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Rob's Electronics Site

Electronics Glossery

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

cable

Group of two or more insulated wires.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
CAD

Abbreviation for "computer aided design"
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
calibration-

To adjust the correct value of a reading by comparison to a standard.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
- Capacitance

1) The ability of a conductor or dielectric to store electric charge.
2) The ability of a capacitor to store an electrical charge. The basic unit of capacitance is the Farad.
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
capacitive reactance

The opposition to current flow provided by a capacitor. Capacitive reactance is measured in ohms and varies inversly with frequency.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
capacitor microphone

Microphone whose operation depends on variations in capacitance caused by varying air pressure on the movable plate of a capacitor.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
Capacitor

1) (polarized) An electrical circuit element used to store charge temporarily, consisting in general of two metallic plates separated by a dielectric.
2) (non-polarized) A crossover component used to filter out lower requencies and allow higher frequencies to pass.
3) An electronic component having capacitive reactance.
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
Capture Ratio

Expressed in decibels, with the smaller the number the better. The ratio of captured signals of different strength on the same frequency.
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
carbon microphone

Microphone whose operation depends on pressure variation in carbon granules causing a change in resistance.
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
carbon resistor

Resistor of fixed value made by mixing carbon granules with a binder which is moulded and then baked.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
carbon-film resistor

Device made by depositing a thin carbon film on a ceramic form.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
cascaded amplifier

An amplifier with two or more stages arranged in a series configuration.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
cascode amplifier

A high frequency amplifier made up of a common-source amplifier with a common-gate amplifier in its drain network.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
cathode ray tube

Vacuum tube used to display data in a visual form. Picture tube of a television or computer terminal.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
cathode

The negative terminal electrode of a device. The "N" material in a junction diode.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm




cell

Single unit used to convert chemical energy into a DC electrical voltage.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
center frequency

Frequency to which an amplifier is tuned. The frequency half way between the cut-off frequencies of a tuned circuit.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
center tap

Midway connection between the two ends of a winding.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
center tapped rectifier

Circuit that make use of a center tapped transformer and two diodes to provide full wave rectification.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
center tapped transformer

A transformer with a connection at the electrical center of a winding.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
ceramic capacitor

Capacitor in which the dialectric is ceramic.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm



charge

Quantity of electrical energy.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
charge current

Current that flows to charge a capacitor or battery when voltage is applied.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
chassis ground

Connection to a chassis.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
chassis

Metal box or frame into which components are mounted.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
chebyshev filter

A type of active filter characterized by high roll-off rates (40 dB per decade per pole) and midband gain that is not constant.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
choke

Inductor used to oppose the flow of alternating current.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm

Circuit

1) Interconnection of components to provide an electrical path between two or more components.
2) Any closed path followed by electrical current.
3) A configuration of electrically or electromagnetically connected components or devices.
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
Circuit Breaker

A device that protects electric circuits by interrupting power in a circuit when an overload occurs. Unlike a fuse a circuit breaker is resetable. Rated in amperes (amps).
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
circuit breaker

A protective device used to open a circuit when current exceeds a maximum value. In effect a reusable fuse.
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clamper

A diode circuit used to change the DC level of a waveform without distorting the waveform.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
clapp oscillator

A variation of the Colpitts oscillator. An added capacitor is used to eliminate the effects of stray capacitance on the operation of the basic Colpitts oscillator.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
class A amplifier

A linear amplifier biased so the active device conducts through 360 degrees of the input waveform.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
class B amplifier

An amplifier with two active devices. The active components are biased so that each conducts for approximately 180 degrees of the input waveform cycle.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
class C amplifier

An amplifier in which the active device conducts for less than 180 degrees of the input waveform cycle.
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clipper

A diode circuit used to eliminate part of a waveform
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
clipping

Distortion caused by overdriving an amplifier.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
Clipping

Audible distortion that occurs when continuous power-to-peak power capabilities (headroom) are exceeded. "Turn it down!"
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
clock

A square waveform used for synchronizing and timing of several circuits.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
closed circuit

Circuit having a complete path for current flow.
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closed-loop gain

Gain of an amplifier when a feedback path is present.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm



Coaxial

A speaker composed of larger cone for low range frequencies and a smaller cone or tweeter for higher frequencies aligned on the same axis. A crossover network is necessary to route the proper signals to each driver. These may be passive (usually included). If the speakers are bi-amplified, an active crossover will be used to route the proper range of frequencies to the respective amplifier channels.
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
- coaxial cable

Transmission line in which the signal carrying conductor is covered by a dialectric and another conductor.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
coefficient of coupling

The degree of coupling between two circuits.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
coercive force -(H)

Magnetizing force needed to reduce residual magnetism in a material to zero.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
- Coil (Choke,Inductor)

A crossover component used to filter out higher frequencies and allow lower frequencies to pass.
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
collector

The semiconductor region in a bipolar junction transistor through which a flow of charge carriers leaves the base region.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
collector characteristic curve

A graph of collector voltage over collector current for a given base current.
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color code

Set of colors used to indicate value of a component.
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- colpitts oscillator

An oscillator with a pair of tapped capacitors in the feedback network.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
- common base amplifier

A BJT circuit in which the base connection is common to both input and output.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
- common cathode display

A multisegment light emitting diode (LED) with a single negative voltage input connection. Separate anode connections are provided for each individual segment.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
- common collector amplifier

A BJT circuit in which the collector connection is common to both input and output.
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- common drain amplifier

A FET circuit in which the drain connection is common to both input and output.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
- common emitter amplifier

A BJT circuit in which the emitter connection is common to both input and output.
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- common gate amplifier

A FET circuit in which the gate connection is common to both input and output.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
- common source amplifier

A FET circuit in which the source connection is common to both input and output.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
- common-anode display

A multisegment light emitting diode (LED) with a single positive voltage input connection. Separate cathode connections are provided for each individual segment.
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common-mode rejection ratio -(CMRR)

The ratio of op-amp differential gain to common-mode gain. A measure of an op-amp's ability to reject common-mode signals such as noise.
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common-mode signals

Signals that appear simultaneously at two inputs of an operational amplifier (op-amp). Common mode signals are always equal in amplitude and phase.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
comparitor

An op-amp circuit that compares two inputs and provides a DC output indicating the polarity relationship between the inputs.
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complementary symmetry amplifier

A class B amplifier using matched complementry transistors. Does not require a phase inverter for push-pull output.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
complementry transistors

Two transistors, one NPN and one PNP having near identical charastics. N-channel and P-channel FETs can also be complementry.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
complex numbers

Numbers composed of a real number part and an imaginary number part.
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compliance

The maximum possible peak-to-peak output of an amplifier.
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Conduction

The mode of heat transfer within a body or between bodies in contact with each other.
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
Conductivity

The ability of a conductor to allow the passage of electrons, measured in the current per unit of voltage applied, shown in resistance.
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
Cone

The most common shape for the radiating surface of a loudspeaker referred to as the part that moves the air.
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
Constant 12 V (+)

A lead, wire, or connection point that shows positive 12 volts regardless of ignition key position or any other switch; Positive terminal of 12 volt battery.
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
constant current circuit

Circuit used to maintain constant current to a load having resistance that changes.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
contact

Current carrying part of a switch, relay or connector.
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continuity

Occurs when a complete path for current exists.
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conventional current flow

Concept of current produced by the movement of positive charges towards the negative terminal of a source.
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copper loss

Power lost in transformers, generators, connecting wires and other parts of a circuit due to current flow through the resistance of copper conductors.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
core

Magnetic material within a coil used to concentrate the magnetic field.
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coulomb

Unit of electric charge. A negative coulomb charge consists of 6.24 1018 electrons.
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counter electromotive force-(counter emf)

Voltage induced into an inductor due to an alternating or pulsating current. Counter emf is always in polarity opposite to that of the applied voltage. Opposing a change of current.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
coupling

To electronically connect two circuits so that signal will pass from one to the other.
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covalent bond

The way some atoms complete their valence shells by sharing valence electrons with neighbouring atoms.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm



Cross Interleave Reed-Solomon Code (CIRC)

A combination of codes and interleaved data that mae it possible to detect and correct errors in a compact disc system.
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
- crossover distortion

Distortion caused by both devices in a class B amplifier being cut-off at the same time.
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Crossover Frequencies

The frequencies at which an active or passive crossover network divides audio signals, expressed in Hertz (Hz).
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Crossover Network

A unit that divides the audio spectrum into two or more frequency bands. The two types are active and passive.
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
- Crossover Point

Same as crossover frequency.
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- Crosstalk (Channel Separation)

The amount of interference on one stereo channel caused by the leaking of the other stereo channel. The higher the rating in decibels (dB), the better the Channel Separation.
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
crowbar

Circuit used to protect the output of a souce from a short circuited load. Load current is limited to a value the source can deliver without damage.
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CRT

Cathode Ray Tube.
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- crystal

Natural or synthetic piezoelectric or semiconductor material with atoms arranged with some degree of geometric regularity. Usualy used as presision oscilator
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- crystal-controlled oscillator

Oscillator that uses a quartz crystal in its feedback path to maintain a stable output frequency.
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- Current

The rate of flow of electricity, measured in amperes (amps).
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Source:www.the12volt.com/glossary/glossary.asp
current amplifier

Amplifier to increase signal current.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictionary.htm
current divider

Parallel network designed to divide the total current of a circuit
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current feedback

Feedback configuration where a portion of the output current is fed back to the amplifier input.
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current mirror

Term used to describe the fact that DC current through the base circuit of a class B amplifier is approximately equal to the DC collector current.
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current-limiting resistor

Resistor in the path of current flow to control the amount of current drawn by a device.
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cutoff

Condition when an active device is biased such that output current is near zero or beyond zero.
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cutoff frequency

Frequency at which the power gain of an amplifier falls below 50% of maximum.
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cycle

When a repeating wave rises from zero to a positive maximum then back to zero and on to a negative maximum and back to zero it is said to have completed one cycle.
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Source:http://www.twysted-pair.com/dictiona


Created: __/__/03
Updated: __/__/__
Checked: __/__/__

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