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References

NOTE: The online bibliography is now fully UP-TO-DATE and includes references to ALL works cited in the thesis. All links are current unless explicitly stated otherwise.

Aboitiz F., Morales D. and Montiel J. 2000. Online Paper: "The Evolutionary Origin of the Mammalian Isocortex: Insights from Molecular Developmental Biology." Web address: http://cogprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/archive/00000132/00/BBS12.html.
(The authors are from the Department of Psychiatry and Centre for Investigative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Millennium Nucleus for Integrative Neuroscience, Santiago.)

Aboitiz F., Morales D. and Montiel J. 2003. "The Evolutionary Origin of the Mammalian Isocortex: towards an integrated developmental and functional approach." In Behavior and Brain Science, October 2003, vol. 26 no. 5, pp.535-552. Web address of abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15179935.

Abramson, C. I. 1994. A Primer of Invertebrate Learning. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Abramson, C. I. and Buckbee, D. A. 1995. Pseudoconditioning in earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris): Support for nonassociative explanations of classical conditioning phenomena through an olfactory paradigm. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 109, pp. 390-397.

Abramson, C., Stone S., Ortez R., Luccardi A., Vann K., Hanig K. and Rice J. 2000. "The Development of an Ethanol Model Using Social Insects I: Behavior Studies of the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)." Journal of Comparative Psychology, 109, pp. 390-397.

Abramson C.I., Kirkpatrick D. E., Bollinger N., Odde R. and Lambert S. 2001. "Planarians in the Psychology Classroom: Habituation and Instrumental Conditioning Demonstrations." Scheduled to appear in: In L. Benjamin, B. Nodine, R. Ernst, C. Blair-Broeker (Eds.). Activities handbook for the teaching of psychology, Volume 4. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Web address: http://psychology.okstate.edu/faculty/abramson/plan.html.
(The authors are based at the Department of Psychology, Oklahoma State University.)

Abramson C. I., Garrido D. J., Lawson A. L., Browne B. L. and Thomas D. G. 2002. "Bioelectrical Potentials of Philodendron cordatum: a New Method for Investigation of Behavior in Plants." In Psychological Reports, 2002, 91, pp. 173 - 185.

Abramson, C. 2003. Personal email, 2 February 2003.

Aegerter, M. 1997. "Fundamental Response." Article in "Universe" magazine, Fall 1997. Universe magazine is published by Washington State University. Web address: http://www.wsu.edu/NIS/Universe/funda.htm

Albrecht-Buehler, G. 2003a (last update). Web page: "Cell Intelligence." Web address: http://www.basic.northwestern.edu/g-buehler/cellint0.htm.
(Guenter Albrecht-Buehler is the Robert Laughlin Rea Professor of Cell and Molecular Biology at Northwestern University. He is also a fellow of the European Academy of Sciences.)

Albrecht-Buehler, G. 2003b. Web page: "Group migration." Web address: http://www.basic.northwestern.edu/g-buehler/groups.htm

Albrecht-Buehler, G. 2003. Personal email: "Memory in unicellular organisms?" 30 September 2003.

AllaboutMEMS. 2002. (Online definition of sensor.) Web address: http://www.allaboutmems.com/glossary.html.
(MEMS, or MicroElectroMechanical Systems, are the microscopic structures integrated onto silicon that combine mechanical, optical and fluidic elements with electronics. Typically no bigger than a grain of sand, these MEMS devices are complex machines that enable chips to become intelligent. The allaboutMEMS site is a community-oriented website devoted to the full range of information available about MicroElectoMechanical Systems.)

Allen, C. 2002. "Animal Consciousness." In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web address: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consciousness-animal/.
(Collin Allen is a Professor of Philosophy at Texas A&M University.)

Allen, C. 2004. "Animal Pain." In Nous 38:4 (2004), pp. 617-643. Web address: http://grimpeur.tamu.edu/~colin/Papers/animalpain.pdf

Allen, C. 2004. "Transitive inference in animals: Reasoning or conditioned associations?" In S. Hurley and M. Nudds (eds.) Rational Animals? Oxford University Press, forthcoming. Web address: http://grimpeur.tamu.edu/~colin/Papers/transitive%20inference.pdf.

Allen, T. 1986. Online article: "A Summary of the principles of Hierarchy Theory." Web address: http://www.isss.org/hierarchy.htm.
(Timothy Allen is a Professor of Botany at The University of Wisconsin Madison.)

Allman J., Hakeem A., Erwin J., Nimchinsky E., Hof P. 2001. "The Anterior Cingulate Cortex: The Evolution of an Interface between Emotion and Cognition." In Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2001, 935: 107-117. Web address:http://www.allmanlab.caltech.edu/research/spindlecells1.htm.

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 2000. Fourth edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. Web address: http://bartleby.com/61/35/A0533500.html

Americans for Medical Advancement. 2002. Publication: Drs. Greek's response to Dr. Michael Festing's Review of "Sacred Cows and Golden Geese: The Human Cost of Experiments on Animals." Web address: http://www.curedisease.com/Festingdebate/Festing%20debate%208-2002%20FINAL1.pdf

Americans/Europeans/Japanese for Medical Advancement. 2003. Web page: Resources Available. Web address: http://curedisease.com/resources.html

Americans for Medical Progress. 2002. Web page: "Animal Research." Web address: http://www.amprogress.org/Issues/issuesmain.cfm.

Americans for Medical Progress. 2002. Web page: Medical milestones. Web address: http://www.amprogress.org/Issues/IssuesList.cfm?c=10

Americans for Medical Progress. 2002. Web page: Ethics and Humane Use. Web address: http://www.amprogress.org/Issues/IssuesList.cfm?c=13

Americans for Medical Progress. 2002. Web page: Alternatives to Animal Research. Web address: http://www.amprogress.org/Issues/IssuesList.cfm?c=75

Americans for Medical Progress. 2002. Web page: Frequently Asked Questions. Web address: http://www.amprogress.org/Issues/IssuesList.cfm?c=15

Americans for Medical Progress. 2002. Web page: Animal use in tests for birth defects and microsurgery. Web address: http://www.amprogress.org/Issues/Issues.cfm?ID=206&c=77

Americans for Medical Progress. 2002. Web page: Animal Research Saves Human and Animal Lives. Web address: http://www.amprogress.org/Files/OpenFile.cfm?id=187

Americans for Medical Progress. 2002. Web page: Without Animal Research... Web address: http://www.amprogress.org/Issues/Issues.cfm?ID=220&c=77

Americans for Medical Progress. 2002. Web page: Animal Research Crucial to an AIDS Cure. Web address: http://www.amprogress.org/Files/OpenFile.cfm?id=243

Americans for Medical Progress. 2002. Web page: Letter by Dr. Sabin, discoverer of the polio vaccine: The Correct Conclusion. March 20, 1992. Web address: http://www.amprogress.org/Issues/Issues.cfm?ID=235&c=77

Ancel, L. and Fontana, W. 2002. Santa Fe Institute. Research Focus Area: Evolutionary Dynamics. Former Web address: http://www.santafe.edu/sfi/research/focus/evolutionaryDynamics/projects/geno-phenoMap.html.
(Note: this Web page is no longer available.)
(Lauren Ancel Meyers is now Assistant Professor, Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, and formerly a postdoctoral fellow at the Santa Fe Institute, New Mexico. Walter Fontana is a Research Professor at the Santa Fe Institute.)

Ancel Meyers, L. and Bull, J. 2002. "Fighting change with change: adaptive variation in an uncertain world." In TRENDS in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 17, No. 12, December 2002. Web address: http://www.santafe.edu/~ancel/PAPERS/TREE.pdf.
(Lauren Ancel Meyers and James J. Bull are from the Section of Integrative Biology and Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin.)

Anderson A., Holmes B. and Else L. 1996. "Zombies, dolphins and blindsight" (summary of 2nd Tucson Conference on Consciousness). In New Scientist, 4 May, 1996, pp. 20-27. Web address: http://www.fortunecity.com/emachines/e11/86/zombie.html.

Anderson R. and Wood J. 2001. "Enrichment for Giant Pacific Octopuses: Happy as a Clam?" In Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, vol. 4(2), pp. 157-168. Web address: http://www.cephbase.dal.ca/refdb/pdf/6405.pdf.
(Dr. Anderson works at the Seattle Aquarium, and Dr. Wood is the Cephbase Project manager at the National Resource Center for Cephalopods, University of Texas, Galveston.)

Anscombe, G. E. M. 1957. Intentions. Cambridge University Press.

Archard, D. 2002. Article: "Children's Rights". In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web address: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2002/entries/rights-children/

Aristotle. 1959. Politics. London: Everyman. Translation by J. Warrington.

Aristotle. 1986. De Anima. London: Penguin Books. Translation by Hugh Lawson-Tancred.

Aristotle. 2001. Nicomachean Ethics. Ed. J. Bywater. Oxford, 1894. Translated by William David Ross, Clarendon Press 1908. Web address: http://www.mikrosapoplous.gr/aristotle/nicom0.htm

ArtificialBrains.Com (now the SETI Institute). 2002. The Honeybee Brain. Web address: http://www.setiai.com/archives/cat_honey_bee_brain.html.
(ArtificialBrains.com was devoted to the building of machines whose intelligence matches that of human beings. It reviewed research groups from around the world who are attempting to build such "artificial brains". It also looked at the latest scientific progress in technologies required for the building of an artificial brain.)
(The SETI Insitiute is a private, nonprofit organization which carries out scientific research, education, and public outreach. They have just over 100 scientists, educators and support staff. The SETI Institute is based in Mountain View, California and funded by many sponsors including NASA, various U.S. government departments, Sun Microsystems, Gordon and Betty Moore, and Hewlett Packard.)

Attfield, R. 1987. A Theory of Value and Obligation. London: Croom Helm.

Australian, The. 2004. "Pigeons take the high road." In The Australian, 6 February 2004. Re-print from The Times. Former Web address: http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5744,8593603%255E29677,00.html. (Note: the article is no longer acccessible at this address, but can be ordered through the newspaper archive.)

Australian Conservation Foundation. 2003. "Land Clearing in Queensland: the Problem and the Solution." Web address: http://www.acfonline.org.au/docs/general/00468.pdf.

Ausubel, J. 2000. "The Great Reversal: Nature's Chance to Restore Land and Sea." In Technology and Society, Vol. 22:289-301, 2000. Web address: http://phe.rockefeller.edu/great_reversal/.

Ausubel, J. 2001. "Maglevs and The Vision of St. Hubert, Or The Great Restoration of Nature: Why and How." In Proceedings of the Global Change Open Science Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 10-13 July 2001. Web address: http://phe.rockefeller.edu/sthubert/.

Aydede, M. 2003. "Pain." Draft article for the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web address: http://web.clas.ufl.edu/users/maydede/pain/pain.sep.pdf.

Ayres, E. 1999. "Will we still eat meat?" In Time magazine, November 8, 1999, pp. 76-77.
(Ed Ayres is editorial director of the Worldwatch Institute and author of "God's Last Offer: Negotiating for a Sustainable Future.")

Baars, B. 2001. "There are no known differences in fundamental brain structures between humans and other animals." In Animal Welfare, 2000. Web address: http://cogprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/archive/00000912/00/UFAW_PAPER_final_version_July_12_2000.txt.

Baars, B. 2003a. "Unconscious states cast light on consciousness: Evidence from persistent vegetative states (PVS)." In Science and Consciousness Review, 2003, January, No. 3. Web address: http://www.sci-con.org/news/articles/20030103.html.

Baars, B. 2003b. "The Global Brainweb - an update on global workspace theory." In Science and Consciousness Review, 2003, October, No. 2. Web address: http://www.sci-con.org/editorials/20031002.html.

Backer, A. 1999. Lecture: "Evolution of Sleep." From a course on Sleep and Dreams, Bi/CNS 163, conducted at Caltech from 1998-2000. Web address: http://www.its.caltech.edu/~alex/Evolution%20of%20Sleep%20Lecture.htm.
(Dr Backer is a scientist in the Computational Biology Department of the Computation, Computers, Information and Mathematics Center at Sandia National Laboratories. He is also a visiting scientist at the Biology Division, the Beckman Institute and the Center for Neuromorphic Systems Engineering at the California Institute of Technology.)

Bailey, R. 2002. "The End is Nigh, Again." In Reason magazine, June 26, 2002. Web address: http://reason.com/rb/rb062602.shtml.
(Ronald Bailey is Reason's science correspondent and is the editor of Earth Report 2000: Revisiting the True State of the Planet (McGraw-Hill).)

Baird S. and Hayhoe D. 1993. International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, Energy Fact Sheet, Transportation. Web address: http://www.iclei.org/EFACTS/TRANSP.HTM.

Balkenius, C. 2000. Attention, Habituation and Conditioning: A Computational Model. In Cognitive Science Quarterly, 2000. Vol. 1 (2), pp. 171-214. Web address of draft: http://www.lucs.lu.se/People/Christian.Balkenius/PDF/Balkenius.2000.CSQ.pdf.
(Dr Balkenius lectures in the Department of Cognitive Science at Lund University, Sweden.)

Ball, J. 1998. "The Question of Non-Human Intelligence." Web address: http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro98/202s98-paper2/Ball2.html.
(Note: This paper is part of the second mid-term Web project for the Biology 202 course in Neurobiology and Behavior, which was taught at Bryn Mawr College in 1998, under the supervision of Paul Grobstein. It was written by a student in a course at Bryn Mawr College, and reflects that student's research and thoughts at the time the paper was written. Like other things on Serendip, the paper is not intended to be "authoritative" but is instead provided to encourage others to themselves learn about and think through subjects of interest, and, by providing relevant web links, to serve as a "window" to help them do so. Web links were active as of the time the paper was posted but are not updated.)

Bateson, P. 1991. On-line paper: "Welfare and the assessment of pain." Web address: http://www.cus.cam.ac.uk/~ppgb/Pain.html.

Bavidge, M. & Ground, I. 1994. Can We Understand Animal Minds? London: Bristol Classical Press.

BBC series, 2002. "Disposable Planet - Population - Briefing." Six-part series on sustainable development. Web address: http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/world/2002/disposable_planet/population/.

BBC News report, 30 April 2003. "Fish do feel pain, scientists say." Web address: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2983045.stm

BBC News report, 31 August 2003. "Scientists highlight fish 'intelligence'." Web address: http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/england/west_yorkshire/3189941.stm

BBC News report, 6 January 2004. "WHO criticises China cull plans." Web address: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3370045.stm

BBC News report, 6 January 2004. "Primitive worm gives cancer clue." Web address: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3368685.stm

BBC News report, 26 January 2004, 15:27 GMT. "Parrot's oratory stuns scientists." Web address: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3430481.stm.

BBC News report, 9 March 2004, 00:49 GMT. "Whaling 'too cruel to continue'." Web address: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3542987.stm.

Bedau, M. "The Nature of Life." 1996. In Margaret Boden, ed., The Philosophy of Artificial Life (Oxford University Press), pp. 332-357. Web address of article: http://www.reed.edu/~mab/papers/life.OXFORD.html.

Bedau, M. 1998. "Four Puzzles about Life." In Artificial Life vol. 4 (1998), pp. 125-140. Web address of article: http://www.reed.edu/~mab/papers/4.puzzles.htm.

Behavioural Ecology Research Group. 2002. Web page: General Cognition. Web address: http://users.ox.ac.uk/~kgroup/tools/cognition.shtml.
(The Behavioural Ecology Research Group, whose members work and/or lecture in the Department at Oxford University, U.K., investigates the biology of decision-making with the tools of evolutionary biology and experimental psychology. Their main experimental models are European starlings and New Caledonian crows.)

Behe, M. 1999. "God - Sort of". Review of "The Fifth Miracle: The Search for the Origin and Meaning of Life" by Paul Davies. In First Things 94 (June/July 1999), pp. 42-45. Web address: http://www.leaderu.com/ftissues/ft9906/reviews/behe.html.
(Michael J. Behe is Professor of Biochemistry at Lehigh University.)

Beisecker, D. 2000. The Meaning of Life and More: A Constructive Account of Non-Biological Intentionality. Talk presented at the June 2000 meeting of the Society for Philosophy and Biology, New York, N.Y. Web address: http://www.scsv.nevada.edu/~beiseckd/LifeandMore.html.
(Beisecker is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Philosophy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.)

Beisecker, D. 1999. "The Importance of Being Erroneous: Prospects for Animal Intentionality." In Philosophical Topics, vol. 27:1 (Spring 1999), pp. 281-308. Web address: http://www.scsv.nevada.edu/~beiseckd/Erroneous.html (Beisecker is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Philosophy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.)

Bekoff M., Allen C., and Burghardt G. (eds). 2002. The Cognitive Animal. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT. Paperback edition.

Benjamini, L. 1983. "Studies in the learning abilities of brown-necked ravens and herring gulls." I. Oddity learning. In Behaviour, 84, 173-194. Cited in Young and Wasserman, 2001 (see below).

Ben-Shahar Y., Thompson C., Hartz S., Smith B. and Robinson G. 2000. "Differences in performance on a reversal learning test and division of labor in honey bee colonies." In Animal Cognition Vol. 3: 119-125.

Bermudez, J. 2000. Consciousness, Higher-order thought and Stimulus Reinforcement: Comments on Rolls' The Brain and Emotion. In Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23, 2000, pp. 194-195. Web address: http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~pnp/Papers/bermudez2000b.pdf. (Dr. Bermudez lectures in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Stirling.)

Berridge, K. 2003. "Irrational Pursuit: Hyper-Incentives from a Visceral Brain." In Brocas I. and Carrillo J. (eds.) The Psychology of Economic Decisions. Volume 1: rationality and well-being, pp. 17-40. Oxford University Press. (Dr. Berridge lectures in the Department of Psychology at the University of Michigan, AnnArbor, USA.)

Berridge, K. 2003. "Pleasure, Unfelt Affect and Irrational Desire." In Manstead A. & Frijda N. (eds.), Feelings and Emotions: The Amsterdam Symposium. Cambridge University Press. Web address: http://www.lsa.umich.edu/psych/research&labs/berridge/publications/preprints/Berridge%20Amsterdam%20chapter%20proofs.pdf.

Berridge K., Winkielman, P. 2003. "What is an unconscious emotion? (The case for unconscious 'liking'.)" In Cognition and Emotion, 2003, 17(2), pp. 181-211. Web address: http://psy.ucsd.edu/~pwinkiel/Berridge%20&%20Winkielman-unconscious%20emotion-CE-2003.pdf.

Beugnon, G. 1999. "How ants find their way home." Press release from CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier, 25 June 1999. Web address: http://www.cnrs.fr/cw/en/pres/compress/ants250699.html (Guy Beugnon is a researcher at the Animal ethology and psychology laboratory, CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse.)

Billings, T. 1999. Extract: "Which Omnivore Diet? The 'Omnivorism = Western Diet' Fallacy" from on-line article: "Comparative Anatomy and Physiology Brought Up to Date". Web address: http://www.beyondveg.com/billings-t/comp-anat/comp-anat-8c.shtml. Web address of article: http://www.beyondveg.com/billings-t/comp-anat/comp-anat-1a.shtml.
(Tom Billings is a computer consultant, a former organizer with SF-LiFE (San Francisco Living Foods Enthusiasts--a raw foods support group), a yoga teacher, and a vegetarian of over 30 years' standing. His career has included work in software/systems engineering, plus marketing research and consulting, in a variety of industries: aerospace, telecommunications, academia, consulting, health care. He has a B.S. in mathematics, an M.A. in economics, and an M.S. in statistics.)

BioMedia Associates. 2003. Web pages: "The Domains of Life" (Web address: http://ebiomedia.com/prod/DOL.html) and "Five Kingdoms and Domains of Life Compared" (Web address: http://ebiomedia.com/downloads/K_D_Table.pdf).
(BioMedia Associates is a group of biologists, teachers, educational designers and film-makers who collaborate to make learning programs for biology.)

Birch, C. 2001. "Why I Became a Panexperientialist". Paper given at the Australian Association for Process Thought - 2001 Conference, 29 November - 1 December 2001, at Latrobe University, Melbourne. Web address: http://www.nerdshit.com/archive/2004/12/23/why_i_became_a_/.
(Note: As far as I am aware, this is the only Web site which still carries the paper.)

Biron, D. et al. 2001. "'Midwives' assist dividing amoebae." In Nature (volume 410, p. 439), 22 March 2001.

Bitterman, M. 1965. "The evolution of intelligence." In Scientific American, vol. 212, pp. 92-100.

Bittner, R. 2001. Doing Things for Reasons. Oxford University Press.

Blair, D. F. 1995. "How Bacteria Sense and Swim." In Annual Review of Microbiology, volume 49, pp. 489-522. Web address of abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?holding=npg&cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8561469&dopt=Abstract.
(Blair is associated with the Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.)

Block, N. 1995. "On a Confusion about a Function of Consciousness". In Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2): 227-287. Re-printed in The Nature of Consciousness, 1997, edited by Block. N., Flanagan O. and Guzeldere G. MIT Press. Web address of unedited pre-print (not a quotable final draft): http://www.bbsonline.org/documents/a/00/00/04/31/bbs00000431-00/bbs.block.html.

Block, N. 1998. "How Not To Find The Neural Correlate of Consciousness". In a volume of Royal Institute of Philosophy lectures, ed. Anthony O'Hear, pp. 1-11. Web address: http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/philo/faculty/block/papers/NeuralCorrelate.html.

Block, N. 2001. "Paradox and Cross Purposes in Recent Work on Consciousness." In Cognition, Volume 79, Issues 1-2, pp. 197-219 (April 2001). Web address of updated and revised version: http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/philo/faculty/block/papers/Elsevier.html.

Block, N. 2003. Article: "Consciousness." In Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, edited by Lynn Nadel. New York, NY, Nature Publishing Group, 2003. Web address: http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/philo/faculty/block/papers/ecs.pdf.

Bonne, J. 2004. "Can animals you eat be treated humanely? - Temple Grandin's decent-life, humane-death crusade." MSNBC news report, June 28, 2004. Web address: http://msnbc.msn.com/id/5271434/

Borthwick, C., 1996. "The permanent vegetative state; ethical crux, medical fiction?" In Issues in Law and Medicine, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 167-188. Web address: http://home.vicnet.net.au/%7Eborth/PVSILM.HTM.

Bottjer, S. 2004. Home page: Research Description. Web address: http://www.usc.edu/programs/pibbs/site/faculty/bottjer_s.htm.

Boyd Group, The. 2003. Web address: http://www.boyd-group.demon.co.uk/.

Boyle, R. 1998. "The Pattern of Variation (Sigmoid curves)." Energy and Environment Research Unit, The Open University, January 1998. Web address: http://www.open2.net/opensaturday/pages/schedule/july/trans/dreamworld/sigmoid.htm.

Brannon, E. and Terrace, H. 2000. Representation of the Numerosities 1-9 by Rhesus Macaques. In Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes. Volume 26, no. 1. January 2000. News report: Azar, B. 2000. "Monkeying around with numbers." In Monitor on Psychology, Volume 31, no. 1. January 2000. (Published by the APA.) Web page: http://www.apa.org/monitor/jan00/sc4.html

Brembs, B. 1996. Diplomaarbeit. "Operant and Classical Conditioning of Drosophila at the Flight Simulator." Faculty of Biology, Julius Maximilians University of Wuerzburg, Germany.Web address: http://www.brembs.net/papers/diploma.pdf.

Brembs, B. 2000. Doctoral dissertation: An Analysis of Associative Learning in Drosophila at the Flight Simulator. Julius Maximilians University of Wuerzburg, Germany. Web address: http://www.brembs.net/papers/dissertation.pdf.
(Dr Brembs currently lectures at the Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas, Houston.)

Brembs, B. and Heisenberg, M. 2001. "Conditioning with Compound Stimuli in Drosophila melanogaster in the Flight Simulator." In The Journal of Experimental Biology, volume 204, pp. 2849-2859 (2001). Web address: http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/content/full/204/16/2849.
(Dr Brembs currently lectures at the Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas, Houston. Dr Heisenberg occupies the Lehrstuhl fur Genetik und Neurobiologie, Biozentrum, University of Wuerzburg, Germany.)

Brembs, B. Personal email communication, 22 December 2002.

Brembs, B. Personal email communication, 11 August 2003.

Brembs, B. 2003. "Thrust Can Operate Angular Motion." Web page attached to the Department of Neurophysiology and Genetic Behavior, Univeristy of Wuerzburg, Germany. Web address: http://www.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de/genetics/behavior/learning/thrust.html

Brennan, A. and Lo, Y. 2002. Article: "Environmental Ethics". In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Current Web address: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/. Web address of original article: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2002/entries/ethics-environmental/.
(Andrew Brennan lectures in Philosophy at the University of Western Australia.)

Bridges, M. 2000. Biology 2430 Lecture Notes. Chapter 14: Regulation of Gene Expression. Web address: http://www.langara.bc.ca/biology/mario/Biol2430notes/biol2430chap14.html.
(Mario Bridges lectures in Cell Culture, Toxicology, Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, at the Biology Department of Langara College, Vancouver.)

British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection. 1999. Fact Sheet: Non-Animal Research. Web address: http://www.buav.org/pdf/NonAnimalResearch.pdf.

British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection. 2000. Information Centre Web page: Tobacco and Alcohol Experiments. Web address: http://www.buav.org/pdf/TobaccoAchohol.pdf.

British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection. 2004. Campaigns: Non-Animal Testing. Web address: http://www.buav.org/campaigns/nonanimal/index.html.

British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection. 2004b. Report: Chemical Safety and Animal Testing: A Regulatory Smokescreen. Web address: http://www.buav.org/pdf/Smokescreen.pdf.

Brooks, R. A. 1986. "A robust layered control system for a mobile robot." In IEEE Journal on Robotics and Automation RA-2: 14-23.

Broom, D. 2001. "Cephalopods and the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986." Appendix A to Appendix B to the minutes of the Animal Procedure Committee meeting, London, September 2001. Web address: http://www.apc.gov.uk/sept01annex.htm (no longer available on the Web?).
(Dr. Broom is the Professor of Animal Welfare Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge.)

Brosnan S. and de Waal F. 2003. "Monkeys reject unequal pay." In Nature, vol. 425, 18 September 2003, pp. 297-299. Web address: http://www.emory.edu/LIVING_LINKS/capuchins/BrosnanNature/Manuscripts/BrosnanUnequalPay.pdf.

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(Dr. Klingenberg is a doctor of veterinary medicine.)

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(Dr. Koch is the author of 300 scientific papers, and is the Lois and Victor Troendle Professor of Cognitive and Behavioral Biology at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. The late Dr. Crick, who worked at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, won a Nobel prize for being the co-discoverer of DNA.)

Koch, C. 2003. "The Quest for Consciousness - A Neurobiological Approach". 2003. Englewood (Colorado): Roberts and Company Publishers. Web address: http://www.questforconsciousness.com/

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Komischke B., Sandoz J.-C., Lachnit H. and Giurfa M. 2003. Non-elemental processing in olfactory discrimination tasks needs bilateral input in honeybees. Behavioural Brain Research, accepted. Web address: http://www.staff.uni-marburg.de/~lachnit/Abstracts[d].html#KoSaLaGi03 (abstract), http://www.staff.uni-marburg.de/~lachnit/KoSaLaGi03.pdf(full article).

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Laureys et al. 2002. The functional anatomy of (un)awareness. Unpublished poster. Web address: http://www.sci-con.org/news/articles/20030103.html (bottom of page).
(Steven Laureys is a clinical neuroscientist at the University of Liege in Belgium.)

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(Dorothee Legrand was, at the time of the conference, a Ph.D. student in philosophy at the University of Provence.)

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(Note: recently, there seems to be some problem accessing online the four definitions of life given by the panel of experts cited in my thesis. However, the original definitions can also be found in Newton magazine (June 2001, Italian version), in a report entitled "Segnali di Vita Aliena" (Signs of Alien Life).)

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(Dr. Lurz lectures in the Department of Philosophy at Brooklyn College, CUNY.)

Lurz, R. 2003. "Neither HOT nor COLD: An Alternative Account of Consciousness." In Psyche, 9(1), January 2003. Web address: http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v9/psyche-9-01-lurz.html.

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(Professor Mallot is the Professor for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Zoology, Eberhard-Karls Universitat, Tubingen.)

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Martin, V. 2000. "Box Jellyfish May Be Able To See." McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Regional Perspectives in Marine Biology, Case Study #9. Web address: http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/pae/marinebiology/casestudies/case_09.mhtml.
(Dr. Martin lectures in the Department of Biology, Appalachian State University, North Carolina.)

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(Dr. Mather lectures in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada. Dr. Anderson works at the Seattle Aquarium. Dr. Wood is the CephBase project manager at the National Resource Center for Cephalopods in Galveston Texas.)

Mather, J. and Anderson, R. 2000. "Octopuses are smart suckers!" In The Cephalopod Page (on-line), edited by Dr. James Wood. June 11, 2000. Web address: http://is.dal.ca/%7Eceph/TCP/smarts.html.

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McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT. 2003. "C. elegans neural development and behavior." Web address: http://web.mit.edu/mcgovern/html/Areas_of_Research/c_elegans.shtml

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(Dr. Chris McKay works at the NASA Ames Research Center.)

Medical Research Modernization Committee. 2002. Web page: A Critical Look at Animal Experimentation. Web address: http://mrmcmed.org/Critcv.html. Web address of PDF file: http://mrmcmed.org/Critical_Look.pdf (N.B. The PDF file takes a while to download.)

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Web address of full paper: http://www.neurobiologie.fu-berlin.de/menzel/Pub_AGmenzel/MenzelBrandtGumbertKomischkeKunze2000ProcRoySoc.pdf.
Web address of abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10874744&dopt=Abstract.

Menzel R. and Giurfa M. 2001. "Cognitive architecture of a mini-brain: the honeybee." In TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 2, February 2001.
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Menzel, R. 2003. Personal email: Re: Blocking in invertebrates. 21 July 2003.
(Professor Dr. Menzel is a researcher in the Institute of Neurobiology, at the Freie University, Berlin.)

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(Dr. Merker lectures in the Department of Psychology at the University of Uppsala, Sweden.)

Messing, C. 2000. Course: BIOL1060, Amoebas to Zebras: Life on Earth. Run by Nova Southeastern University, Farquhar Center for Undergraduate Studies. Former Web address: http://www.nova.edu/ocean/biol1060/animals1.html. (Note: these notes are no longer available online.)
(At the time when this course was given, Dr Messing lectured at Nova Southeastern University, Farquhar Center for Undergraduate Studies. Dr Messing is currently Professor of Oceanography at Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center.)

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(The article contains an interesting, well-researched discussion of animal sentience.)

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