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Negative Campaigning, Ingenuous Debate, & other Logical Fallacies...


    Logical Fallacy Methodological Error in a Process of Reason


Abstractions
Accent: emphasis on a word or phrase suggests contrary meaning
Accident: generalization applied when circumstances suggest exception

Ad Hominem: / Ad Hominem (Argument To The Man)  / Ad Hominem Tu Quoque
   
 Ad hominem or ATTACKING THE PERSON. Attacking the arguer rather than his/her
     argument. Example: His objections to capital punishment carry no weight because
     he is a convicted felon.
 
Ad ignorantium or APPEAL TO IGNORANCE. Arguing on the basis of what is not known
     and cannot be proven. (Sometimes called the “burden of proof” fallacy). If you
    cannot prove that something is true then it must be false (and vice versa).
    Example: You can't prove there isn't a Loch Ness Monster, so there must be one.
Affirming the Consequent:  If A then B, B, therefore A.  In AFFIRMING THE
    CONSEQUENT (An invalid form of the conditional argument), the second premise
    affirms the consequent of the first premise and the conclusion affirms the
    antecedent. Example: If he wants to get that job, then he must know Spanish. He
    knows Spanish, so the job is his.

Amazing Familiarity
Ambiguous Assertion
Amphiboly
With amphiboly, the structure of a sentence allows two different
    interpretations. 
Syntactical ambiguity involving the position of words in a
    sentence or the juxtaposition of two sentences that leads to communication of
    an erroneous idea.  This fallacy is like equivocation except that the ambiguity
    does not result from a shift in meaning of a single word or phrase, but is created
    by word placement.  Example
: Jim said he saw Jenny walk her dog through the
    window. [This was supposed to relate Jim’s sighting of Jenny through the window,
    not Jenny’s passing bodily through the window.]
 
Analogies
Anonymous Authority: the authority in question is not named
Appeal to Authority In appeals to authority fallacies it might be argued that the
    authority is not an expert in the field, experts in the field disagree, or it might be
    claimed that the authority was joking, drunk, or not being serious.  An
Ad
  
Verecundiam or APPEAL TO AUTHORITY is a deliberate attempt to convince the
    listener by appealing to the reputation of a famous or respected person. Often
    manifested by an authority in one field speaking out of his or her field of expertise.
    Example: Sports stars endorsing investment firms. Or, a TV commercial by an actor
    who claims, "I'm not a doctor, but I play one on TV."

Appeals To Anonymous Authority, Authority, Belief, Coincidence,
    Common Practice, Complexity, Consequences of a Belief, Emotion,
    False Authority, Fear, Force, Forces, Flattery, Motives, Novelty, Pity,
     (pity), Popularity, Ridicule, Spite, Sympathy(The Galileo Argument),
     Tradition, or Widespread Belief (Bandwagon, Peer Pressure) .
Appeal to emotion:  Deliberate introduction of emotional devices in place of logical
    assertions to persuade the listener. The fallacy can appeal to various emotions
    including pride, pity, fear, hate, vanity, or sympathy. Generally, the issue is
    oversimplified to the advantage of the arguer.

Argument By Emotive Language (Appeal To The People), Fast Talking,
    Generalization, Gibberish (Bafflement), Half-Truth (Suppressed
    Evidence), Laziness (Argument By Uninformed Opinion), Personal
    Charm, Pigheadedness (Doggedness), Poetic Language, Prestigious
    Jargon, Question, Repetition (Argument Ad Nauseam), Rhetorical
    Question, Scenario, Selective Observation, Selective Reading,
    or Slogan.
Argument From Adverse Consequences (Appeal To Fear, Scare Tactics),
    Age (Wisdom of the Ancients), Authority, False Authority, Small
    Numbers, or Spurious Similarity.
Argument Of The Beard  Argument of the Beard
Argument To The Future
Attacking the Person: person's character attacked, circumstances noted, or
      irrelevant claim that person does not practice what is preached.
Bad Analogy
Bandwagon
Begging the Question: When begging the question: the truth of conclusion is
    assumed by begging a question, assuming an answer, or positing a tautology
    When begging the question
, an argument is advanced where conclusion is implied
    or already assumed in the premise. Also said to be a circular argument. Example:
    Of course the Bible is the word of God. Why…? Because it says so in the Bible.

Biased Sample
Black or white
Burden of Proof In burden of proof fallacy,  arguer falsely claims should win by default
Catchall Explanation
Category Errors
Causal Fallacies
Causal Reductionism (Complex Cause)
Changing the Subject by Digression, Red Herring, Misdirection, or False Emphasis)

Circular Definition (definition includes term being defined) Circular Argument
Circumstantial Ad Hominem
Cliché Thinking
Common Belief (Sometimes called the “bandwagon” fallacy or “appeal to
    popularity”). Assertion of a statement to be true on evidence that many other
    people allegedly believe it. Being widely believed is not proof or evidence of
    truth. Example: Of course Nixon was guilty in Watergate. Everybody knows that!

Common Sense
Composition
Conclusion that a whole must have a characteristic because some part of
    it has that characteristic. Example:
The Dawson clan must be rolling in money,
    since Fred Dawson makes a lot from his practice.

Complex Cause: cause identified only part of the entire cause of the effect
Complex Question: In complex question or "tying", two unrelated points are
    conjoined as single proposition
Composition: attributes of whole argued to prove whole has that property
Conflicting Conditions (The definition is self-contradictory)

Confusing Cause and Effect
Confusing Correlation And Causation
Consequences: the reader is warned of unacceptable consequences
CONTRARY TO FACT HYPOTHESIS. Assertion of an idea based on an unjustified
    or unsubstantiated degree of certainty that a hypothetical consequence may
    have resulted.  Example: If President Bush had not gone into the Persian Gulf
    with military force when he did, Saddam Hussein would have overtaken control
    of Saudi rabia and controlled the world's oil today.

Converse Accident : exception applied where generalization should apply
Crucial Experiment fallacy
Denying the Antecedent:  If A then B, Not A, thus Not B
When denying the antecedent
    (An invalid form of the conditional argument), the second premise denies the
    antecedent of the first premise, and the conclusion denies the consequent. Often
    mistaken for modus tollens. Example: If she qualifies for a promotion, she must
    speak English. She doesn’t qualify for the promotion, so she must not know how
    to speak English.

Disproof By Fallacy
Division In division, it is argued that because a whole has a certain property, then
    the parts have that property. 
DIVISION. Conclusion that any part of a particular
    whole must have a characteristic because the whole has that characteristic.
    Example:  I am sure that Karen plays the piano well, since her family is so musical.

Equivocation: In equivocation, the same term is used with two different meanings.

    A form of semantic ambiguity. The arguer uses the ambiguous nature of a
    word or phrase to shift the meaning in such a way as to make the reason
    offered appear more convincing.
Equivocation Example: We realize that workers
    are idle during layoffs. But the government should never subsidize idleness,
    which has often been condemned as a vice. Therefore, payments to laid off
    workers are wrong.

Euphemism
Error Of Fact
Exception That Proves The Rule
Excluded Middle (False Dichotomy, Faulty Dilemma, Bifurcation)
Extended Analogy
Existential Fallacy: particular conclusion is drawn from universal premises
Failure To State
Fallacies Involving Statistical Syllogisms
Fallacies of Ambiguity, Explanation, Definition, or Distraction
Fallacy Drawing Affirmative From Negative Premise: as the name implies
Fallacy Of Composition, Division, General Rule, or Exclusion: evidence is excluded
Fallacy of Exclusive Premises: a syllogism has two negative premises
Fallacy of Four Terms: a syllogism has four terms
Fallacy Of The Crucial Experiment

False Analogy: two objects or events compared are relevantly dissimilar. 

    ARGUMENT FROM ANALOGY or FALSE ANALOGY. An unsound form
    of inductive argument in which an argument relies heavily on a weak or
    irrelevant analogy to prove its point.  Example: This must be a great car,
    for, like the finest watches in the world, it was made in Switzerland. 
False Cause or Compromise
False Dilemma: A false Dilemma is two choices given when more exist.  (
often
    called the either/or fallacy or false dichotomy). Assertion that we must choose one
    of two alternatives instead of allowing for other possibilities; a false form of
    disjunctive syllogism. Example: “America, love it or leave it.”  (The implication is,
    since you don’t love it the only option is to leave it).

From Ignorance: something is not known to be true, assumed false
Failure to Elucidate (definition more difficult to understand than concept)
Gambler's Fallacy
Genetic Fallacy:  A Genetic Fallacy may be a fallacy of origins or virtue.
Guilt By Association
Hasty Generalization  In hasty generalization sample too small to support proof. A
   
HASTY Generalization is accepted on the support of a sample that is too small
    or biased. Example: All men are rats! Just look at the louse that I married.

Having Your Cake (Failure To Assert, or Diminished Claim)
Hypothesis Contrary To Fact
Ignoring A Common Cause
Illicit Major: predicate of conclusion does not match premise terms
Illicit Minor: conclusion talks about all, but premises mentions some cases
Inconsistency: inconsistency asserts contrary or contradictory statements are both
    true. 
A discourse is inconsistent or self-contradicting if it contains, explicitly or
    implicitly, two assertions that are logically incompatible with each other.
    Inconsistency can also occur between words and actions. Example: A woman
    who represents herself as a feminist, yet doesn’t believe women should run
    for Congress.

Inductive Fallacies
Inflation Of Conflict

Insignificant: one thing held to cause insignificant to other causes
Internal Contradiction
Irrelevant Conclusion: defense of one conclusion proves another
Joint effect: one thing held to cause another when both are joint effects
Least Plausible Hypothesis
Lies
Limited Depth (Theory which explains doesn't appeal to causes)
Limited Scope (The theory which explains can only explain one thing)
Meaningless Questions
Middle Ground
Misleading Vividness
Missing the Point
Misunderstanding The Nature Of Statistics
Moving The Goalposts (Raising The Bar, Argue By Demanding Impossible Perfection)
Needling Needling
Non Sequitur The term Non Sequitur means
(“It does not follow.”) Assertion of
    premises that have no direct relationship to the conclusion.
   
Non Sequiturs:Fallacies of Relevance
Non-support (Evidence for the phenomenon being explained is biased)
Not Invented Here
Outdated Information
PAST BELIEF:   A form of the COMMON BELIEF fallacy. Error in reasoning committed,
    aim is for belief or support in the past. Example: Women must obey their husbands.
    After all, marriage vows contained those words for centuries.

Personal Attack
Pious Fraud 
Poisoning the Well Poisoning The Wells

Popularity: proposition argued to be true because widely held to be true
Post Hoc Post Hoc
, ERGO PROPTER HOC. (“After this, therefore caused by this.”) A
    form of the false cause fallacy in which it is inferred that because one event followed
    another it is necessarily caused by that event. Example: Mary joined our class and
    the next week we all did poorly on the quiz. It must be her fault.
This argument
    posits that because one thing follows another, it is held to cause the previous.
Prejudicial Language: value or goodness attached to believing the author
Psychogenetic Fallacy
Questionable Cause 
(In Latin: non causa pro causa, “not the cause of that”). This
    form of the false cause fallacy occurs when the cause for an occurrence is
    identified on insufficient evidence. Example: I expect that it will rain tomorrow
    because I washed the car.

Red Herring
Introduction of an irrelevant issue into a discussion as a smokescreen.
    It is a tactic designed to divert attention from the issue at hand. Example: Many
    people say that engineers need more practice in writing, but I would like to
    remind them how difficult it is to master all the math and drawing skills that
    an engineer requires.
Reductio Ad Absurdum
Reductive Fallacy (Oversimplification)
Reifying
Relativist Fallacy
Short Term Versus Long Term
Slanting. A form of misrepresentation in which a true statement is made, but
    made in such a way as to suggest that something is not true or to give a false
    description through the manipulation of connotation. Example: I can't believe
    how much money is being poured into the space program [Use of the word
    “poured” suggests heedless and unnecessary spending]. 
Slanted Language
Slippery Slope: A
slippery slope line of reasoning argues against taking a step because
    it assumes that if you take the first step, you will inevitably follow through to the
    last. This fallacy uses the valid form of hypothetical syllogism, but uses guesswork
    for the premises. Example: We can't allow students any voice in decision-making
    on campus; if we do, it won't be long before they are in total control.
   
Slippery Slope Fallacy (Camel's Nose)
Slothful Induction: conclusion denied despite the evidence to the contrary
Special Pleading  Special Pleading also known as (Stacking The Deck)
Spotlight
Statement Of Conversion 
Stolen Concept
Straw Man:  A straw man attacks an argument different from opposition's argument.

   
STRAW MAN Misrepresentation or recasting of an opponent's position to make
    it more vulnerable.  Usually this is done by distorting the issue to a ridiculous
    extreme. This can also take the form of attacking only the weak premises in
    an opposing argument while ignoring the strong ones.
    Example:  Those who favor gun-control legislation just want to take all guns
     away from responsible citizens and put them into the hands of the criminals. 
Straw Man (Fallacy Of Extension)
Style Over Substance: manner of  presentation affects conclusion
Subverted Support (The phenomenon being explained doesn't exist)
Syllogistic Errors Syllogisms
Too Broad (The definition includes items which should not be included)
Too Narrow (definition does not include items which should be included)
Two Wrongs Make A Right
An attempt to justify an apparently wrong action by
    charges of a similar wrong. The underlying assumption is that if they do it,
    then we can do it too and are somehow justified. Example: Supporters of
    apartheid are often guilty of this error in reasoning. They point to U.S.
    practices of slavery to justify their system. 
   
Two Wrongs Make A Right (Tu Quoque, You Too)
Undefined Terms
Undistributed Middle: two categories connected by common property
Unrepresentative Sample: sample is unrepresentative 
Untestability (The theory which explains cannot be tested)
Weasel Wording
Wrong Direction: the direction between cause and effect is reversed
                                    References
1.
  Stephen's Guide to the Logical Fallacies - by Stephen Downes 
2. 
The Nizkor Project:  http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/
3. 
Writing Resources: http://www.writingresource.org/

4. 
A list of Fallacious Arguments 
    
http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/skeptic/arguments.html
5. 
The UVic Writer's Guide:
    
http://web.uvic.ca/wguide/Pages/LogicTOC.html
6. 
MASTER LIST OF LOGICAL FALLACIES

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Some other Web sites:  
Writing Resources: http://www.writingresource.org/ 
Propaganda Resource: 
www.WritingResource.info/propaganda.html
Critical thinking vs. Specious arguments      The Nizkor Project    
Propaganda Techniques Related to Environmental Scares     Logical Fallacies    
Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Project      The Atheism Web: Logic & Fallacies    
South Shore Skeptics     Introductory Logic      Elementary Logic     Practical skepticism    
Bruce Thompson's Fallacy Page     Critical Thinking On The Web
Logical fallacy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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