Stanford Prison ExperimentOn August 14, 1971 the Office of Naval Research sponsored a study of human behavior within a mock prison environment. Known today as the Stanford Prison Experiment its famous as a classic case study in behavioral psychology.
The following quotes are excerpted from Reflections on the Stanford Prison Experiment: Genesis, Transformations, Consequences, Philip. G. Zimbardo, Cristina Maslach, & Craig Haney, (2000). Philip G. Zimbardo is Professor Emeritus of Psychology, Stanford University
These college students had answered an ad in the local newspaper inviting volunteers for a study of prison life that would run up to 2 weeks for the pay of $15 a day. They were students from all over the United States, most of whom had just completed summer school courses at Stanford or the University of California, Berkeley. Seventy of those who had called our office were invited to take a battery of psychological tests (the California Personality Inventory) and engage in interviews conducted by Craig Haney and Curtis Banks, who were graduate students at that time. We were assisted by David Jaffe, an undergraduate who played the role of prison warden. I played the role of prison superintendent, in addition to being the principal investigator, which would later prove to be a serious error in judgment.
Two dozen of those judged most normal, average, and healthy on all dimensions we assessed were selected to be the participants in our experiment. They were randomly assigned to the two treatments of mock prisoner and mock guard. Thus there were no systematic differences between them initially nor systematic preferences for role assignments.
... we were studying both guard and prisoner behavior, so neither group was given any instructions on how to behave.
We had to call off the experiment and close down our prison after only 6 days of what might have been a 2-week long study of the psychological dynamics of prison life. We had to do so because too many normal young men were behaving pathologically as powerless prisoners or as sadistic, all-powerful guards. Recall that we had spent much time and effort in a selection process that chose only the most normal, healthy, well-adjusted college students as our sample of research participants. At the beginning of the study there were no differences between those assigned randomly to guard and prisoner roles. In less than a week, there were no similarities among them; they had become totally different creatures. Guard behavior varied from being fully sadistic to occasionally acting so to being a tough guard who went by the book and, for a few, to being good guards by default. That is, they did not degrade or harass the prisoners, and even did small favors for them from time to time, but never, not once, did any of the so-called good guards ever contest an order by a sadistic guard, intervene to stop or prevent despicable behavior by another guard, or come to work late or leave early. In a real sense, it was the good guards who most kept the prisoners in line because the prisoners wanted their approval and feared things would get worse if those good guards quit or ever took a dislike to them.
In the Stanford Prison Experiment, we focused on the power of roles, rules, symbols, group identity, and situational validation of ordinarily ego-alien behaviors and behavioral styles. We were influenced here by earlier reports of brainwashing and milieu control coming out of accounts of the Korean War and Chinese Communist indoctrination methods (Schein, 1956).
From another perspective, the Stanford Prison Experiment does not tell us anything new about prisons that sociologists and narratives of prisoners have not already revealed about the evils of prison life. What is different is that by virtue of the experimental protocol, we put selected good people, randomly assigned to be either guard or prisoner, and observed the ways in which they were changed for the worse by their daily experiences in the evil place.
It is reasonable to conclude that there is something about this little experiment that has enduring value not only among social psychologists but also among the general public. I now believe that special something is the dramatic transformation of human nature, not by Jekyll-Hyde chemicals but rather by the power of the situation.
...the value of the Stanford Prison Experiment resides in demonstrating the evil that good people can be readily induced into doing to other good people within the context of socially approved roles, rules, and norms, a legitimizing ideology, and institutional support that transcends individual agency.
Lesson 5. Good people can be induced, seduced, initiated into behaving in evil (irrational, stupid, self-destructive, antisocial) ways by immersion in total situations that can transform human nature in ways that challenge our sense of the stability and consistency of individual personality, character, and morality (Lifton, 1969). It is a lesson seen in the Nazi concentration camp guards; among destructive cults, such as Jim Jones Peoples Temple or more recently the Japanese Aum cult; and in the atrocities committed in Bosnia, Kosovo, Rwanda, and Burundi, among others. Thus any deed that any human being has ever done, however horrible, is possible for any of us to do under the right or wrong situational pressures. That knowledge does not excuse evil; rather, it democratizes it, shares its blame among ordinary participants, rather than demonizes it. Recently, a program at the U.S. Air Force Academy (code named SERE) that was designed to train cadets for survival and escape from enemy capture had to be terminated early because it got out of control. As part of a sexual exploitation scenario, women cadets were beaten repeatedly, degraded, humiliated, put in solitary confinement, deprived of sleep, and made to wear hoods over their heads all much like the Stanford Prison Experiment. But in addition, the women cadets in this course were subjected to simulated rapes by interrogators that were realistic enough to cause posttraumatic stress disorder. These rapes were videotaped and also watched by other cadets, none of whom ever intervened. The grandfather of one abused female cadet, himself a World War II hero, said, I cant believe that all these men, these elite boys, could stand around and watch a young woman get degraded and not one had enough guts to stop it (Palmer, 1995, p. 24). After watching our good guards be similarly immobilized when witnessing Stanford Prison Experiment abuses, I can now understand how that could happen.
Could Abu Ghraib happen again?News from PRINCETON UNIVERSITY
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Could Abu Ghraib happen again?
Psychologists call for greater attention to role of peers and superiors in prison scandal
PRINCETON, N.J. When news broke about the abuse of prisoners at Abu Ghraib in Iraq, many people questioned: Who could do such a thing? According to Princeton psychologists who reviewed decades worth of studies, the answer is: Anyone.
Writing in the Nov. 26 issue of Science, Professor Susan Fiske and graduate students Lasana Harris and Amy Cuddy contend that many forms of behavior, including acts of great evil, are influenced as much by authority figures, peer pressure and other social interactions as by the psychology of the individual.
Could any average 18-year-old have tortured these prisoners? said Fiske. I would have to answer, Yes, just about anyone could have unfortunately.
Fiske and colleagues drew their conclusions from 25,000 studies involving 8 million participants, which explain how factors, ranging from the stress of war to the expectations of superiors, can combine to cause ordinary people to commit seemingly inexplicable acts.
Ordinary people can engage in incredibly destructive behavior if so ordered by legitimate authority, the researchers wrote, referring particularly to landmark studies conducted by Stanley Milgram in the early 1970s. Milgram showed that normal volunteers would deliver what they understood to be lethal electric shocks to other people when they were told that it was a necessary part of carrying out an experiment. Subordinates not only do what they are ordered to do, but what they think their superiors would order them to do, given their understanding of the authoritys overall goals, the researchers wrote.
When discussing the Milgram experiment in classes, Fiske said, students swear they would never behave the way the study subjects did. But when they are put in similar experiments, they do, said Fiske.
Fiske noted that there are cases of isolated individuals who torture other people. However, it is more likely that the abusers at Abu Ghraib were conforming to the culture and expectations of their environment than violating them, she said. The incidents occurred within a very hierarchical organization; the abusers had no particular background to suggest they would behave outrageously; and the abusers asserted they were following orders and documented what they did.
Society holds individuals responsible for their actions, as the military court martial recognizes, but social psychology suggests we should also hold responsible peers and superiors who control the social context, the researchers wrote.
The reasons for abuse go beyond simple adherence to authority. The situation of the 800th Military Police Brigade guarding Abu Ghraib prisoners fits all the social conditions known to cause aggression, the researchers wrote. The soldiers were certainly provoked and stressed, at war, in constant danger, taunted and harassed by some of the very citizens they were sent to save, and their comrades were dying daily and unpredictably. Their morale suffered, they were untrained for the job, their command climate was lax, their return home was a year overdue, their identity as disciplined soldiers was gone and their own amenities were scant. Heat and discomfort also doubtless contributed.
At the same time, the Iraqi prisoners were part of a different societal group that was seen by Americans as threatening cherished values. The more that people see others as interchangeable members of a different group, rather than as unique individuals, the more their behavior is influenced by parts of the brain associated with alarm and disgust, the researchers wrote. Fiske and colleagues recently conducted their own surveys showing that similar feelings arise in less extreme situations: U.S. citizens surveyed, on average, viewed Muslims and Arabs as not sharing their interests and stereotyped them as not especially sincere, honest, friendly or warm.
The point of looking at the complex social and psychological forces behind the Abu Ghraib abuse is not to excuse people from responsibility for their actions, but to develop a scientific understanding of what causes evil actions so they can be better prevented, the researchers said. Peoples hunches are to look at the individual for the reasons, but as a society we cant afford to do that, said Fiske. People who are in charge of other people on a large scale, whether CEOs or military officers, need to know the conditions that produce evil behavior. The conditions are not that complicated. And if they can be understood, then they can be prevented in large part.
One of the most effective ways to prevent abuse is for members of different groups to have positive contact with each other, which is one reason why it is important for Iraqi soldiers to train and fight with Americans, Fiske said.
Another step, Fiske said, would be for the military to ensure that soldiers have alternate means of communication, such as military chaplains or other semi-independent figures, so they can voice deep concerns without violating the chain of command. The goal is not to eliminate obedience and conformity, which can spur acts of heroism as well as evil. The researchers wrote that firefighters who rushed into the World Trade Center were obeying orders and conforming to the culture of their organization in addition to displaying individual bravery and self sacrifice. The conduct of war itself requires obedience and conformity, Fiske noted.
Indeed, authority and social pressure can be tools for combating abuse. Fiske said that her experience in consulting with industry on racial and gender discrimination suggests that leadership is critical for good behavior throughout an organization. I do think the CEOs are responsible for the atmosphere in the company, she said. If the CEOs say, Its really important that we do things a certain way, they can have a real impact. However, focusing blame on a few bad apples will hinder the social and cultural changes necessary to prevent further abuses, Fiske said.
Edited excerpt from Free In Christ!Scripture emphasizes a plurality of elders in established ekklesias (Acts 14:21-23). The leadership functions and ability of these elders (presbuteros, indicates the character of the persons maturity and spiritual experience) were evidenced by their performance.
In Acts 20:17 Paul called the elders [presbuteros], of the church. In verse 28 Paul tells them ... the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers ... Overseers is episkopos, literally, an overseer. Paul then tells these elders/overseers ...to feed the church of God ... The word feed is poimaino (from poimen, a shepherd) in the original text, which means to tend as a shepherd.
In Ephesians 4:11 the term pastors is also poimen, a shepherd.
In Titus 1:5, Paul mentions elders then in verse 7 refers to these same elders as bishops, (episkopos), i.e., overseers, the same word being variously translated as overseer or bishop.
The elders/overseers/shepherds/pastors/bishops are mentioned again in Philippians 1:1 and there called bishops (episkopos), the same word.
In 1 Timothy 5:17, the elders that rule well are mentioned. Paul instructed Titus to ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee (Titus 1:5; 1 Peter 5:1-5). James stresses the plurality by stating ... let him call for the elders of the church ... (James 5:14).
We may conclude that the elders (presbuteros) have the oversight (episkopeo, literally, to look upon), as overseers, or bishops (episkopos). They shepherd (poimen), or pastor, the local ekklesias.
The true ekklesia of God is a family, a family within a community, a community which is a subset of a society, and acts like a family towards other members of the family. The elders/overseers/shepherds/pastors/bishops ( all one and the same) are simply older members of the spiritual family whose track record indicates that they are trustworthy and usually, but not always, give good solid practical and spiritual advice to the younger members, especially those younger deacons [read: workers, i.e., those who have youth on their side for the energy to do the things needed to maintain a family] in order to help guide their lives on the right spiritual track. Thats why there is always a plurality of eldersthere is safety in a number of counsellors.
Jesus is our only Shepherd. Period. The elder/shepherd/pastor/overseer/bishop that we have recognized as such are really only under-shepherds. They are recognized by the majority in the group, by the corporate giftings of the individual members. They are not self-appointed. Thats where their authority comes from. What they have to say is authority only so long as those in the group accept their collective mature outlook and wisdom.
If they fail to display maturity and wisdom in some matter, then the group will simply not acknowledge what they have to say about it. If you have a problem with that then study the life of Paul the apostle. His authority as an apostle was accepted as such only by those who accepted him as truly being sent by God. There were quite a few in the New Testament that did not accept his alleged apostolic authority, because they didnt accept him as being sent by God to them. They had that freedom to reject him because in their twisted theological devices they thought that Paul did not state biblical values! We have that same freedom but we exercise that freedom to accept or reject the wisdom and advice of elders if they dont adhere to and reflect biblical values!
1 Corinthians 14:26: How is it then, brethren? when ye come together, every one of you hath a psalm, hath a doctrine, hath a tongue, hath a revelation, hath an interpretation. Let all things be done unto edifying.
When is hotan in the Greek. Strongs Definition is: whenever (implying hypothesis or more or less uncertainty); also caus. (conjunctionally) inasmuch as. Thayers Definition of hotan: when, whenever, as long as, as soon as. The phrase ye come together is one word in the Greek, sunerchomai. Strongs defines it as: to convene, depart in company with, associate with, or (specifically) cohabit (conjugally).
Paul is saying to the Corinthians that on those occasions whenever you happen to meet together, then every one of you hath a psalm, hath a doctrine, hath a tongue, hath a revelation, hath an interpretation. Let all things be done unto edifying.
There is no planned meeting at a certain time, on a certain day, for a certain reason. He is saying that whenever you happen to meet together, that the charisma descension gifts of the Holy Spirit will become operative in the lives of those believers who are in attendance.
That could easily be those two or three who happen to meet at a restaurant, or at a mall, or drop by to say hello, or any number of places.
When Paul stated this he was describing the result, i.e., the effect of the cause, the cause being the Holy Spirit. We humans, in our attempts to control God, instead want to make what Paul said the cause in order to produce some type of feel good, chill bump, warm fuzzies experience.
Home ekklesias are simply families meeting together as a family. When it comes to Gods people meeting together as a family the only plan is that there is no plan. As Christian couplesor families, if you still have children or relatives at homemeet and encounter each other in different social settings, thats church!
Unfortunately, most saints leave the institutional churches for the wrong reasons and their idea of a home church is to start a mini-institutional church in their living rooms. Which is simply compounding the error of the past 1,700 years.
When those who love God decide to assemble themselves together for the purpose of ministering to each other, then God will move among them. Our response to the moving of the Holy Spirit will automatically trigger praise and worship of our God and Saviour, Jesus Christ. Please note what Im saying and not saying.
I am saying that we are assembled together with the motive of focusing on one another and offering to those among us true fellowship (Greek, koinonia), which encompasses three aspects: sharing, socializing and supporting. This includes those times of chance meeting, as discussed, and also those times when we assemble together on purpose to minister to one another.
I am not saying that we are assembled together in order to have some type of programmed worship service where we have some of the people play musical instruments, while another leads us in singing songs, using either printed sheets of words, or a screen using an overhead projector.
No, when we assemble and focus on true biblical fellowship with one another, then worship of our Lord and Saviour, Master, Creator and Redeemer will come spontaneously as the Holy Spirit leads us. Just as Paul said in 1 Corinthians 14:26. Glory!
The plurality of those present who are recognized as an elder/shepherd/pastor/overseer/bishop are there, blending in the background and usually only speak up when there is some question to be resolved, or specifically called upon for some valid scriptural reasons. Ditto the deacons [read: workers], i.e., younger people who have the muscle to get the things done that require it.
While its good to schedule occasional meeting times around a family meal, if it becomes a ritual then you have created another idol, havent you? And if you then attempt to create some type of procedure, or program or set ways of doing things, you reinforce the idolatry. Isnt that what the institutional church system does? And isnt that what were trying to get free from?
Families meeting as families is the key to true home ekklesia. If you get a whole city meeting in homes and according to scriptural precedents of sharing, socializing and supporting those in need you will be the salt and light Jesus mentioned and will attract a lot of favorable attention. Thats 24 hour a day lifestyle effective evangelizing!
As disciples of Jesus Christ, i.e., learners, followers, supporters and imitators of Him, we have to be the salt and light of the world. The institutional church thinks the way to do that is by doing things. But God wants us to be a disciple of Jesus, not continue to attempt to do.
We will be a true disciple of Christ by His example to us. He did nothing without the Father telling Him! The Father told Jesus what to say, what to do and where to go. So if we want to be a disciple of Jesus, we await the instructions of our Father. Thats how we become the ekklesia of God, the called out assembly. We assemble together to minister to each other, as Christ did to His disciples and to the masses of people He encountered. And we seek the Father for His will, not ours, not stepping out prematurely on some whim we think is God speaking to us.
You wanna follow human traditions and some human person? Then stay in or join an institutional church!
Excerpts from Church people feel afraid, control, manipulation and abuseWhy do you make people commit their loyalty, time, money and talents to you and your organization by joining your church and then make them feel guilty if they later change their mind?
Why do you manipulate the people at your church by utilizing the practice of offering what appears to be a favor or a concession to them to get them to return equal or greater favors or concessions?
Why do you act one way when in public view and encourage others to model their behavior after your public presentations of yourself and then you are a totally different person in your private life?
Why do you pro-actively court the attractive people, the moneyed people and the influential people to win their friendship and support and then hold them up as exemplary models of the Christian life when you know you didnt pick them out to showcase their Christianity, and that it was their good looks, their money and their influence that you are publicly recognizing because you want their continued friendship and the support of their money and influence?
Why do you consciously select symbols of authority such as expensive homes, expensive automobiles, expensive clothing and self-imposed titles and claim for yourself characteristics such as Godly supernatural knowledge withheld from others, supernatural power and a special calling from God to impress the people at your church with the fact that you are a spiritual authority figure in some counterfeit authoritarian structure?
Why do you promote your church as being the only one that has Gods true message to mankind and without the exclusivity of being a member of your church those who arent members or members who leave are condemned as being less of a Christian than those that stay?
How can you make people disciples of Jesus Christ when you only preach at them in a one-way communication system for an hour or so every week?
Do you really think that your unbiblical altar call makes disciples of Jesus Christ out of people?
What will you tell Jesus on that day when you stand before Him about the money you conned and cheated people out of by a pseudo-tithemoney that did not go to the fatherless, widows, travelers in the land and those who are truly called, chosen, gifted and anointed by God to speak, practice and teach His mind and counsel and eternal purpose?
Why dont you follow Pauls example as a tentmaker, and get a real job to support yourself and your family?
What makes you so special that people are going to pay you for allegedly representing Jesus to them?
Why do you usurp Jesus Christs role as mediator between God and man?
Do you know that in the Greek the word anti means both in place of and against and that in attempting to take the place of Christ you are actually antichrist?
Why are you afraid to exchange meaningful dialog with the people at your church?
Are you afraid that theyll find out that you dont know it all, and that you, also, are a frail, flawed and imperfect human being, just like the rest of us?
A last question: What are you going to do about it now?
Excerpted from God by the Spirit of Jesus Christ will build an assemblyAre we true disciples of Jesus, as a learner, imitator, supporter and follower of Him and Him alone? Allowing our salt and light to affect those around us? Are we preparing ourselves for full citizenship for all of eternity in the kingdom of God as His kings, priests and prophets? Is the world attracted to our salt and light and biblical example of our lifestyles? Is our lifestyle a built-in 24 hour a day, 7 day a week evangelistic tool?
As the ekklesia of Jesus Christ the natural and spiritual descendants of Abraham do we meet in groups in order to be a partial, local expression of the totality of the corporate body of Christ? Are we filling ourselves with the word of God and knowledge of His Christ and allowing the Holy Spirit to teach us all things about the word and Christ? So we have some degree of fullness to minister to others? With each member being their part, exercising their gifts and anointings? And in so doing taking back territory from satan wherever our feet tread as we become a close-knit family of the seed of Abraham? A family that meets together as led by the Holy Spirit meeting as natural families meet and shares what they have with the other members of the family, and socializes on a regular basis, and supports those less fortunate among them. A family that is being overseen (bishops) by a plurality of the physically and spiritually mature among them (elders) who feed [read: teach] the family flock and protect them from the wolves that would devour them both from the outside and the inside (shepherds).
Are we a family that knows every members part, gifts and anointings are necessary in order to grow, mature and increase to become a series of multi-families that grows from local to world-wide groups?
Are we a family of spiritual descendants of Abraham that is free from denominations, or institutional organizations that maintain a one-man rule by utilizing fear methods of manipulation and intimidation and misinterpretation of scriptural commands, principles and practices?
The institutional church has no such results. Instead we constantly travel hundreds and thousands of miles away from our homes, spending our time and money in a vain attempt to chase after the latest anointed teaching or preacher. So we can learn to minister, or hear God or activate our spiritual gifts, or learn spiritual warfare, or how to heal according to somebodys method. And so the church ignores its own household and its own neighborhoods. And Bible reading and time spent with God is neglected in favor of traveling.
There is a tried and proven method detailed throughout the New Testament Gods method. We work so hard to avoid it because it requires a lifestyle change that incorporates all of the changes and sacrifice and pain and inconvenience involved in family living.
Excerpted from Growth In GoodnessThe Heart Of Jesus.In Matthew 15:19 Jesus told us: For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts ... The heart refers to the human spirit and soul of man. Evil here is poneros, meaning evil in influence and effect. Its destructive, harmful and malignant. In the companion passage in Mark 7:21, He uses the word kakos for evil. This means evil in character ... worthless, shameful and disgraceful. Thoughts is dialogismos, inward reasonings and questionings. The character of fallen man is worthless, shameful and disgraceful. This comes from his inward reasonings and questionings. In influence and effect the exercise of mans reason is destructive, harmful and malignant.
Jesus said in Matthew 7:11: If ye then being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your Father which is in heaven give good things to them that ask him? The word being is on, to be, the verb meaning ordinary existence. Evil is poneros, defined above as evil in influence and effect. It is destructive, harmful and malignant. In Luke 11:13, the parallel passage of the verse, He states If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children: how much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him? Here, the word being is huparcho, which Vines Expository Dictionary defines as to exist, which always involves a pre-existent state, prior to the fact referred to, and a continuance of the state after the fact. Evil is the same word, poneros.
We were evil (poneros) before Jesus stated the fact, when He spoke, and will continue to be evil in the future. We have been corrupted and imperfected by the terminal illness of sin. Many humanistic and spiritualistic efforts to repair, recondition or refurbish humanity come and go in society. These are simply trends by fallen man to disown his problem.
As saved human beings we are still evil. By Gods love, grace, mercy, wisdom, judgment and divine justice we can become legally perfect in His sight. Our personal and individual acceptance of the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ makes us eligible for a brand new existence. Any other hope of change of our evil character and influence is a false hope.
Characteristics of fish are scales, fins and living under the water. Of a bird feathers, wings and flying in the air. Characteristics of fallen man are worthless, shameful, disgraceful thoughts, resulting in destructive, harmful and malignant influences and effects.
In Matthew 15:19 Jesus discussed thoughts, whats in the spirit and soul of man. In the eighteenth verse He said, But those things which proceed out of the mouth come forth from the heart; and they defile the man. Paul tells us: Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; ... (Galatians 5:19), and then lists them.
We talk about, and then evidence evil thoughts from the heart in actions. Failure to engage in apostolic spiritual warfare gives us full verbal and physical expression of these evil thoughts. We see the outcome as Jesus enumerates them ...
Excerpted from Jezebel Spirit Controlling Institutional Church PeopleFor those who dont take the time to read the articles suggested above, you can stay in this system and simply accept the abuse you will continue to endure. You will also continue to be manipulated and intimidated by the psychological methods of the controlling spirits of Jezebel as noted under Techniques used for control that are listed (in the article). May I say, with love, that if you choose to do so, that you deserve it? Anyone who deliberately and consciously ignores scriptural truth and voluntarily submits themselves to a system that is the product of human wisdom, which James says is earthly, sensual and demonic, is in total disobedience to God and His will and His purpose for His ekklesia.
While there are those who prefer to be dominated and controlled because of dysfunctional quirks, they may not realize that by so doing they have intentionally removed themselves from a place of Gods blessings to a place of Gods curses. If you are one of those who enjoy such a psychological climate of controlling spirits then you are not open to the truth being presented here. However, be assured that it will only get worse, not better, especially as you become the apostate church of which the Bible speaks.
Articles referenced in this article:
God, Jesus Christ, Holy Spirit, Bible have taught the truth.
Government Authority And Power In America: Good Or Evil?
Free In Christ!
Church people feel afraid, control, manipulation and abuse
God by the Spirit of Jesus Christ will build an assembly
God, Creator of time, the universe, space, energy, matter and life.
Growth In GoodnessThe Heart Of Jesus.
The Bible-Understanding God, His Kingdom, Jesus, The Holy Spirit
Jezebel Spirit Controlling Institutional Church People
Related articles describing similar controlling and psychological abuse tactics:
Tithe, Covering, Assembling, Obey Them That Have The Rule Over You
Love, Life and Liberty
Does Anybody Out There Hear Me?
Personal Power Of Christ Or Corporate Power?An Open Letter To Those Who Name The Name Of Christ
Words Control Emotions, Thinking, People, Family And Church
There is a complete listing of articles written in an attempt to free the individual disciple of Jesus Christ from the bondage of the institutional church mindset on the Site Map page, under Articles Index, Church Articles.