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What are Waterfalls?


Waterfalls are vertical flows of fast flowing water from a river or stream falling from great heights.


How are Waterfalls formed?
Unequal Resistance of Rocks
When a river flows across rocks of different resistance, the less resistant rock is eroded more rapidly than the resistant rock. This results in a change of gradient and causes the water to plunge. Overtime, a waterfall can develop.


When faulting occurs, there is a displacement of the rocks with one rock being uplifted and is higher than another.
As a result, there is a difference in height between the 2 rocks. Thus, when a river flows through an area where faulting has occurred, the displacement along the fault will cause the river to plunge from a great height to form a waterfall. An example is the Victoria Falls on the Zambezi River in Africa.


Famous Waterfalls in the World


The Angel Falls are on the Carrao River in Venezuela, in South America.
Angel Falls is the highest waterfall in the world. It is 979 metres tall.




The Victoria Falls are on the River Zambezi, on the border between Zimbabwe and Zambia. The Victoria Falls are 1700 metres wide. They drop 120 metres into a 30 metre wide gorge below the waterfall.
The Niagara Falls are between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, on the border between Canada and the USA. The falls are partly in Canada and partly in the USA and they are separated by Goat Island. The Niagara Falls can be seen from both the Canadian and the American side.