjapa i Šariputra neizostavno pasti na tri zle staze. Mudri kaluđeri kao što su ovi, pretpostavio bi neko, mora da su oči ljudskih i nebeskih bića i vođe svih živih bića, odmah iza Bude samog. Mora da je bilo veoma protivno uobičajenom očekivanju da je Buda uvek iznova govorio protiv takvih ljudi pred velikim skupom ljudskih i nebeskih bića, kao što smo videli da radi. Da li se doista trudio da ih na smrt ukori! Dodatno, koristio je bezbrojne različite metafore da izrazi svoju osudu ljudi dvaju vozila, nazivajući ih magarećim mlekom u poređenju sa kravljim, glinenim posudama u poređenju sa zlatnim ili svetlucanjem svitaca u poređenju sa svetlom sunca.

O tome nije govorio tek reč ili dve, dan ili dva, mesec ili dva, godinu ili dve, u jednoj ili dve sutre, već tokom više od četrdeset godina, u nebrojenim sutrama, obraćajući se velikim skupovima bezbrojnih ljudi, osuđujući one dvaju vozila bez ijedne reči opravdanja. Tako je svako saznao da je njegova osuda bila tačna. Nebo je to saznalo i zemlja je to saznala, ne tek jedna ili dve osobe već hiljade njih, hiljade i desetine hiljada je saznalo to i čulo o tome, kao i sva ljudska i nebeska bića, oni dvaju vozila i velike bodisatve okupljene na skupu iz svetova deset pravaca, svetova oblika i bezobličnosti, šest nebesa sveta želje66, četiri kontinenta67 i pet područja Indije i nebeskih bića, zmajskih bogova i asura trostrukog sveta. Zatim se svako od ovih bića vratilo u svoju zemlju, objašnjavajući ova učenja Šakjamuni Bude o saha svetu jednom po jednom stanovniku svoje zemlje, tako da nije bilo ijednog bića u ovim nebrojenim svetovima deset pravaca koje nije shvatilo da Mahakašjapa, Šariputra i oni slični njima nikada neće dostići budastvo i da jebilo pogršno davati im milostinju i podržavati ih.

U Lotos sutri propovedanoj tokom poslednjih osam godina svog života, međutim, Buda se neočekivano kajao i odricao svog ranijeg položaja i umesto toga podučavao da oni dvaju vozila zapravo mogu dostići budastvo. Da li bi se od ljudskih i nebeskih bića okupljenih na velikom skupu da ga čuju moglo očekivati da poveruju u ovo! Ne bi li ona pre odbacila ovo i, čak, počela u sumnji premišljati o svim sutrama propovedanim u tom i ranijim periodima! Pitala bi se da li su sva ta učenja data tokom svih pedeset godina Budinog propovedanja bila zapravo lažne i pogrešne doktrine.

Da budemo sigurni, postoji jedan odeljak u Mirjogi sutri koji kaže: "U ovih više nego četrdeset godina, još uvek nisam otkrio istinu". Pa ipak, neko se može pitati da nije nebeski đavo uzeo Budin oblik i propovedao ovu, Lotos, sutru poslednjih osam godina. U ovoj sutri, međutim, Buda opisuje sasvim detaljno kako će njegovi učenici dvaju vozila dostići budastvo i otkriva kalpe i zemlje u kojima će se pojaviti, imena koja će nositi i učenike koje će podučavati. Tako postaje očigledno da Šakjamuni Buda, gospodar učenjâ, govori dve različite stvari. Ovo jasno znači da protivreči sam sebi. Ovo je razlog zašto se brahmanisti smeju Budi i nazivaju ga velikom vrdalamom.

Ali baš kad su se ljudska i nebeska bića na velikom skupu osetila potištenim suočavajući se sa ovim protivrečnostima, Takodošavši Taho, koji boravi u svetu Čistoće Blaga na istoku, pojavio se u jednoj ogromnoj tvrđavi ukrašenoj sa sedam vrsta blaga68 i mereći 500 jođana u širinu. Ljudska i nebeska bića na velikom skupu optužila su Šakjamuni Budu da protivreči sam sebi i, mada im je Buda odgovorio na ovaj ili onaj način, bio je u priličnoj pometenosti, budući nesposoban da razgoni njihove sumnje - kada je iskrsla tvrđava s blagom iz zemlje pred njim i uzdigla se u nebo. Ispela se kao pun mesec iza istočnih planina u tamim noći. Tvrđava sa sedam vrsta blaga uzdigla se u nebo, ne prianjajući ni za zemlju ni za krov neba, već viseći u međuprostoru, a iz unutrašnjosti tvrđave se začuo čist i dalekosežući glas, izgovarajući reči svedočanstva. [Kao što to Lotos sutra opisuje:] "Tada se začuo jak glas iz tvrđave s blagom, izgovarajući reči pohvale: 'Izvrsno, izvrsno! Šakjamuni, Svetski Uvaženi, pošto možeš da usvojiš veliku mudrost jednakosti, Zakon da uputiš bodisatve, čuvane i držane na umu od strane budâ, Lotos sutre Čudesnog Zakona, i da je propovedaš za dobro velikog skupa! Tako je kao što kažeš, kao što kažeš. Šakjamuni, Svetski Uvaženi, sve što si izložio je istina!'"

[Nege drugde Lotos sutra kaže:] "Tada Svetski Uvaženi, u prisustvu Monđuširija i drugih neizmernih stotina, hiljada, desetina hiljada, miliona bodisatvi i mahasatvi koji od starina behu boravili u ovom saha svetu, kao i ... ljudska i ne-ljudska bića - pred svima njima prikazao je svoje nadprirodne moći.69 Ispružio je svoj dugi široki jezik70 naviše dok nije dosegao Brahma nebo i iz svih njegovih pora71 [odaslao je neizmerne bezbrojne mlazeve svetlosti koji su osvetlili] sve svetove u deset pravaca.

"Ostale bude, sedeći na lavljim sedištima pod bezbrojnim drvećem od dragog kamenja, učiniše kao i on, pružajući svoje duge široke jezike i odašiljući neizmerne mlazeve svetlosti."72

I takođe kaže:73 "Šakjamuni Buda učini da se bude koje behu emanacije njegovog tela i koji su bili došli iz deset pravaca, vrate svaki u svoju zemlju iz koje je došao, govoreći: '...Tvrđava Taho Bude može se takođe vratiti u svoj prethodni položaj'".

U prošlosti, kada je Svetski Uvaženi Velikog Prosvetljenja prvo dostigao put74, bude su se pojavile iz deset pravaca da ga posavetuju i ohrabre, a razne velike bodisatve su mu pohitale. Kada je propovedao Hanja sutru, pokrio je svojim dugim jezikom veliki sistem svetova75, a jedno hiljadu buda se pojavilo u deset pravaca. Kada je propovedao Konkomjo sutru, četiri bude76 se pojavilo u četiri pravca, a kada je propovedao Amida sutru, bude šest pravaca77 pokrile se veliki sistem svetova svojim jezicima. A kada je propovedao Daiđuku sutru, bude i bodisatve deset pravaca su se okupile Dvorani Velikog Blaga koja se nalazi na granici između svetova oblika i želje.

Ali ako uporedimo povoljne znakove koji su pratili ove sutre sa onima koji su pratili Lotos sutru, nalazimo da su kao žuti kamen u poređenju sa zlatom, beli oblak u poređenju sa belom planinom, led u poređenju sa srebrnim ogledalom ili crna boja u poređenju sa plavom bojom. Mutnovidi, zrikavi, jednooki i slabovidi bi ih verovatno pobrkali.

Pošto je Kegon sutra bila prva sutra da se propoveda, nije bilo prethodnih Budinih govora koji bi joj protivrečili, pa tako prirodno nije bilo ni sumnji. U slučaju Daiđuku sutre, Daibon [hanja] sutre, Konkomjo sutre i Amida sutre, Buda, u cilju da ukori ideal dvaju vozila pokazan u raznim hinajana sutrama, opisao je čiste zemlje deset pravaca, i na taj način inspirisao obične ljude i bodisatve da zažude da ih dostignu. Tako je učinio da se oni dvaju vozila osete zbunjenim i iritiranim.
prethodno parče sledeće

Podaci o poreklu gošoa

Preveo Mića Mijatović 19. 07. 2002. u Beogradu
Izvor: Major Writings of Nichiren Daishonin; Vol. 2. Page 86.


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