are vertical flows of fast flowing
water from a river or stream falling
from great heights.
Unequal Resistance of Rocks
When a river flows
across rocks of different resistance, the less
resistant rock is eroded more rapidly than the resistant rock.This results in a change
of gradient and causes the water to plunge.
Overtime, a waterfall can develop.
occurs, there is a displacement of the rocks
with one rock being uplifted and is higher than
As a result, there
is a difference in height between the 2 rocks.
Thus, when a river flows through an area where faulting has occurred, the
displacement along the fault will cause the river to plunge
from a great height to form a waterfall. An example is the Victoria Falls on
the Zambezi River in Africa.
Famous Waterfalls in
The Angel Falls are on the Carrao River in Venezuela,
in South America.
•Angel Falls is the highest waterfall in the world. It
is 979 metres tall.
The Victoria Falls are on the River Zambezi, on the border
between Zimbabwe and Zambia.•The Victoria Falls are 1700 metres wide. They drop
120 metres into a
30 metre wide gorge below the waterfall.
The Niagara Falls are between Lake Erie and Lake
Ontario, on the border between Canada and the USA. The falls are partly in
Canada and partly in the USA and they are separated by Goat Island. The
Niagara Falls can be seen from both the Canadian and the American side.