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Introduction Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Bibliography

List of errata in the printed version of the thesis, submitted in February 2005.

The final printed version will be submitted later this year. The online version of this thesis has already been amended; ALL textual alterations (except for corrections of typing errors) are shown in RED font.

NOTE

Amendments which are of relatively minor significance (e.g. typing errors) are shown in normal black font. Changes in bold type (in black font) are of somewhat greater significance: most of them relate to appendix references or to authors cited. The most important changes are shown in red font: these changes affect the wording of the thesis. The vast majority of these changes can be found in the Appendix to chapter 5, part A (pp. 994, 999-1002).

Introduction

Section 0.A.3

Page 3 - In the sentence beginning "First, the successes of artificial intelligence...", the word "successes" should read "success".

Page 3 - "(Allen, 2002, 2003)" should read "(Allen, 2002, 2004a)".

Section 0.B.2(d)

Page 18 - Replace the phrase "of of 'mind-relevant' properties" with "of 'mind-relevant' properties".

Section 0.B.2(g)

Page 21 - The word "caims" should read "claims".

Chapter 1

Section 1.A.2

Page 35 - change the comment "[i.e. does not depend - V.T.]" to "[i.e. does not completely depend - V.T.]" in the definition of weak vitalism.

Section 1.A.3.2

Page 47 - Omit the word "however" at the beginning of the first paragraph.

Section 1.A.3.4

Page 63 - In the first paragraph, delete the word "question" from the fourth sentence, which currently reads "Philosophically, it would be more appropriate question to ask...", so that it reads "Philosophically, it would be more appropriate to ask..."

Section 1.B

Section 1.B.1

Page 81 - The word "instantantaneously" should read "instantaneously".

Page 72B - Insert the words "(Geer, 2002)" after the words "building blocks first", at the end of the second paragraph.

Section 1.B.3

Page 73B - In the sentence beginning "Asa self-described emergentist...", insert a space between "As" and "a".

Section 1.B.6(a)

Page 90 - In the sentence beginning "The demand for an explanation appear to be reasonable...", replace "appear" with "appears".

Section 1.B.8

Page 112 - insert the word "that" in the second sentence on the page so that it reads "While it is factually true that most of the things people want are good for them, most of the time..." instead of "While it is factually true most of the things people want are good for them, most of the time...".

Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Part B

Section 2.B.1

Page 165 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 1.1 (case study 1) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 167 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 1.1 (case study 2) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 172 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 1.1 (case study 2) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B". After "plants" add "(see section 1.3 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 174 - After the phrase "not a univocal one" add: "(See section 1.3 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B for a further discussion)".

Page 174 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 1.2 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Section 2.B.2

Page 178 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 2.1 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 181 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 2.3 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 181 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 2.2 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 181 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 2.3 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 182 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 2.3 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Section 2.B.3

Page 190 - Just before Conclusion F.2, insert: "I discuss Kilian and Muller's arguments at further length in section 3.1 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 192 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 3.2 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 192 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 3.3 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 195 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 3.4 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 197 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 3.4.3 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Section 2.B.4

Page 203 - In the top row of the table, in column 2, insert the following sentence at the end: "I discuss reasons for excluding sensory adaptation as a form of learning in section 4.1 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 209 - In the sentence beginning "The evidence cited in favour of this sweeping claim, ...", insert the following words: "(discussed at further length in section 4.2 (case study 1) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B)".

Page 209 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 4.2 (case study 2) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 210 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 4.2 (case study 3) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 221 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 4.3 (case study 1) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 221 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 4.3 (case study 2) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 222 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 4.3 (case study 3) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 223 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 4.3 (case study 3(a)) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 224 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 4.3 (case study 3(b)) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 226 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 4.3 (case study 3(c)) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 228 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 4.3 (case study 3(d)) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 231 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 4.4 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 240 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 4.5 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Section 2.B.5

Page 247 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 5.1 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 250 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 5.2 (case study 1) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 251 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 5.2 (case studies 2 and 3) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 256 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 5.3 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 259 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 5.4 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 262 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 5.5 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 263 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 5.6 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 265 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 5.7 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 274 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 4.3 (case study 3(d)) of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Section 2.B.7

Page 294 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 7.1 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Page 295 - Replace "the Appendix to part B" with "section 7.2 of the Appendix to chapter 2 part B".

Chapter 3

Section 3.1.(a)

Page 340 - The word "beyong" should read "belong".

Section 3.2

Page 356 - The word "Becuase" should read "Because".

Section 3.4

Page 363 - Replace the phrase "an ill-defined feelings" with "an ill-defined feeling".

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Part A

Section 4.A.1.1

In Table 4.1, in the row entitled "Transitive creature consciousness", column 3, replace "(Allen, 2003, p. 12)" with "(Allen, 2004a, p. 631)".

Section 4.A.1.2

Page 384 - Change "In section 1.2" to "In section 4.A.2".

Page 385 - In table 4.3, in the row entitled "Exclusive HOR theorists (Carruthers (2000, 2004)", replace "I argue in the Appendix" with "I argue in the Appendix to chapter 4 part A". Replace "Allen (2003) (summarised in the Appendix)" with "Allen, (2004a) (summarised in the Appendix to chapter 4 part A)".

Page 386 - In table 4.3, in the row entitled "First-order representational (FOR) accounts of consciousness (Dretske, 1995)", column 3, replace "(Allen, 2003, p. 13)" with "(Allen, 2004a, p. 631)".

Section 4.A.2.2

Page 390 - Change the italicized phrase "I conclude that the answer was in the negative" to "I concluded that the answer was in the negative".

Section 4.A.2.3

Page 411 - Table 4.11: change the title from "Table 4.11 - Is consciousness possible in mammals that lack a cerebral cortex?" to "Table 4.11 - Is consciousness possible in brain-damaged mammals, which lack a cerebral cortex?"

Chapter 4 Part B

Change the reference "(Allen, 2004)" to "(Allen, 2004b)".

Change the reference "(Budiansky, 1998)" to "(Budiansky, 1998a)".

Chapter 4 Part C

Page 429 - Change the title to "Chapter 4 Part C - Are non-human animals capable of moral agency?"

Chapter 5

Section 5.2.2

Page 461 - Change the phrase "sentient animals" to "animals with minds".

Page 461 - Replace the phrase "pleasures that will never be experienced or remembered, feelings ... that will never be felt and friendships that will never be formed" with: "feelings ... that will never be felt, and (for phenomenologically conscious animals) pleasures that will never be experienced or remembered, and (for social animals) friendships that will never be formed".

Page 468 - Replace the phrase "Our obligations to sentient animals collectively entail that...." with the phrase: "Our obligations to animals with minimal minds and sentient animals collectively entail that".

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APPENDIX

Appendix to Chapter 1

Appendix to Chapter 1 Part A

Page 625 - In paragraph 1, change "tell" to "tells".

Appendix to Chapter 1 Part B

Page 637 - The phrase "a non-biological activities" to "a non-biological activity".

Page 653 - The word "depdendent" should read "dependent".

Appendix to chapter 2 Part A

Page 666 - The word "inifinitely" should read "infinitely".

Page 668 - The phrase "is correct" should read "were correct".

Appendix to chapter 2 Part B

Page 706 - The word "Thre" should read "There".

Page 710 - Replace "Web address" with "former Web address".

Page 717 - The "N" in "xN" should be a subscript.

Page 719 - Replace "Carruthers (2004)" with "Carruthers (2004a)".

Page 732 - At the end of section 3.4.3, insert the following sentence: "While the gene-swapping behaviour of bacteria is undoubtedly mentalistic, there are good reasons (which I discuss in section 3.4.3 of Chapter 2 part B, prior to conclusions F.5 and F.6) for not interpreting this behaviour in mentalistic terms."

Page 766 - Replace "3??C" with "3 degrees Celsius". Replace ""20??C" with "20 degrees Celsius".

Page 781 - At the end of case study 1, insert the following sentence: "Since these behaviours do not appear to be flexible (in the sense defined in Chapter 2 part B) there is no need to explain them in mentalistic terms (see conclusion F.3)."

Page 782 - At the end of case study 2, insert the following sentence: "Consequently, there is no need to explain them in mentalistic terms (see conclusion F.3)."

Page 784 - At the end of case study 3, insert the following sentence: "Consequently, there is no need to explain them in mentalistic terms (see conclusion F.3)."

Appendix to chapter 2 Part C

Page 813 - The phrase "jumpimg spider" should read "jumping spider".

Page 822 - The phrase "image of themslves" should read "image of themselves".

Page 859 - The word "cephalpods" should read "cephalopods".

Page 862 - The phrase "some some small rocks" should read "some small rocks".

Page 876 - The word "interations" should read "interactions".

Page 879 - The word "prefrred" should read "preferred".

Page 882 - The phrase "e.g" should read "e.g.".

Page 886 - The phrase "vol" should read "vol.".

Page 888 - The word "wherepon" should read "whereupon".

Appendix to chapter 2 Part D

Page 907 - The word "non-emprical" should read "non-empirical".

Page 910 - The phrase "backgound" should read "background".

Page 913 - The word "wihout" should read "without".

Appendix to chapter 3

Page 916 - Replace the phrase "they they" with "they".

Page 917 - Replace the phrase "applied" with "applied to animals".

Page 919 - Replace the phrase "reponses" with "responses".

Page 934 - Replace the phrase "it was originated" with "it developed".

Page 939 - Replace the phrase "the the" with "the".

Page 952 - Replace the phrase "which which" with "which".

Appendix to Chapter 4

Appendix to chapter 4 Part A

Page 964 - The word "philsophers" should read "philosophers".

Page 967 - The word "themsleves" should read "themselves".

Page 975 - In the caption to the picture, replace "Laboratory experiments" with "Laboratory experiments (Stoerig, 1997)". Replace "The methodology proposed here would not impress Carruthers, who has..." with ""Peter Carruthers (2000a, 2000b, 2000c, 2004b) has...".

Page 977 - Replace "Allen (2003, p. 12)" with "Allen (2004a, p. 630)". The word "innterpret" should read "interpret". Replace "Carruthers (2000)" with "Carruthers (2000b)".

Page 981 - The word "follwing" should read "following". In TABLE 1, "escapeattempts" should read "escape attempts".

Page 984 - The word "electostunning" should read "electrostunning".

Appendix to Chapter 4 Part B

Page 987 - Change "(Leahy, p.)" to "(Leahy, pp. 145-146)".

Page 990 - Change "part B" to "part B of chapter 4".

Appendix to Chapter 5 Part A

Page 994 - Delete the sentence, "Obligations of the second kind are more problematic." In the following sentence, replace the phrase "First, there are" with "There are". In the following paragraph, replace "Second, for each" with "For each".

Page 998 - Replace the phrase "Argued for in chapter 1" with "Argued for at the end of chapter 1".

Page 999 - In step 2, replace "with" with "without".

Page 999 - At the end of step 4, insert the following sentence: "(N.B. No individual member of a species can realise all of these goods, owing to the diversity of sexes and phenotypes, which realise the telos of an animal in mutually exclusive ways and instantiate different goods. See chapter 1, section B.7.)"

Page 999 - Step 6 should read: "(6) A "normal" (i.e. fully functional) animal possesses a complete set of intact information which allows it to realise the entire suite of basic animal goods for its species, which are compatible with its sex and phenotype. (The last qualification is important: no individual can simultaneously realise the teloi of both sexes, for instance. Thus any set of basic animal goods realised by an individual will always be a subset of those available for the species.)"

Page 1000 - In step 7, after the words "characterise its species", insert the words: "and are compatible with its sex and phenotype".

Page 1000 - In step 8, after the words, "the entire suite of their basic animal goods", insert the words: "available to them, given their species, sex and phenotype".

Page 1001 - In step 10, after the words, "a normal member of its species", insert the words: "of the same sex and phenotype".

Page 1001 - In step 11, after the words, "a member of its species", insert the words: "of the same sex and phenotype".

Page 1001 - In the paragraph following step 11, replace the phrase"'Marginal' and 'normal' animals" with "'Marginal' animals and their 'normal' counterparts".

Page 1002 - Replace the phrase "Finally, even in cases" with "Finally, even in individual cases". Replace the phrase "conspecific individuals" with "functioning conspecific individuals".

Appendix to chapter 6

Appendix to chapter 6 Part A

Page 1022 - Replace the phrase "duty duty" with: "duty".

Page 1024 - In the last sentence, replace "happen" with "they happen".

Page 1029 - Replace the phrase "sentient animals" with "animals with minimal minds".

Page 1029 - The fourth paragraph of the section, "Two theories of rights", should read as follows:

"Feinberg's argument appears to blur three distinct senses (described in chapter 4, section 4.A.3) in which interests can be ascribed to creatures): first, things may be in their interests if they serve the creatures' intrinsic ends; second, creatures can (if they possess minimal minds) take an interest in things; and finally, phenomenally conscious creatures can feel interested in things that they like. To say that non-sentient creatures merely have needs - in the same way as a car needs petrol, for instance - is to gloss over a fundamental ethical distinction between having and lacking intrinsic finality."

Page 1035 - The word "tham" should read "than".

Page 1036 - Replace the phrase "but allows" with "but also allows".

Page 1041 - Replace the phrase "whose eye I must gouge in order to dissuade him" with "whose eye I must gouge in order to dissuade him from trying to eat me".

Page 1042 - Replace the phrase "below" with "in Appendix B to chapter 6".

Appendix to chapter 6 Part B

Page 1043 - Omit the word "Finally" in paragraph 1. The word "faviour" should read "favour".

Page 1049 - Omit the word "away" in paragraph 1. The word "probablility" should read "probability".

Page 1050 - The word "peformance" should read "performance".

Page 1051 - Replace the word "Even" with "Similarly".

Page 1052 - The word "shal" should read "shall".

Page 1056 - The word "iherent" should read "inherent". Replace the phrase "the the" with "the".

Page 1062 - Replace the phrase "who died" with the phrase: "that died".

Page 1071 - In line 5, replace the phrase "an Appendix" with: "an online Appendix (attached to the end of this chapter in the printed version of my thesis)". In paragraph 2, delete the phrase "in an Appendix".

Page 1075 - Replace the phrase "an online Appendix" with: "an online Appendix (attached to the end of this chapter in the printed version of my thesis)".

Page 1080 - Delete the references to Budiansky and the BBC report. The word "Nufffield" should read "Nuffield". The word "hepatitus" should read "hepatitis". The word "tranqulizers" should read "tranquilizers".

Page 1082 - In Paragraph 1, the word "faviour" should read "favour"

Page 1083 - Replace the word "below" with: "in Appendix A to chapter 6".