King Zygmunt August of Poland
Written and researched by Margaret Odrowaz-Sypniewska

Changing Polish Kings -


Wladyslaw Jagiello's effigy on his tomb

Wladyslaw II Jagiello was born in 1350. He was the King of Lithuania from 1377-1434, and King of Poland from 1386-1434. Wladyslaw II married (1)Jadwiga (b. 1371), King of Poland in 1384 (the only woman made "king"). Jadwiga died July 17, 1399 after complications of childbirth.(2) Anna Cilly in 1402 (3)Elzbieta Holzanska in 1417 (4) Zofia Holszanska in 1422. In 1387, Jagiello granted the Lithuanian nobles the right to own property outright. By the end of the 15th century, the Jagiellons ruled about one-third of the European mainland.

Children of Jagiellon and Jadwiga:

.....Elzbieta Bonifacia was born in 1399. She died shortly after birth.

Children of Jagiellon and Anna:

.....Jadwiga (1408-1431)

Children of Jagiellon and Zofia:

.....Wladyslaw III Warenczyk (1424-1444), King of Poland in 1434, King of Bohemia im 1440.
.....Kazimierz (1426-1427)
.....Kazimierz V (1427-1492) married Elzbieta Habsburg. Kazimierz was the King of Lithuania in 1440, and the King of Poland in 1446.


Wladyslaw III was born October 31, 1424, and died November 10, 1444. He married Zofia (d. 1461) in 1422. Wladyslaw III was King from 1434-1444, and was the eldest son of Wladyslaw II. Wladyslaw III Jagiello was offered the throne in 1440 by the Magyars. He was crowned in Buda and three years later he was killed at the Battle of Varna (at age 20). This battle took place on the Black Sea and he was killed while charging the Turkish Sultan.

Kazimierz Jagiellon's effigy on his tomb

Kazimierz/Casimir IV Jagiellon was born November 29, 1429 in Cracow/Kracow, and died June 7, 1492 in Grodno. He was King of Poland and reigned from 1446-1492, and was the brother of Wladyslaw III. Kazimierz was the Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1445, and the King of Poland in 1447. Kazimierz married Elizabeth Habsburg(1438-1505) the daughter of Albrecht II, Roman King of Bohemia and Hungary (1397-1439) and Elizabeth of Luxembourg (1409-1442). Elzbieta's uncle was Ladislas V, King of Austria in 1404, Duke of Austria in 1440, and King of Bohemia and Hungary (1440-1457).


Children of Kazimierz IV and Elizabeth Habsburg(1438-1505)

(01)Wladyslaw II (1456-1516) was the King of Czeski in 1471, King of Bohemia, after the death of Mattias Corvinus in 1490. Wladyslaw married (1) Barbara, daughter of Albrech Achilles, Margrave of Brandenburg in 1476 (2)Beatrycza, daughter of Ferdynana, King of Neopolu and wido of Mattias Corwin in 1490. (3) Anna, daughter of Gaston Canalla in 1502.

(02)Jadwiga was born September 21,1457, and died February 18, 1502. She married Jerzy Bogaty in 1475.

(03)St. Kazimierz was born on October 3, 1458, and died March 4, 1484 in Wilno. Kasimierz was canonized in 1602.

(04)Jan Olbrecht/John I Albert was born on December 26, 1459 in Cracow/Krakow, and died June 17, 1501 in Torun. Jan was King of Poland and reigned 1492-1501, was the son of Kazimierz IV.

(05)Elzbieta (1465-1466)

(06)Aleksander Jagiellon was born on August 5, 1461 in Cracow/Krakow, and died August 19, 1506 in Wilno. Aleksander was the brother of Jan I Albert and son of Kazimierz IV. Aleksander was King of Poland and Lithuania in 1492. He married Helena, daughter of Ivan III, a Moscovite.

(07)Zofia (1462-1512) married Fryderyk Arsbach of Brandenburg.

(08)Frederick/Frederyk was born on April 27, 1468 in Cracow/Krakow, and died March 14, 1503, in Tamze. Bishop of Cracow, Archbishop of Gniezno, and Cardinal.

(09)Elzbieta (1472-1480)

(10)Anna Jagiellon was born on March 12, 1476, in Nieszawa, and Died August 12, 1503, in Wkryujscie. Anna married Boguslaw of Pomerania.

(11)Barbara (1478-1534) married George Duke of Savoy (a mad prince) in 1496. He was also known in Poland as Prince Jerzy Brodaty (the Bearded).

(12)Elzbieta Jagiellon (b. 1483) died on February 17, 1517. She married Frederyk II in 1525.

Children of Kazimierz IV and Elizabeth of Luxembourg (1409-1442):

Zygmunt Starego

(13)Zygmunt I, the Elder (1476-1548) was the brother of Jan and Aleksander; and the son of Kazimierz IV. Zygmunt I was the King of Lithauania and Poland in 1506. Zygmunt inherited the throne from his brother, Aleksander. Zygmunt I was born in 1467. He married (1) Barbara Zapolya in 1512. (2) Bona Sforza in 1518. She came from Italy to Poland in 1518. Bona Sforza was born on February 2, 1494 in Vigewano, and died November 19, 1557.


Zygmunt II August

Zygmunt II August was the son of Zygmunt I and Bona Sforza, was born on August 1, 1510, in Cracow, Poland. Zygmunt II became the King of Poland and Great Duke of Lithuania as co-regent in 1529, at age nine (9). At age 27 he reigned on his own from 1548-1572. Zgymunt II August died on July 7, 1772, in Kryszn and the Jagiellon line died out.


Nobility gathered in Warsaw in 1573 to decide who might be their next king. Since the Jagiellon dynasty had ended they had to pick a candidate for king from the remaining members of the Piast Dynasty. They considered the following:


Henri de Valois/Henryk Walezy (1573-1574), brother to the King of France, Charles IX (1560-1574). Henri was only 24 years of age, when he married Anna (then age 50), sister of Zygmunt August. Henri's rule from February 1574 until June was a disaster. He spent money, but did little else. After his brother's death on May 30, 1574, Henri (1571-1575) was deposed as Polish King and he became King of France, as Henri III, from 1574-1589. Henri was the son of Francis II (1559-1560) of the House of Angouleme.


Stefan Batory

Stefan Bathory reigned, in Poland, from 1575-1586. Stefan married Anne, the daughter of Sigmund I, in 1576, thus his tie to the Polish throne. Stefan Bathory, Duke of Transylvania, was made king by the szlachta on December 14, 1575. Stefan Batory was a military man. The Zamoyski family prospered under Stefan Batory's reign. Jan Zamoyski (1542-1605) was a Grand Hetman of the Army. Jan Zamoyski was Stefan Bathory's new Vice-Chancellor. However, Gdansk and Prussia refused to recognize Batory as their king. Batory died on December 12, 1586.

Andrzej Bathory was born in 1563 and died in 1599. Andrzej was a Cardinal in the Catholic Church.


Zygmunt/Sigismund III Vasa reigned from 1592-1599 as the King of Sweden. Zygmunt was born in 1566 in a dungeon where his parents were imprisoned by the King of Sweden. Zygmunt was the son of Zygmunt I's daughter Catherine Jagiellon (1526-1583) and John III (1526-1583)King of Sweden (1568-1583). John III's grandfather was Gustavus I (1496-1560), founder og the Vasa dynasty, and Margaret Lejonhufvud (1514-1551) (daughter of Eric) was his grandmother . Zygmunt became the King of Poland from 1587-1632. Zygmunt married (1)Anne (1573-1598), daughter of Charles AD of Austria, in 1592. (2) Constance (1588-1631), daughter of Charles AD of Austria in 1605. Constance and Anne were sisters and the daughters of Charles of Styria (1540-1590) and Maria Anna of Bavaria (d. 1571). They were also the grand-daughters of Anna Jagiellon, Queen of Hungary and Ferdinand I.


Wladyslaw IV (b. 1595) was the son of Zygmunt III and Anne of Habsburg, and became the King of Poland from 1632-1648. Wladyslaw IV was the Tzar elect of Muscovy from 1610-1639. Wladyslaw married (1) Renata of Habsburg (2) Louise Marie Gonzaga, Princess de Neker and Dutchess of Mantau.


(1) Jan II Casimir was born on Maech 22, 1609, in Cracow/Krakow and died December 16, 1672. Jan was King of Poland from 1648-1668, when he abdicated. Jan married Louise Marie Gonzaga. Jan died in 1672. Jan was Wladyslaw's younger half-brother, his mother was Constance of Habsburg, third wife of Zygmunt III Vasa.

(2) Jan Albert was the Bishop of Warmia in 1631; Bishop of Cracow in 1632; and Cardinal in 1633.

(3) Karol Ferdynand was the Bishop of Wroclaw in 1625; Bishop of Plock in 1645; and Prelate of Opole-Raciborz.

(4) Anna Katarzyna Konstancja married Philip Wilhelm, Elector of the Palatine.


After this, the House of Wisniowiecki comes to the throne of Poland with Michael Korybut Wisniowwiecki (b. 1640). He was the King of Poland from 1669 until 1673. Michael was the son of Jeremi Wisniowiecki (1612-1651), a soldier who was famous for defeating the Ukranian Cossacks.


Dziegielewski, Jan, et al. Encyklopedia Historii Polski. Tom I (Vol. I) Warsaw, 1994.

Morby, John E. Oxford Dynasties of the World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002 paperback

Moyski, Adam. The Polish Way. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1996.

SEE: The Swedish Kings
St. Casimir's Family Tree



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